Cité de la Musique
The Cité de la Musique known as Philharmonie 2, is a group of institutions dedicated to music and situated in the Parc de la Villette, 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was designed with the nearby Conservatoire de Paris by the architect Christian de Portzamparc and opened in 1995. Part of François Mitterrand's Grands Projets, the Cité de la Musique reinvented La Villette – the former slaughterhouse district, it consists of an amphitheater, a concert hall that can accommodate an audience of 800–1,000, a music museum containing an important collection of classical music instruments dating from the fifteenth- to twentieth-century, a music library, exhibition halls and workshops. In 2015 it was renamed Philharmonie 2 as part of the Philharmonie de Paris when a larger symphony hall was built by Jean Nouvel and named Philharmonie 1, its official address is Avenue Jean Jaurès, 75019 Paris. Philharmonie 1, a new 2400-seat symphony hall, is a project whose construction had been postponed for about twenty years, to complete the Cité de la Musique.
On 6 March 2006 the French minister of Culture and communication Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, the director of the Cité de la Musique, Laurent Bayle, announced the beginning of the construction at a press conference concerning the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now associated with the Museum. The cost of construction was expected to be 170 million euros, will be shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the cost in the end is expected to be €381 million In April 2007 Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics and Nagata Acoustics; the hall opened on 14 January 2015 with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem to honour the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings, which had taken place in the city a week earlier. The opening concert was attended by the President of France; the first season of the Philharmonie de Paris started in January 2015.
The purpose of the season was to reach out to new audiences by providing musical creation and varied repertory in classical music, jazz, world music and contemporary music. On weekends, a diverse program of affordably-priced events and activities was offered each with a theme; the Musée de la Musique features a collection of about 8,390 items, comprising around 4,442 musical instruments, 1,097 instrument elements or 939 pieces of art collected by the Conservatoire de Paris since 1793 as well as some archives and a library of 110,000 written and audiovisual documents. The museum's collection, which opened to the public in 1864 and was relocated at the Cité de la musique in 1997, contains instruments used in classical and popular music from the sixteenth century to the present time including lutes, archlutes 200 classical guitars, violins by Italian luthiers Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, Nicolò Amati; the instruments are exhibited in 5 departments by type. Audio devices are provided at the entrance allowing visitors to hear commentary and excerpts of music played on the instruments, complemented by video screens and scale models along the visit.
List of music museums Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, in Parc de la Villette La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre in Parc de la Villette Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Kim Eling, The Politics of Cultural Policy in France, Chapter 3: "La Cité de la Musique", Macmillan, 1999, pages 38–61. ISBN 0-312-21974-1. Cité de la Musique official website Médiathèque de la Cité de la musique – Listen to excerpts of concerts
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards played by the hands, a pedalboard played by the feet; the keyboard and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate after a key is depressed; the smallest portable pipe organs may have one manual. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs. A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e.'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in'The Organ' and in'The Vox Humana'.
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the water organ in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container. By the 6th or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply Byzantine organs with wind. Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres. A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning the pipe organ's establishment in Western European church music. In England, "The first organ of which any detailed record exists was built in Winchester Cathedral in the 10th century, it was a huge machine with 400 pipes, which needed two men to play it and 70 men to blow it, its sound could be heard throughout the city." By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed.
From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device — a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. Pipe organs are installed in churches, concert halls, other public buildings and in private properties, they are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, popular music. In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; the beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire; the organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, credited as having derived from Greece. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC; the word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον, a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games.
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis, which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes; the hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire. The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, true bellows began to appear in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th or 7th century AD; some 400 pieces of a hydraulis from the year 228 AD have been revealed during the 1931 archaeological excavations in the former Roman town Aquincum, province of Pannonia, used as a music instrument by the Aquincum fire dormitory. The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the urghun as one of the typical instruments of the Eastern Roman Empire, it was used in the Hippodrome in the imperial capital of Constantinople. A Syrian visitor describes a pipe organ powered by two servants pumping "bellows like a blacksmith's" as being played while guests ate at the emperor's Christmas dinner in Constantinople in 911.
The first Western European pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent from Constantinople to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western European church music. Portable organs were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. In the 11th century, the monk Theophilus described in his treatise, known as Schedula diversarum artium or De diversis artibus, all of th
President of the French Republic
The President of the French Republic is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country; the powers and duties of prior presidential offices, as well as their relation with the Prime Minister and Government of France, have over time differed with the various constitutional documents since 1848. The President of the French Republic is the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Legion of Honour and the National Order of Merit; the officeholder is honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome, although some have rejected the title in the past; the current President of the French Republic is Emmanuel Macron, who succeeded François Hollande on 14 May 2017. The presidency of France was first publicly proposed during the July Revolution of 1830, when it was offered to the Marquis de Lafayette, he demurred in favor of Prince Louis Phillipe. Eighteen years during the opening phases of the Second Republic, the title was created for a popularly elected head of state, the first of whom was Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon.
Bonaparte served in that role until he staged an auto coup against the republic, proclaiming himself Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Under the Third Republic and Fourth Republic, which were parliamentary systems, the office of President of the Republic was a ceremonial and powerless one; the Constitution of the Fifth Republic increased the President's powers. A 1962 referendum changed the constitution, so that the President would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the Parliament. In 2000, a referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. A maximum of two consecutive terms was imposed after the 2008 constitutional reform. Since the referendum on the direct election of the President of the French Republic in 1962, the officeholder has been directly elected by universal suffrage. After the referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic, 2000, the length of the term was reduced to five years from the previous seven.
President Jacques Chirac was first elected in 1995 and again in 2002. At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to, he was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May 2007. Following a further change, the constitutional law on the modernisation of the institutions of the Fifth Republic, 2008, a President cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only Presidents to date who have served a full two terms. In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations from more than 500 elected officials mayors; these officials must be from at least 30 départements or overseas collectivities, no more than 10% of them should be from the same département or collectivity. Furthermore, each official may nominate only one candidate. There are 45,543 elected officials, including 33,872 mayors. Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are regulated.
There is a cap on spending, at 20 million euros, government public financing of 50% of spending if the candidate scores more than 5%. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €8,000,000 to the party. Advertising on TV is forbidden, but official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates party financing. French presidential elections are conducted via run-off voting, which ensures that the elected president always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off. After the president is elected, he or she goes through a solemn investiture ceremony called a "passation des pouvoirs"; the French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the French President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of France, the Government as well as the Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs in domestic issues, the French President wields significant influence and authority in the fields of national security and foreign policy.
The President's greatest power is his/her ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the French National Assembly has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the President is forced to name a Prime Minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly, he or she has the duty of abritrating the well-functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the Head of State of France. When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the President, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the President's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive Prime Minister and National Assembly, is not directly attributed to the post of President; when the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The Prime Minister is the personal choice of the President, can be replaced if the administration becomes unpopular.
This device has bee
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande is a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. He was the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008, President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande served in the National Assembly of France twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, again from 1997 to 2012. Born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman, he became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze in 2008.
In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee. During his tenure, Hollande legalised same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programmes, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention and concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract. Hollande led the country through 2016 Nice attacks, he was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He sent troops to Mali and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations seen as successful; however his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France became the most toured country in the world, known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.
Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics to the city were successful. Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% as of December 2016 and domestic troubles over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates making him one of the most unpopular French Presidents in history. On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2017 French presidential election. François Hollande was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen, his mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert, was a social worker, his father, Georges Gustave Hollande, is a retired ear and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959." The name "Hollande" meant "one from Holland" – it is found in Hollande's ancestral land, Hauts-de-France, it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller; when Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a exclusive suburb of Paris.
He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureate in 1972 graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he did his military service in the French Army in 1977. He chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student. After graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party, he was spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party.
Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round. He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party; as the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin resumed his position, selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman.
Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997 returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of F
Politics of France
The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The nation declares itself to be an "indivisible, secular and social Republic"; the constitution provides for a separation of powers and proclaims France's "attachment to the Rights of Man and the principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789." The political system of France consists of an executive branch, a legislative branch, a judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the President of the Government; the Government consists of ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, is responsible to Parliament; the government, including the Prime Minister, can be revoked by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, through a "censure motion". Parliament comprises the Senate, it passes votes on the budget. The constitutionality of the statutes is checked by the Constitutional Council, members of which are appointed by the President of the Republic, the President of the National Assembly, the President of the Senate.
Former presidents of the Republic are members of the Council. The independent judiciary is based upon civil law system, it is divided into the judicial branch and the administrative branch, each with their own independent supreme court of appeal: the Court of Cassation for the judicial courts and the Conseil d'Etat for the administrative courts. The French government includes various bodies. France is a unitary state. However, its administrative subdivisions—regions and communes—have various legal functions, the national government is prohibited from intruding into their normal operations. France was a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community the European Union; as such, France has transferred part of its sovereignty to European institutions, as provided by its constitution. The French government therefore has to abide by European treaties and regulations; the Economist Intelligence Unit has described France as a "flawed democracy" in 2018. A popular referendum approved the constitution of the French Fifth Republic in 1958 strengthening the authority of the presidency and the executive with respect to Parliament.
The constitution does not contain a bill of rights in itself, but its preamble mentions that France should follow the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, as well as those of the preamble to the constitution of the Fourth Republic. This has been judged to imply that the principles laid forth in those texts have constitutional value, that legislation infringing on those principles should be found unconstitutional if a recourse is filed before the Constitutional Council. Recent modifications of the Constitution have added a reference in the preamble to an Environment charter that has full constitutional value, a right for citizens to contest the constitutionality of a statute before the Constitutional Council; the foundational principles of the constitution include: the equality of all citizens before law, the rejection of special class privileges such as those that existed prior to the French Revolution. France has a semi-presidential system of government, with both a Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister is responsible to the French Parliament. A presidential candidate is required to obtain a nationwide majority of non-blank votes at either the first or second round of balloting, which implies that the President is somewhat supported by at least half of the voting population; as a consequence, the President of France is the pre-eminent figure in French politics. He appoints the Prime Minister. Though the President may not de jure dismiss the prime Minister if the Prime Minister is from the same political side, he can, in practice, have him resign on demand, he appoints the ministers, ministers-delegate and secretaries. When the President's political party or supporters control parliament, the President is the dominant player in executive action, choosing whomever he wishes for the government, having it follow his political agenda. However, when the President's political opponents control parliament, the President's dominance can be limited, as he must choose a Prime Minister and government who reflect the majority in parliament, who will implement the agenda of the parliamentary majority.
When parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Before 2002, cohabitation occurred more because the term of the President was seven years and the term of the National Assembly was five years. With the term of the President shortened to five years, with the presidential and parliamentary elections separated by only a few months, this
Théâtre Mogador founded in 1913 and designed by Bertie Crewe, is a Parisian music hall theatre located at 25, rue de Mogador in the 9th district. It seats 1,800 people on three tiers. In 1913 financier Sir Alfred Butt rented an area in Paris. Built according to English music hall principles and style during World War I, the theatre was named the "Palace Theatre", after the like-named one in London, in order to appeal to British soldiers; the name was shortly thereafter changed to "Théâtre Mogador", Mogador being the old name of the town of Essaouira in Morocco. The inauguration guests include President Wilson, in France to negotiate the Treaty of Versailles, it was inaugurated by US president to be Franklin Delano Roosevelt April 1919. From 1920 it was a Cine-variety, gained fame with the performances of Sergei Diaghilev's "Ballets Russes", with the Thés Mogador – performances of operettas and plays in the afternoon; until the seventies, the Théâtre Mogador was used for performances of operettas, including Mistinguett.
Marcel Merkès was a regular performer here from the late 1940s to the mid-1970s. An extensive renovation restored the building to new splendour in 1983. In 2005, it was purchased by the Stage Entertainment group; the theatre hosted the nineteenth Molière Awards on 9 May 2005. On 26 September 2016 a fire damaged several parts of the theater, including the stage and props that would be used in the French-language production of The Phantom of the Opera; because of this, the show's French premiere was indefinitely postponed. The Ballets Russes No, no, Nanette L'Auberge du Cheval blanc Ça c'est parisien (1937- Hello, Dolly! (1972- In September 1981 The Clash played a seven night residency supported by Wah and The Beat La Légende de Jimmy - a rock opera about James Dean Les Misérables Starmania Wild Woman Blues The Elvis story Le Roi Lion Mamma Mia! Sister Act La Belle et La Bête Le Bal des Vampires Cats Le Fantôme de l'Opéra - the production would take place in 2016, but due to the September fire, it was cancelled Grease Chicago Ghost the Musical List of concert halls Official website
Théâtre du Châtelet
The Théâtre du Châtelet is a theatre and opera house, located in the place du Châtelet in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. One of two theatres built on the site of a châtelet, a small castle or fortress, it was designed by Gabriel Davioud at the request of Baron Haussmann between 1860 and 1862. Named the Théâtre Impérial du Châtelet, it has undergone remodeling and name changes over the years, it seats 2,500 people. The theatre is one of two apparent twins constructed along the quays of the Seine, facing each other across the open Place du Châtelet; the other is the Théâtre de la Ville. Their external architecture is Palladian entrances under arcades, although their interior layouts differ considerably. At the centre of the plaza is an ornate, sphinx-endowed fountain, erected in 1808, which commemorates Napoleon's victory in Egypt; the Théâtre Impérial du Châtelet was built for Hippolyte Hostein's equestrian company, the Théâtre Impérial du Cirque, whose previous theatre, the Cirque Olympique on the Boulevard du Temple, was slated for demolition by Baron Haussmann to allow the construction of the Boulevard du Prince-Eugène.
The site for the new theatre was acquired by the City of Paris in October 1859, construction took place between 1860 and 1862. The interior designers included Eugène Carrières and Armand Cambon, the curtain was created by Charles Cambon; the theatre seated 2,200 people, although Haussmann claimed it held 3,600. The repertory, fixed by a decree of 20 September 1862, included military works and féeries in one or several acts, as well as dramas and vaudevilles. Hostein left as director in September 1868. Nestor Roqueplan ran the theatre from 1 July 1869 to April 1870; the theatre was closed from September 1870 to July 1871 due to the Franco-Prussian War. The war brought about the fall of the Second French Empire, under the succeeding French Third Republic, the appellation impérial was dropped. Hippolyte Hostein returned as the theatre's director in 1873–1874. Notably, beginning in April 1876, the stage version of Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days, adapted by Verne and Adolphe d'Ennery, began a run spanning sixty-four years and 2,195 performances.
It was only the Nazi occupation of Paris in May 1940. Into the 20th Century, the theatre was used for operettas and ballet performances, for classical and popular music concerts, it was for a time, a cinema. Regular seasons of opera and ballet were presented by a variety of impresarios, among them Gabriel Astruc, who introduced Diaghilev's Ballets Russes here. Igor Stravinsky’s Petrouchka received its premiere in the theatre on 13 June 1911, as did Erik Satie and Jean Cocteau’s Parade on 18 May 1917. In addition, many foreign composers and conductors made appearances in the theatre, including Tchaikovsky, Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss. Since 1979, it has been operated by the City of Paris, after undergoing a major restoration, re-opened under the name of Théâtre Musical de Paris in 1980, it was acoustically reverted to the Théâtre du Châtelet name. Shirley Horn recorded her 1992 live album I Love Paris at the Théâtre du Châtelet. For a time it was used for opera performances and concerts; the Orchestre de Paris and the Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France have played there.
In 1993 the Philharmonia Orchestra of London began an annual residency period. Under the direction of Stéphane Lissner for four years from 1995, the theatre received additional improvements in acoustics and sightlines. In 2004, Jean-Luc Choplin became artistic director of the theatre, he de-emphasized classical music and dance performances and introduced more lucrative productions of Broadway musicals, including Kiss Me, Singin' in the Rain, 42nd Street, An American in Paris. In 2017, Choplin was succeeded by Ruth Mackenzie, appointed artistic director alongside general director Thomas Lauriot dit Prévost, who worked at the theatre with Choplin from 2006 to 2013. Allison, John, ed.. Great Opera Houses of the World, supplement to Opera Magazine, London. Wild, Nicole. Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens au XIXe siècle: les théâtres et la musique. Paris: Aux Amateurs de livres. ISBN 978-0-8288-2586-3. ISBN 978-2-905053-80-0. Official website Floormic Profile