Louis II of Naples
Louis II was King of Naples from 1389 until 1399, Duke of Anjou from 1384 until 1417. He was a member of the House of Valois-Anjou. Born in Toulouse, Louis II was the son of Louis I of Anjou, Duke of Anjou and King of Naples, Marie of Blois, he came into his Angevin inheritance, which included Provence, in 1384, with his rival, Charles of Durazzo, of the senior Angevin line, in possession of Naples. Most towns in Provence revolted after the death of his father, his mother raised an army and they traveled from town to town, to gain support. Louis was recognized as Count of Provence in 1387, he founded a university in Aix-en-Provence in 1409. In 1386, Charles of Durazzo's son, the underage Ladislaus, was expelled from Naples soon after his father died. Louis II was crowned King of Naples by the Avignonese antipope Clement VII on 1 November 1389 and took possession of Naples the following year, he was ousted in turn by his rival in 1399. In 1409, Louis liberated Rome from Ladislaus' occupation. Louis lost his Neapolitan support and had to retire.
His claim to Naples passed to his son, Louis III. He married his first cousin once removed Yolande of Aragon in Arles in 1400, giving him a possibility of inheriting the throne of Aragon through her right, her father, King John I of Aragon had died in 1396, her uncle king Martin I of Aragon died in 1410. His son, was betrothed to Catherine of Burgundy, a daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. However, after the Duke of Burgundy instigated a mob attack on the Dauphin of France and his wife joined the Armagnac Faction; the betrothal to Catherine was repudiated. He was not present at the Battle of Agincourt. After the battle, he fled from Paris to join his wife and children at Angers. Louis II died at his chateau of the county town of Anjou. Louis and Yolande had five surviving children: Louis III of Anjou, titular King of Naples and Duke of Anjou. René of Anjou, King of Naples and Duke of Anjou. Charles of Anjou, Count of Maine. Marie of Anjou, married 1422 at King Charles VII of France. Yolande of Anjou, married firstly Philip I, Duke of Brabant, secondly in 1431, Francis I, Duke of Brittany.
Allmand, C. T. ed.. War and Power in Late Medieval France. Liverpool University Press. Kekewich, Margaret L.. The Good King: René of Anjou and Fifteenth Century Europe. Palgrave Macmillan
Philibert II, Duke of Savoy
Philibert II, nicknamed the Handsome or the Good, was the Duke of Savoy from 1497 until his death. Born in Pont-d'Ain, Philibert was the son of Philip the Landless, who until 1496 was a junior member of the ducal family, his first wife Marguerite of Bourbon. In 1496, Philibert's father succeeded as Duke, when his underaged grandnephew Duke Charles II of Savoy died, being the male heir of the line of Savoy; the same year, the 16-year-old Philibert married the 9-year-old Yolande Louise of Savoy, his cousin and the only sister of the deceased young duke. She was daughter of Duke Charles I of Savoy, the Warrior, Blanche of Montferrat, as well as granddaughter of Philibert's late uncle, Duke Amadeus IX of Savoy, she was the heir-general of her brother, father and her grandmother Yolande of France, the eldest surviving daughter of king Charles VII of France. Her birthright, after the death of her brother, was the succession of the kingdoms of Cyprus and Armenia although Philibert's father took those titles.
After a brief reign, Philip II died in Philibert succeeded as Duke of Savoy. The young couple at last advanced their claims, took the titles Queen and King of Cyprus and Armenia. In 1499, the 12-year-old first wife of Philibert childless, her heir was her first cousin, Princess Charlotte of Naples Countess of Laval. Philibert continued to use the titles of Cyprus etc. despite the death of his first wife. His next marriage tied him into the web of alliances around the Habsburgs, who ruled the Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Austria, etc. In 1501, he married Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, the only daughter of Maximilian I and his first wife Mary of Burgundy, the duchess of Burgundy, she had been married to John, Prince of Asturias, heir to the thrones of Aragon and Castile. Early in Philibert's reign, his first cousin Charles VIII of France died in 1498; the next king, Louis XII, would conquer most of Naples. Louis would conquer Milan, which neighboured Savoy to the east, thus putting the Savoyards between French possessions.
Philibert died in 1504 at the age of 24. Because he had no children, he was succeeded by his young half-brother Charles III. Philibert married: Yolande Louise of Savoy, daughter of his first cousin, Charles I of Savoy. Margaret of Austria, Governor of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands and the daughter of Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy. There were no children from this marriage. Marek, Miroslav. "Home page". Genealogy. EU
Margaret III, Countess of Flanders
Margaret III was the last Countess of Flanders of the House of Dampierre, as well as Countess of Artois and Countess of Burgundy. She was heir of Louis II, Count of Flanders and Margaret of Brabant. In 1355, Margaret of Flanders married Philip of Rouvres and heir of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy. Philip was Count of Burgundy and Artois, Duke of Burgundy, became Count of Auvergne and Boulogne. Following Philip's death from a riding accident in 1361, Margaret was widowed and had no issue by him. King John II of France claimed the Duchy of Burgundy for the kingdom of France. In 1364, Philip the Bold, King John's youngest son, was granted the duchy, subsequently married Margaret. Margaret's second marriage to Philip the Bold took place in 1369; when Margaret's father, the Count of Flanders, died in 1384, she and Philip inherited the counties of Artois, Flanders and Rethel. Philip died in 1404, Margaret died the following year. With her death, the House of Dampierre came to an end, the County of Flanders lost its independence to Burgundy.
It came under the rule of her son, John the Fearless, to the House of Habsburg. Margaret and Philip had the following children: John I of Burgundy, Duke of Burgundy, her eldest son and successor in Flanders and Burgundy. Charles of Burgundy Margaret of Burgundy, married William II, Duke of Bavaria. Louis of Burgundy Catherine of Burgundy, married Leopold IV, Duke of Austria. Bonne of Burgundy Mary of Burgundy, married Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy. Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant Philip of Burgundy, Count of Nevers and Rethel, as "Philip II"; the main line of the House of Dampierre ended with Margaret III. The Dampierres only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers and Rethel. Through her grandmother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, the counties of Artois and Burgundy were added to this; these lands were to provide the core of the dominions of the House of Valois-Burgundy, which were, together with the Duchy of Burgundy, to provide them with a power base to challenge the rule of their cousins, the Valois kings of France in the 15th century.
Her eldest son, John the Fearless, succeeded her husband in 1404 as Duke of Burgundy and her as Count of Burgundy, Count of Artois, Count of Flanders. In 1406 her younger son Anthony inherited Limburg. Nevers and Rethel were at first, in her lifetime, given to her eldest sons John and Anthony, but after John's accession to the duchy, Nevers went to her youngest son Philip. Rethel was given to Philip in 1402. In Burgundy, the Château de Germolles, offered to Margaret of Flanders by Philip the Bold in 1381, was transformed by the Duchess of Burgundy into a sumptuous country estate, it was a large rectangular building, surrounded by a moat. The south and east wings contained the living apartments, while the west wing held the reception rooms. Margaret, being energetic and a country lover, decided to develop at the estate some rustic activities that would create a pleasant environment around this favourite residence of hers, as well as developing local agriculture and providing some income for the maintenance of the domain.
Thus, she planted a large rose garden, the petals were sent to Flanders to be used to make rose water. Preserved, the Château is today one of the best examples of the princely residences in France at the end of the Middle Ages
Marie of Anjou
Marie of Anjou was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She served as regent and presided over the council of state several times during the absence of the king. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, claimant to the throne of Naples, Yolande of Aragon, claimant to the throne of Aragon. Marie was betrothed to her second cousin Charles and heir apparent of Charles VI of France, in 1413; the wedding took place on 18 December 1422 at Bourges. The marriage made her Queen of France, her spouse's victory in the Hundred Years War owed a great deal to the support he received from Marie's family, notably from her mother Yolande of Aragon. Queen Marie presided over the council of state several times in the absence of the king, during which she had power of attorney as regent and signed acts in the position of "lieutenant of the king", she made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, Mount St Michel by herself in 1447. Marie and Charles had fourteen children, but her spouse's affection was directed towards his mistress, Agnès Sorel Marie's lady in waiting, who became official mistress to the king in 1444 and played a dominant role at court until her death in 1450, somewhat eclipsing the queen.
Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the "Twelve Perils of Hell" for queen Marie in 1455. In 1461, Charles VII was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager, she was granted the Chateau of the income from Brabant by her son. During the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, it has been speculated that she had a mission in Spain as secret ambassador for her son, due to the political situation at the time and the fact that she made the pilgrimage during winter time, when the roads were so bad that such trips were avoided if possible. She died at the age of 59 on 29 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou on her return, she is buried in the basilica of Saint-Denis alongside her spouse. Marie was the mother of fourteen children: John; the Private Life of Edward IV. Amberley Publishing. Gaude-Ferragu, Murielle. Queenship in Medieval France, 1300-1500. Palgrave Macmillan. Green, David; the Hundred Years War: A People's History.
Yale University Press
Charles I, Duke of Savoy
Charles I, surnamed the Warrior, was the Duke of Savoy from 1482 to 1490 and titular king of Cyprus and Armenia from 1485 to 1490. He was son of Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy and Yolande of Valois, daughter of king Charles VII of France. Charles was related in two ways to the childless Queen Charlotte of Cyprus, titular Queen of Armenia and Jerusalem. Not only was she his father Amadeus' first cousin, in such a way that her rights would descend to this line, but she was the widow of Charles's paternal uncle Louis of Savoy, Count of Geneva. Charlotte however was without a kingdom, having been exiled in the 1460s from her own legitimate kingdom of Cyprus by her illegitimate half-brother; this double relationship would serve Charles well, as in 1485, when he was 17, she surrendered her rights in Cyprus and Jerusalem to young Charles, her next legitimate heir in line from King Janus of Cyprus and Armenia. The kingdom itself was held by the republic of Venice, he married Blanche Palaiologina, daughter of William VIII, Marquess of Montferrat, who after Charles died from tuberculosis was the regent of the Duchy of Savoy from 1490 to 1496.
They had two surviving children. Yolande Louise of Savoy, married Philibert II of Savoy. Charles John Amadeus of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG. He is remembered for the Italianization of the House of Savoy, as he recovered the savoyard state following the Battle of St. Quentin and subsequently moved the capital to Turin and made Italian the official language in Piedmont. Born in Chambéry, Emmanuel Philibert was the only child of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, Beatrice of Portugal to reach adulthood, his mother was sister-in-law to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the future duke served in Charles's army during the war against Francis I of France, distinguishing himself by capturing Hesdin in July 1553. A month he became Duke of Savoy on the death of his father, but this was a nearly empty honour, as the vast majority of his hereditary lands had been occupied and administered by the French since 1536. Instead, he continued to serve the Habsburgs in hopes of recovering his lands, served his cousin Philip II of Spain as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a brilliant victory at Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557.
He was a suitor to Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII of England. With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis between France and Spain signed in 1559, the duchy was restored to Emmanuel Philibert and he married his first cousin once removed, Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of King Henry II of France, their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. Following the death of his uncle, Henry I of Portugal, on 31 January 1580, Emmanuel Philibert fought to impose his rights as a claimant to the Portuguese throne. However, he soon realised that he had quite a fragile position due to the claims of Philip II, who gained control of the country, thus uniting Spain and Portugal. Emmanuel Philibert spent his rule regaining. A skilled political strategist, he took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin, he purchased two territories. Internally, he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin and replaced Latin as the duchy's official language with Italian.
He was attempting to acquire the marquisate of Saluzzo. He was buried in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud of the Turin Cathedral, to which he had moved the Sindone in 1578. Kamen, Henry. Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. Leathes, Stanley. Cambridge Modern History. 1. Cambridge University Press. 1580 Portuguese succession crisis
Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VII, known as the Red Count, was Count of Savoy from 1383 to 1391. Amadeus was Count of Savoy and Bonne of Bourbon. Amadeus VII was known for his hospitality, for he would entertain people of all stations and never turned a person from his table without a meal, he married Bonne of Berry, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, the younger brother of Charles V of France. They had three children: Amadeus VIII known as Antipope Felix V, married Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Philip the Bold Bonne married to Louis of Piedmont, the final of the Savoy-Archaea Branch. Upon his death at age 29 from tetanus, controversy arose because of his will. Amadeus VII left the important role of guardian of his son and heir, Amadeus VIII, to his own mother, a sister of the powerful Duke de Bourbon, instead of following the tradition of appointing the child's mother, a daughter of the powerful Duke de Berry, it took three months of negotiations to restore peace in the family. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. Boydell Press