Victor Davis Hanson
Victor Davis Hanson is an American classicist, military historian and farmer. He has been a commentator on modern and ancient warfare and contemporary politics for National Review, The Washington Times and other media outlets, he is a professor emeritus of Classics at California State University, the Martin and Illie Anderson Senior Fellow in classics and military history at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, visiting professor at Hillsdale College. Hanson was awarded the National Humanities Medal in 2007 by President George W. Bush, was a presidential appointee in 2007–2008 on the American Battle Monuments Commission. Hanson, a Protestant, of Swedish and Welsh descent, grew up on his family's raisin farm outside Selma, California in the San Joaquin Valley, has worked there most of his life, his mother, Pauline Davis Hanson, was a lawyer and a California superior court and state appeals court justice, his father was a farmer and junior college administrator. Along with his older brother Nels, a writer, fraternal twin Alfred, a farmer and biologist, Hanson attended public schools and graduated from Selma High School.
Hanson received his BA with highest honors in classics and general college honors, Cowell College, from the University of California, Santa Cruz, in 1975 and his PhD in classics from Stanford University in 1980. He won the Raphael Demos scholarship at the College Year in Athens and was a regular member of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens, 1978–79. In 1991, Hanson was awarded American Philological Association's Excellence in Teaching Award, given annually to the nation's top undergraduate teachers of Greek and Latin, he was named distinguished alumnus of the year for 2006 at University of Santa Cruz. He has been a visiting professor of classics at Stanford University, a National Endowment for the Humanities fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, California, an Alexander Onassis traveling fellowship to Greece, as well as Nimitz Fellow at UC Berkeley and held the visiting Shifrin Chair of Military History at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis and the William Simon visiting professorship at the School of Public Policy at Pepperdine University, was awarded in 2015 an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from the graduate school at Pepperdine.
He gave the Wriston Lecture in 2004 for the Manhattan Institute. He has been a board member of the Bradley Foundation since 2015, served on the HF Guggenheim Foundation board for over a decade, he is a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and professor emeritus at California State University, where he began teaching in 1984, having created the classical studies program at that institution. Since 2004, Hanson has written a weekly column syndicated by Tribune Content Agency, as well as a weekly column for National Review Online since 2001, has not missed a weekly column for either venue since he began, he has been published in The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, The Times Literary Supplement, The Daily Telegraph, American Heritage, The New Criterion, among other publications. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal by President George W. Bush, as well as the Eric Breindel Prize for opinion journalism, the William F. Buckley Prize. Hanson was awarded the Claremont Institute's Statesmanship Award at its annual Churchill Dinner, the Bradley Prize from the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation in 2008.
Hanson's Warfare and Agriculture, his PhD thesis, argued that Greek warfare could not be understood apart from agrarian life in general, suggested that the modern assumption that agriculture was irrevocably harmed during classical wars was vastly overestimated. The Western Way of War, for which John Keegan wrote the introduction, explored the combatants' experiences of ancient Greek battle and detailed the Hellenic foundations of Western military practice; the Other Greeks argued that the emergence of a unique middling agrarian class explains the ascendance of the Greek city-state, its singular values of consensual government, sanctity of private property, civic militarism and individualism. In Fields Without Dreams and The Land Was Everything, Hanson lamented the decline of family farming and rural communities, the loss of agrarian voices in American democracy; the Soul of Battle traced the careers of Epaminondas, the Theban liberator, William Tecumseh Sherman, George S. Patton, in arguing that democratic warfare's strengths are best illustrated in short and spirited marches to promote consensual rule, but bog down otherwise during long occupations or more conventional static battle.
In Mexifornia —a personal memoir about growing up in rural California and an account of immigration from Mexico—Hanson predicted that illegal immigration would soon reach crisis proportions, unless legal and diverse immigration was restored, as well as the traditional melting-pot values of integration and intermarriage. Ripples of Battle chronicled how the cauldron of battle affects combatants' literary and artistic work, as its larger influence ripples for generations, affecting art, literature and government. In A War Like No Other, a history of the Peloponnesian War, Hanson offered an alternative history, arranged by methods of fighting—triremes, cavalry, etc.) in concluding that the conflic
Friedrich August von Hayek referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Anglo-Austrian economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Gunnar Myrdal for his "pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic and institutional phenomena". Hayek was a major social theorist and political philosopher of the 20th century and his account of how changing prices communicate information that helps individuals co-ordinate their plans is regarded as an important achievement in economics, leading to his Nobel Prize. Hayek served in World War I and said that his experience in the war and his desire to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war drew him into economics. Hayek lived in Austria, Great Britain, the United States and Germany and became a British subject in 1938, he spent most of his academic life at the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago and the University of Freiburg.
Hayek was appointed a Companion of Honour in 1984 for "services to the study of economics". He was the first recipient of the Hanns Martin Schleyer Prize in 1984, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 from President George H. W. Bush. In 2011, his article "The Use of Knowledge in Society" was selected as one of the top 20 articles published in The American Economic Review during its first 100 years. Friedrich August von Hayek was born in Vienna to August von Felicitas Hayek, his father, from whom he received his middle name, was born in 1871 in Vienna. He was a medical doctor employed by the municipal ministry of health with a passion for botany, about which he wrote a number of monographs. August von Hayek was a part-time botany lecturer at the University of Vienna, his mother was born in 1875 to a wealthy land-owning family. As her mother died several years prior to Hayek's birth, Felicitas received a significant inheritance, which provided as much as half of her and her husband's income during the early years of their marriage.
Hayek was the oldest of three brothers and Erich, who were one-and-a-half and five years younger than him. His father's career as a university professor influenced Hayek's goals in life. Both of his grandfathers, who lived long enough for Hayek to know them, were scholars. Franz von Juraschek was a leading economist in Austria-Hungary and a close friend of Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, one of the founders of the Austrian School of Economics. Hayek's paternal grandfather, Gustav Edler von Hayek, taught natural sciences at the Imperial Realobergymnasium in Vienna, he wrote works in the field of biological systematics, some of which are well known. On his mother's side, Hayek was second cousin to the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, his mother played with Wittgenstein's sisters and had known him well. As a result of their family relationship, Hayek became one of the first to read Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus when the book was published in its original German edition in 1921. Although he met Wittgenstein on only a few occasions, Hayek said that Wittgenstein's philosophy and methods of analysis had a profound influence on his own life and thought.
In his years, Hayek recalled a discussion of philosophy with Wittgenstein when both were officers during World War I. After Wittgenstein's death, Hayek had intended to write a biography of Wittgenstein and worked on collecting family materials and assisted biographers of Wittgenstein, he was related to Wittgenstein on the non-Jewish side of the Wittgenstein family. Since his youth, Hayek socialized with Jewish intellectuals and he mentions that people speculated whether he was of Jewish ancestry; that made him curious, so he spent some time researching his ancestors and found out that he has Jewish ancestors which date back five generations. Surname Hayek is German spelling of Czech surname Hájek. Hayek displayed an intellectual and academic bent from a young age, he read fluently and before going to school. At his father's suggestion, as a teenager he read the genetic and evolutionary works of Hugo de Vries and August Weismann and the philosophical works of Ludwig Feuerbach. In school, Hayek was much taken by one instructor's lectures on Aristotle's ethics.
In his unpublished autobiographical notes, Hayek recalled a division between him and his younger brothers who were only a few years younger than him, but he believed that they were somehow of a different generation. He preferred to associate with adults. In 1917, Hayek joined an artillery regiment in the Austro-Hungarian Army and fought on the Italian front. Much of Hayek's combat experience was spent as a spotter in an aeroplane. Hayek was decorated for bravery. During this time, Hayek survived the 1918 flu pandemic. Hayek decided to pursue an academic career, determined to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war. Hayek said of his experience: "The decisive influence was World War I. It's bound to draw your attention to the problems of political organization", he vowed to work for a better world. At the University of Vienna, Hayek earned doctorates in law and political science in 1921 and 1923 and studied philosophy and economics. For a short time, when the University of Vienna closed he studied in Constantin von Monakow's Institute of Brain Anatomy, where Hayek spent much of his time staining brain cells.
Hayek's time in Monakow's lab and his deep interest in the work of Ernst Mach
Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors who were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists, including Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell and Robert Lucas Jr. Friedman's challenges to what he called "naive Keynesian" theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and described his approach as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions.
He theorized that there existed a "natural" rate of unemployment and argued that unemployment below this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was in the long run vertical at the "natural rate" and predicted what would come to be known as stagflation. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism" and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy, his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation and deregulation influenced government policies during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserve's response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008. Friedman was an advisor to Republican President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating conscription in the United States was his proudest accomplishment.
In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax and school vouchers and opposed the war on drugs. His support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice renamed EdChoice. Friedman's works include monographs, scholarly articles, magazine columns, television programs and lectures and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues, his books and essays have had global influence, including in former communist states. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second-most popular economist of the 20th century following only John Maynard Keynes and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century... of all of it". Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31, 1912, his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary.
They both worked as dry goods merchants. Shortly after his birth, the family relocated to New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident. A talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday, he was awarded a competitive scholarship to Rutgers University. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics and intended to become an actuary. During his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago. Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933, he was influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, Henry Simons. It was at Chicago that Friedman met economist Rose Director.
During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University, where he studied statistics with renowned statistician and economist Harold Hotelling. He was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, working on Theory and Measurement of Demand; that year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler and W. Allen Wallis. Friedman was unable to find academic employment, so in 1935 he followed his friend W. Allen Wallis to Washington, D. C. where Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was "a lifesaver" for many young economists. At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA, CCC, PWA appropriate responses to the critical situation," but not "the price- and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration." Foreshadowing his ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued.
Indeed, Friedman concluded that all government intervention associated with the New Deal was "the wrong cure for the wrong disease," arguing that the money supply should have been expanded, instead of contracted. Friedman and his colleague Anna Schwartz wrote A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, which argued that the Great Depression was caused by a
George Joseph Stigler was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics. Stigler was born in Seattle, the son of Elsie Elizabeth and Joseph Stigler, he spoke German in his childhood. He graduated from the University of Washington in 1931 with a BA and spent a year at Northwestern University from which he obtained his MBA in 1932, it was during his studies at Northwestern that Stigler developed an interest in economics and decided on an academic career. After he received a tuition scholarship from the University of Chicago, Stigler enrolled there in 1933 to study economics and went on to earn his Ph. D. in economics there in 1938. He taught at Iowa State College from 1936 to 1938, he spent much of World War II at Columbia University, performing mathematical and statistical research for the Manhattan Project. He spent one year at Brown University, he served on the Columbia faculty from 1947 to 1958. At Chicago, he was influenced by Frank Knight, his dissertation supervisor.
Milton Friedman, a friend for over 60 years, commented that it was remarkable for Stigler to have passed his dissertation under Knight, as only three or four students had managed to do so in Knight's 28 years at Chicago. Stigler's influences included Jacob Viner and Henry Simons as well as students W. Allen Wallis and Friedman. Stigler is best known for developing the Economic Theory of Regulation known as capture, which says that interest groups and other political participants will use the regulatory and coercive powers of government to shape laws and regulations in a way, beneficial to them; this theory is a component of the public choice field of economics but is deeply opposed by public choice scholars belonging to the "Virginia School," such as Charles Rowley. He carried out extensive research in the history of economic thought. Stigler's most important contribution to economics was published in his landmark article, "The Economics of Information." According to Friedman, Stigler "essentially created a new area of study for economists."
Stigler stressed the importance of information: "One should hardly have to tell academicians that information is a valuable resource: knowledge is power. And yet it occupies a slum dwelling in the town of economics."His 1962 article "Information in the Labor Market" developed the theory of search unemployment. In 1963 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, he was known for his sharp sense of humor, he wrote a number of spoof essays. In his book The Intellectual and the Marketplace, for instance, he proposed Stigler's Law of Demand and Supply Elasticities: "all demand curves are inelastic and all supply curves are inelastic too." The essay referenced studies that found many goods and services to be inelastic over the long run and offered a supposed theoretical proof. Another essay, "A Sketch on the Truth in Teaching," described the consequences of a set of court decisions that held universities responsible for the consequences of teaching errors; the Stigler diet is named after him.
Stigler wrote numerous articles on the history of economics, published in the leading journals and republished 14 of them in 1965. The American Economic Review said, "many of these essays have become such well-known landmarks that no scholar in this field should be unfamiliar with them.... The lucid prose, penetrating logic, wry humor... have become the author's trademarks." However, economist Deirdre McCloskey referred to Stigler as "among the worst historians of economic thought in the history of the discipline" who "read a lot but was defective in paying attention."Stigler was a founding member of the Mont Pelerin Society and was its president from 1976 to 1978. He received National Medal of Science in 1987.. Production and Distribution Theories: The Formative Period. New York: Macmillan. Preview.. "The Economics of Information," Journal of Political Economy, 69, pp. 213–25. "Information in the Labor Market." Journal of Political Economy, 70, Part 2, pp. 94–105. The Intellectual and the Marketplace.
Selected Papers, no. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Reprinted in Sigler, pp. 79–88. "A Dialogue on the Proper Economic Role of the State." Selected Papers, no. 7. Pp. 3–20. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Capital and Rates of Return in Manufacturing Industries. National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Essays in the History of Economics. University of Chicago Press. 1965.. The Organization of Industry. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin; the Behavior of Industrial Prices. National Bureau of Economic Research, New York: Columbia University Press. "The Theory of Economic Regulation." Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, no. 3, pp. 3–18. Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation. "The Process and Progress of Economics," Nobel Memorial Lecture, 8 December. The Economist as Preacher, Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; the Organization of Industry. Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist. University of Chicago Press.
2003. ISBN 978-0-226-77440-4. Autobiography; the Essence of Stigler, K. R. Leube and T. G. Moore, ed. Scroll or page-arrow to respective essays. ISBN 0-8179-8462-3; the Theory of Price, Fourth Edition. New York: Macmillan. Ed. Chicago Studies in Political Economy Stephen Stigler, hi
Larry P. Arnn
Larry Paul Arnn is an American educator and philanthropist. He has served as the twelfth president of Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, United States since May 2000, he is a political conservative, influenced by the thought of Leo Strauss and his teacher Harry V. Jaffa. Born in Pocahontas, Arnn received his B. A. in Political Science and Accounting from Arkansas State University. He earned graduate degrees in Government from Claremont Graduate School – an M. A. in 1976 and a Ph. D. in 1985. Arnn studied in England from 1977 to 1980, at the London School of Economics studying International History and at Worcester College, Oxford University in Modern History. While in England, he worked as Director of Research for Martin Gilbert, the official biographer of Winston Churchill. In 1980, Arnn became an editor for Public Research, Syndicated in the United States, he was one of four founders of the Claremont Institute in Claremont and served as its president from 1985 to 2000. In 2000, he was named the twelfth president of Hillsdale College.
In this capacity, he set the ambitious goal of $400 million for the college's Founders Campaign, beginning in 2001, under his watch, several new buildings have arisen on the campus. Arnn has been a trustee of the conservative Heritage Foundation since 2002. In 2012 the Foundation offered its presidency to Arnn. Arnn sits on the boards of directors of the Henry Salvatori Center for the Study of Individual Freedom in the Modern World at Claremont McKenna College, the Center for Individual Rights, the Claremont Institute. Additionally, he serves as a member of the Board of Advisors for Landmark Legal Foundation, he is a member of the Mont Pelerin Society, the Churchill Centre, the Philanthropy Roundtable. As of 2014, he was listed as a member of the Council for National Policy in their directory. Discussing politics at Hillsdale, Arnn remarked, "If you take the reading of an old book on the view that it's valuable, you have discarded the modern Left." Arnn supported Donald Trump for President in the 2016 US election In 2013, Arnn was criticized for his remarks about ethnic minorities when he testified before the Michigan State Legislature.
In testimony against the Common Core curriculum standards, in which Arnn expressed concern about government interference with educational institutions, he recalled that shortly after he assumed the presidency at Hillsdale he received a letter from the state Department of Education that said his college "violated the standards for diversity," adding, "because we didn't have enough dark ones, I guess, is what they meant." After being criticized for calling minorities "dark ones", he explained that he was referring to "dark faces", saying: "The State of Michigan sent a group of people down to my campus, with clipboards... to look at the colors of people's faces and write down what they saw. We don't keep records of that information. What were they looking for besides dark ones?" Michigan House Democratic Leader Tim Greimel condemned Arnn for his comments, which he called "offensive" and "inflammatory and bigoted", asked for an apology. The College issued a statement apologizing for Arnn's remark, while reiterating Arnn's concern about "state sponsored racism" in the form of affirmative action policies.
Liberty and Learning: The Evolution of American Education The Founders' Key: The Divine and Natural Connection Between the Declaration and the Constitution and What We Risk by Losing It "Churchill's Trial: Winston Churchill and the Salvation of Free Government" Appearances on C-SPAN
Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he did not care for the title. He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics and surface physics, his extension of Enrico Fermi's theory of beta decay, in the form of Gamow–Teller transitions, provided an important stepping stone in its application, while the Jahn–Teller effect and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry. Teller made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. In 1953, along with Nicholas Metropolis, Arianna Rosenbluth, Marshall Rosenbluth, Augusta Teller, Teller co-authored a paper, a standard starting point for the applications of the Monte Carlo method to statistical mechanics. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and for his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality.
Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s. He was an early member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community, he continued to find support from the U. S. government and military research establishment for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, a vigorous nuclear testing program. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was both its director and associate director for many years. In his years, Teller became known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosive in what was called Project Chariot, he was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Ede Teller was born on January 1908, in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, into a Jewish family.
His parents were Ilona, a pianist, Miksa Teller, an attorney. He learned in the Fasori Lutheran Gymnasium in the Minta Gymnasium in Budapest. Jewish of origin in life Teller became an agnostic Jew. "Religion was not an issue in my family", he wrote, "indeed, it was never discussed. My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted, yet my father said prayers for his parents on all the Jewish holidays. The idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed: We needed Him but had not seen Him in many thousands of years." Like Einstein and Feynman, Teller was a late talker. He developed the ability to speak than most children, but became interested in numbers, would calculate large numbers in his head for fun. Teller left Hungary in 1926 due to the discriminatory numerus clausus rule under Miklós Horthy's regime; the political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller.
When he was a young student, his right foot was severed in a streetcar accident in Munich, requiring him to wear a prosthetic foot, leaving him with a lifelong limp. Werner Heisenberg said that it was the hardiness of Teller's spirit, rather than stoicism, that allowed him to cope so well with the accident. Teller graduated in chemical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, received in 1930 his Ph. D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig. Teller's dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the hydrogen molecular ion. In 1930 he befriended Russian physicists Lev Landau. Teller's lifelong friendship with a Czech physicist, George Placzek, was very important for his scientific and philosophical development, it was Placzek who arranged a summer stay in Rome with Enrico Fermi in 1932, thus orienting Teller's scientific career in nuclear physics. In 1930, Teller moved to the University of Göttingen one of the world's great centers of physics due to the presence of Max Born and James Franck, but after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Germany became unsafe for Jewish people, he left through the aid of the International Rescue Committee.
He went to England, moved for a year to Copenhagen, where he worked under Niels Bohr. In February 1934, he married his long-time girlfriend Augusta Maria "Mici" Harkanyi, the sister of a friend, he returned to England in September 1934. Mici had been a student in Pittsburgh, wanted to return to the United States, her chance came in 1935, thanks to George Gamow, Teller was invited to the United States to become a Professor of Physics at George Washington University, where he worked with Gamow until 1941. At George Washington University in 1937, Teller predicted the Jahn–Teller effect, which distorts molecules in certain situations. Teller and Hermann Arthur Jahn analyzed it as a piece of purely mathematical physics. In collaboration with
William F. Buckley Jr.
William Frank Buckley Jr. was an American public intellectual and conservative author and commentator. In 1955, Buckley founded National Review, a magazine that stimulated the conservative movement in the late-20th century United States. Buckley hosted 1,429 episodes of the public affairs television show Firing Line, the longest-running public affairs show in television history with a single host, where he became known for his transatlantic accent and wide vocabulary. Buckley wrote God and Man at Yale and more than fifty other books on diverse topics, including writing, history and sailing. Buckley's works include a series of novels featuring fictitious CIA agent Blackford Oakes, he penned a nationally syndicated newspaper column. Buckley referred to himself as either conservative. George H. Nash, a historian of the modern American conservative movement, said Buckley was "arguably the most important public intellectual in the United States in the past half century. For an entire generation, he was the preeminent voice of American conservatism and its first great ecumenical figure."
Buckley's primary contribution to politics was a fusion of traditionalist conservatism and classical liberalism. Buckley was born November 24, 1925, in New York City, the son of Aloise Josephine Antonia and William Frank Buckley Sr. a Texas-born lawyer and oil developer. His mother, from New Orleans, was of Swiss-German and Irish descent, while his paternal grandparents, from Hamilton, Canada, were of Irish ancestry; the sixth of ten children, Buckley moved as a boy with his family to Mexico, to Sharon, before beginning his formal schooling in Paris, where he attended first grade. By age seven, he received his first formal training in English at a day school in London; as a boy, Buckley developed a love for music, horses and skiing. All of these interests would be reflected in his writings. Buckley was homeschooled through the eighth grade using the Calvert School of Baltimore's Homeschool Curriculum. Just before World War II, at age 12–13, he attended the Jesuit preparatory school St John's Beaumont in England.
During the war, Buckley's family took in the future British historian Alistair Horne as a child war evacuee. He and Horne remained lifelong friends. Buckley and Horne both attended the Millbrook School in Millbrook, New York, graduating as members of the class of 1943. Buckley was a member of the American Boys' Club for the Defense of Errol Flynn during Flynn's trial for statutory rape in 1943. At Millbrook, Buckley edited the school's yearbook, The Tamarack; when Buckley was a young man, his father was an acquaintance of libertarian author Albert Jay Nock. William F. Buckley Sr. encouraged his son to read Nock's works. As a youth, Buckley developed many musical talents, he played the harpsichord well calling it "the instrument I love beyond all others". He was an accomplished pianist and appeared once on Marian McPartland's National Public Radio show Piano Jazz. A great admirer of Johann Sebastian Bach, Buckley said that he wanted Bach's music played at his funeral. Buckley attended the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1943.
The following year, upon his graduation from the US Army Officer Candidate School, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. In his book, Miles Gone By, he recounts being a member of Franklin Roosevelt's honor guard upon the President's death, he served stateside throughout the war at Georgia. At the end of World War II in 1945, Buckley enrolled in Yale University, where he became a member of the secret Skull and Bones society and was a masterful debater, he was an active member of the Conservative Party of the Yale Political Union, served as Chairman of the Yale Daily News and as an informer for the FBI. Buckley studied political science and economics at Yale, graduating with honors in 1950. Buckley excelled on the Yale Debate Team. In 1951, along with many other Ivy League alumni, Buckley was recruited into the Central Intelligence Agency; the two officers remained lifelong friends. In a November 1, 2005, column for National Review, Buckley recounted that while he worked for the CIA, the only employee of the organization that he knew was Hunt, his immediate boss.
While in Mexico, Buckley edited The Road to a book by Peruvian author Eudocio Ravines. William F. Buckley Jr. had nine siblings, including sister Maureen Buckley-O'Reilly who married Gerald A. O'Reilly, the CEO of Richardson-Vicks Drugs. S. Senator from New York and was a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit. Buckley co-authored a book, McCarthy and His Enemies, with his brother-in-law, attorney L. Brent Bozell Jr. (Patric