Bernard Palissy was a French Huguenot potter, hydraulics engineer and craftsman, famous for having struggled for sixteen years to imitate Chinese porcelain. He is best known for his so-called "rusticware" highly-decorated large oval platters featuring small animals in relief among vegetation, the animals often being moulded from casts taken of dead specimens, it is difficult to distinguish examples from Palissy's own workshop and those of a number of "followers" who adopted his style. Imitations and adaptations of his style continued to be made in France until 1800, revived in the 19th century. In the 19th-century, Palissy's pottery became the inspiration for Mintons Ltd's Victorian majolica, exhibited at the London Great Exhibition of 1851 under the name "Palissy ware". Palissy is known for his contributions to the natural sciences, is famous for discovering principles of geology and fossil formation. A Protestant, Palissy was imprisoned for his belief during the tumultuous French Wars of Religion and sentenced to death.
He died of poor treatment in the Bastille in 1589. According to his friend Pierre de L'Estoile, Palissy was born in 1510; the location of Palissy's birth is not certain, but it is believed to be either Saintes, Périgord, Limousin or Agen. He lived most of his life in Saintonge. Palissy was born to a poor family, while his education did not include Greek or Latin, it did instruct him in practical sciences including geometry and surveying. Early in his life, Palissy was commissioned by the crown to survey the salt marshes of Saintonge. In his memoirs, Palissy tells us. At the end of his apprenticeship he spent a journeyman year acquiring fresh knowledge in many parts of France, including Guyenne, Provence, Dauphiné, Burgundy and the Loire, he traveled north to the Low Countries even in the Rhine Provinces of Germany, to Italy. Palissy returned to Saintonge where he had children. Other than what he tells us in his autobiography, namely that he worked as a portrait-painter, glass-painter and land-surveyor, we have little record of how he lived during the first years of his married life.
In 1539 or 1540, Palissy was shown a white enamelled cup that astonished him, he began a project to determine the nature of its production. The piece of fine white pottery may have derived from Faenza, Saint-Porchaire or China. In Palissy's time pottery covered with beautiful white tin-glaze painted with enamels was manufactured throughout Italy, Spain and the South of France. A man as travelled and as acute as Palissy, would have been acquainted with its appearance and properties. At the neighboring village of La Chapelle-des-Pots, Palissy mastered the rudiments of peasant pottery as it was practised in the 16th century, he may have learned of manufacture of European tin-enamelled pottery. In his work Palissy produced ceramics using a great many ingredients including tin, iron, antimony, copper, saltwort and litharge. For nearly sixteen years Palissy labored to recreate the pottery that he had seen, working with the utmost diligency but never succeeding. At times he and his family were reduced to poverty.
Meanwhile, he endured the reproaches of his wife, with her little family clamouring for food, evidently regarded her husband's endeavors as little short of insanity. All these struggles and failures are faithfully recorded by Palissy himself in his autobiography. Palissy failed to discover the secrets of Chinese porcelain or white tin-glaze maiolica, but invented a style of rustic pottery, called "Palissy ware," for which he is now famous. Analysis confirms that Palissy used coloured lead glazes, lead silicates with added metal oxides of copper, manganese or iron with a small addition of tin to some of the glazes; the pottery is decorated with reliefs mimicking wildlife from Palissy's native Saintonge marshes, includes fish, reptiles and flowers. In 1542, a peasant revolt against the "gabelle" salt tax in Saintonge brought royal forces, headed by the Duc de Montmorency, near Palissy's home; the duke was impressed by Palissy's artistry and commissioned him to build retreats at the Château d'Écouen and Meudon.
Palissy's work there included the construction of wild gardens and ceramic creatures, following a romantic style similar to Italian artists Vasari and Michaelangelo, foreshadowing the baroque period. In 1548 Palissy was brought to Paris under the protection of Catherine des Medicis. Despite his conversion to Protestantism in 1546, Catherine asked him to construct gardens for her in the Tuileries and, in 1562, gave him an official title in her court: "the king's inventor of rustic figurines."Palissy was outspoken in his Protestant religious beliefs, sometimes chastised influential officials by quoting from the prophetic books of the Old Testament. According to contemporaries, Palissy would criticize traders, judges, or Parliamentary counsellors, benefices by citing the Book of Ezekiel: "They are accursed and lost... Woe be to you, who eat the fat and clothe you with the wool, leave my flock scattered upon the mountains."Although Palissy was Protestant, these nobles protected him from the ordinances of the parliament of Bordeaux, which, in 1562, seized the property of all the Protestants in this district.
Palissy's workshops and kilns were destroyed, but he himself was saved, and, by the interposition
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Château d'Anet is a château near Dreux, in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France, built by Philibert de l'Orme from 1547 to 1552 for Diane de Poitiers, the mistress of Henry II of France. It was a gift from the king and was built on the former château at the center of the domains of Diane's deceased husband, Louis de Brézé, seigneur d'Anet, Marshal of Normandy and Master of the Hunt; the château is noted for its exterior, notably the statues of Diane de Poitiers as Diana, goddess of the hunt, by Jean Goujon and the relief by Benvenuto Cellini over the portal. Anet was the site of one of the first Italianate parterre gardens centered on the building's facade in France; the château was built upon the foundations and cellar vaults of a feudal castle, dismantled by Charles V and was subsequently rebuilt as a Late Gothic manor of brick and stone. The château was not pillaged during the French Revolution, but Diane de Poitiers' remains were removed to a pauper's ditch in the parish cemetery and the rich contents of the château, which were the property of King Louis XVI's cousin, Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre, were sold at auction as biens nationaux.
A large part of the château was subsequently demolished, but only after Alexandre Lenoir was able to salvage some architectural elements for his Musée des monuments français. The elements were reinstalled at Anet after World War II; the restoration of the château itself, in pitiable condition, was due to comte Adolphe de Caraman, who purchased it in 1840 and undertook a colossal program of restoration. In 1851, the minister of the interior granted Anet the status of a monument historique. Under financial duress, Caraman sold the château in 1860 to Ferdinand Moreau, who continued the restoration, purchasing furnishings and works of art that were thought to be from the château; the set of tapestry hangings woven for the château, in Paris, to cartoons by Jean Cousin, forming a History of Diana in compliment to Diane de Poitiers, is now scattered. The free-standing chapel of Anet, built to the left of the cour d'honneur in 1549-1552, is designed on a centralized Greek cross floor plan under a diagonally-coffered dome.
Its facade has a porch of spaced paired Ionic columns between towers crowned by pyramidal spires. In 1581, Henri III and his mother Catherine de' Medici came to the chapel to attend the baptism of the infant son of Charles, duc d'Aumale. There is the mortuary chapel, built according to Diane de Poitiers' last wishes to contain her tomb, commissioned from Claude de Foucques by Diane's daughter, the Duchesse d'Aumale; the property was at least occupied, by Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme. The property belonged to many of Louis XIV's descendants: Louise-Françoise de Bourbon died here in 1743, she was a daughter of the famous illegitimate son of Louis XIV, the Duc du Maine, his sons the prince des Dombes and comte d'Eu lived here when away from Versailles. It was owned by the fabulously wealthy duc de Penthièvre, first cousin of the prince and the comte; the castle was used as a filming location in the 1965 James Bond film Thunderball and 1976 film The Pink Panther Strikes Again. The entry pavilion for Chateau d'Anet was the inspiration for the façade of Robert Venturi's 1966 Guild House for the Elderly in Philadelphia.
Fountain of Diana "Le Château d'Anet" Patrick Pochon, "Anet" Official Château d' Anet website Monographie du chateau d'Anet construit par Philibert de l'Orme en MDXLVIII, 1867, at the Kyoto University Library website
Château de Madrid
The Château de Madrid was a Renaissance building in France. It was built on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris in the early 16th century, it fell into disuse in the 17th and 18th centuries and was completely demolished in the 1790s. The construction of the château was ordered by Francis I of France in 1527, captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 and held for some months in Madrid. On his return to France in 1526, Francis found the Louvre uncomfortable, he desired a new palace. Called the Château de Boulogne, the new building became known as the Château de Madrid, taking its name from the Royal Alcázar of Madrid, the royal castle in Madrid. Both buildings were constructed on the edge of a forest near a large city, both were made up of a long central corps de logis with loggias on two storeys and a cubical pavilion at each end; the construction work was at first directed by Florentine Girolamo della Robbia and by French architects. The building was completed during the reign of Henry II of France, about 1552.
The Château de Madrid was richly decorated out. All of the exterior walls were covered in majolica and high relief, its architecture bore clear influences from both Renaissance Italy, in that its building plan resembled the letter H and that its exterior was richly ornamented, France, because of the towers on each corner of both pavilions and its internal layout, based on the Châteaux of Chenonceau and Chambord. This form, repeated again at La Muette and Challeau. During the Regency of Louis XV of France, Marie Louise Élisabeth lived at the castle; the château was abandoned by the House of Bourbon after her death. In 1787, an arrêt du Conseil of Louis XVI of France ordered it to be sold with a view to demolition, together with the Château de la Muette, the Château de Vincennes and the Château de Blois; the building was in ruins before the French Revolution, after which it was bought on 27 March 1792 by M. Leroy, a demolition contractor, who paid with assignat banknotes issued by the Revolutionary government.
Few traces have survived: one stone capital and three faience fragments are held by the museums of Sèvres and Écouen. The site has been built upon subsequently and the foundations destroyed. Monique Châtenet, Le château de Madrid au bois de Boulogne, Paris, Éditions Picard, Collection De Architectura, 1987 – ISBN 2-7084-0336-2 Alberto Faliva, Giuseppe Dattaro et le petit palais de Marmirolo, Francesco Dattaro et le château de Madrid: étude des relations Franco-italiennes autour de 1530-1550. Dissertation CESR Tours, 2004 Alberto Faliva, Francesco e Giuseppe Dattaro. La palazzina del Bosco e altre opere, Cremona, 2003 Alberto Faliva, Alain Erlande-Brandenburg, Robert J. Knecht, Richard Ingersoll, Aurora Scotti Tosini, David Ekserdjian, Renaissance Franco-Italienne. Serlio, Du Cerceau et les Dattaro, Cremona, 2005 Alberto Faliva, Sebastiano Serlio e l'Ordine Composito dei Romani Antichi, Bollettino Ingegneri, numero 12, 2006 Alberto Faliva, Jacopo Sansovino e altri dodici casi. Un altro medioevo, Bollettino Ingegneri, numero 11, 2007 Le château de Madrid Le château de Madrid au bois de Boulogne
The Tuileries Palace was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871. Built in 1564, it was extended until it closed off the western end of the Louvre courtyard and displayed an immense façade of 266 metres. Since the destruction of the Tuileries, the Louvre courtyard has remained open and the site is now the location of the eastern end of the Tuileries Garden, forming an elevated terrace between the Place du Carrousel and the gardens proper. After the accidental death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow Catherine de' Medici planned a new palace, she sold the medieval Hôtel des Tournelles, where her husband had died, began building the palace of Tuileries in 1564, using architect Philibert de l'Orme. The name derives from the tile kilns or tuileries which had occupied the site; the palace was formed by a range of narrow buildings.
During the reign of Henry IV, the building was enlarged to the south, so it joined the long riverside gallery, the Grande Galerie, which ran all the way to the older Louvre Palace in the east. During the reign of Louis XIV major changes were made to the Tuileries Palace. From 1659 to 1661 it was extended to the north by the addition of the Théâtre des Tuileries. From 1664 to 1666 the architect Louis Le Vau and his assistant François d'Orbay made other significant changes, they transformed Philibert de l'Orme's facades and central pavilion, replacing its grand central staircase with a colonnaded vestibule on the ground floor and the Salle des Cents Suisses on the floor above and adding a rectangular dome. A new grand staircase was installed in the entrance of the north wing of the palace, lavishly decorated royal apartments were constructed in the south wing; the king's rooms were on the ground floor, facing toward the Louvre, the queen's on the floor above, overlooking the garden. At the same time, Louis' gardener, André Le Nôtre, redesigned the Tuileries gardens.
The Court moved into the Tuileries Palace in November 1667, but left in 1672, soon thereafter went to the Palace of Versailles. The Tuileries Palace was abandoned and used only as a theatre, but its gardens became a fashionable resort of Parisians; the boy-king Louis XV was moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace on 1 January 1716, four months after ascending to the throne. He moved back to Versailles on 15 June three months before his coronation. Both moves were made at the behest of the Regent, the duc d'Orléans; the king resided at the Tuileries for short periods during the 1740s. On 6 October 1789, during the French Revolution, Louis XVI and his family were forced to leave Versailles and brought to the Tuileries where they were kept under surveillance. For the next two years the palace remained the official residence of the king. On 9 November 1789, the National Constituent Assembly the Estates-General of 1789, had moved its deliberations from the tennis court at Versailles to the Tuileries, following the removal of the court to Paris.
The Tuileries' covered riding ring, the Salle du Manège, home to the royal equestrian academy, provided the largest indoor space in the city. The royal family tried to escape after dark, on 20 June 1791, but were captured at Varennes and brought back to the Tuileries; the following year, on 10 August 1792, the palace was stormed by an armed mob, which overwhelmed and massacred the Swiss Guard as the royal family fled through the gardens and took refuge with the Legislative Assembly. The Paris National Guard defended the King, but the daughter of King Louis XVI claimed that many of the guard were in favor of the revolution. In November 1792, the Armoire de fer incident took place at the Tuileries palace; this was the discovery of a hiding place at the royal apartments, believed to contain the secret correspondence of Louis XVI with various political figures. The incident created a considerable scandal; the Tuileries accommodated the Constituent Assembly, its successor, the National Convention, and, in 1795, the Council of Five Hundred of the Directoire until the body moved to the Palais-Bourbon in 1798.
In 1799, the Jacobin Club du Manège had its headquarters there. The Committee of Public Safety met in the Pavillon de Flore. A courtier of a era could summon up nightmarish visions of the palace's Salle de Spectacle, or theater, where many Convention sessions were held during the Reign of Terror: At night a single lamp illumined this huge deserted hall, peopled with terrible memories; these I would muse over as I stopped at the spot once occupied by the chair of the president, where Boissy d'Anglas had saluted the bleeding head of Feraud, where Thuriot had listened impassively to the outburst of Robespierre at bay: "President of assassins, once more I ask your ear!" I saw in imagination the "Mountain," the "Plain," the crowded tribunes. When Napoleon Bonaparte came into power in 1799, he made the Tuileries the official residence of the First Consul and the imperial palace. In 1808, Napoleon began constructing the northern gallery which connected to the Louvre, enclosing a vast square; as Napoleon I's chief residence, the Tuiler
Jean du Bellay
Jean du Bellay was a French diplomat and cardinal, a younger brother of Guillaume du Bellay, cousin and patron of the poet Joachim du Bellay. He was bishop of Bayonne by 1526, member of the Conseil privé of King Francis I from 1530, bishop of Paris from 1532, he became Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1555. Du Bellay was born at Souday, second of the six sons of Louis, son of Jean du Bellay, Seigneur de Langey, Marguerite, daughter of Raoullet, Baron of Le Tour-Landry. Four of their sons survived infancy, including Guillaume and René, they had two daughters, Renée, who married Ambroise Baron des Cousteaux, Louise, who married Jacques d'Aunay, Sieur de Villeneuvr-la-Guyart. The fief of Bellay was located near Saumur in Anjou, he is said to have had his education in Paris. It is speculated, that he studied at the University of Angers, he had a licenciate in utroque iure. He was a priest of the diocese of Le Mans, he was appointed Bishop of Bayonne by King Francis I, whose appointment was approved by Pope Clement VII on 12 February 1524.
He held the position until his transfer to the See of Paris in 1532. On 2 March 1533, Pope Clement granted Bishop du Bellay the privilege of holding multiple benefices both in the diocese of Paris and in other dioceses as well. King Francis confirmed this indult on 1 October 1534. Jean du Bellay was succeeded as Bishop of Paris by his nephew Eustache, on 16 March 1551, after Cardinal Jean was dismissed by King Henry II, he was well-fitted for a diplomatic career, carried out several missions in England. He was Ambassador Ordinary from November 1527 to February 1529, when his elder brother Guillaume replaced him; when his brother departed, he was again Ambassador, from 15 May 1529 to January 1530. He returned on a mission in August–September 1530, again, as Ambassador Extraordinary, in October 1531. After returning to Court, he was dispatched again to England on 6 November 1531, he was in England again as Ambassador Extraordinary in August and September 1532. A meeting between the English and French monarchs took place at Boulogne on 20 October 1532, at which Bishop du Bellay was present, thereafter Cardinals Tournon and de Gramont were sent to Rome to negotiate with Pope Clement VII.
Du Bellay returned to England from November 1533 to January 1534. In this last embassy, it was his duty to explain the agreements made between Francis I and Pope Clement VII during their negotiations in Marseille in October and November 1533, he was sent as Ambassador Extraordinary to the Papal Court in Rome. His mission in both English and Roman embassies was to prevent the implementation of Pope Clement's decree of excommunication against Henry VIII, a valuable ally of France against the Emperor Charles. One of the members of du Bellay's suite in his embassy to Rome was François Rabelais, making the first of four journeys to Rome. On their arrival in Rome, they were accommodated in the residence of the Bishop of Faenza Rodolfo Pio di Carpi, the future Cardinal, who had returned from a papal embassy to the French Court. Despite the Bishop's best efforts, the Imperial agents, who were well entrenched and vigorous in their advocacy, influenced the papal Consistory to vote to approve the sentence against Henry VIII on 23 March 1534.
Henry's plea to await further action until he could send a Procurator to the Papal Court—only a delaying action—was allowed. And so the execution of the bull of excommunication was temporarily suspended. In September 1534 Bishop du Bellay's secretary, Claude de Chappuys accompanied the French cardinals who were going to Rome for the Conclave that followed the death of Pope Clement VII. There, the Cardinals and Chappuys used their influence to promote the candidacy of the Bishop of Paris for a cardinal's hat, they were assured that the new pope, Pope Paul III, was favourable to their importuning. On 21 May 1535, at his second Consistory for the promotion of cardinals, Pope Paul III created seven new cardinals, among them Jean du Bellay, he was named Cardinal Priest of the titulus of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere on 31 May. His cardinal's hat was sent to him in France on 3 April. Beginning on 27 June he made the journey to Rome, stopping in Ferrara for negotiations with the Duke about the war over Milan, moving on to Rome, where he appeared for his induction ceremonies at the Consistory of 6 August.
He had additional reasons, for going to Rome. He was sent by King Francis to seek papal assistance against the aggression of the Emperor Charles V in the struggle for the Duchy of Milan, he was again accompanied by François Rabelais. On 21 July 1536 du Bellay was nominated "Lieutenant-General" to the king at Paris and in the Île de France, was entrusted with the organisation of the defence against the Imperialists under the leadership of the Count of Nassau, under the direction of the Emperor Charles V, were invading eastern France while Charles was attacking Provence; when his brother Guillaume du Bellay went to Piedmont, Jean was put in charge of the negotiations with the German Protestants, principally through the humanist Johannes Sturm and the historian Johann Sleidan. In the last years of the reign of Francis I, cardinal du Bellay was in favour with the duchesse d'Étampes, received a number of benefices: he was Administrator of the bishopric of Limoges on the nomination of the King and with the approval of Pope Paul III on 22 August 1541.
He was named Administrator of the archbishopric of Bordeaux, approved by the Pope on 17 December 1544. He became Bishop of L
Henry II of France
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. Henry was the tenth king from the House of Valois, the third from the Valois-Orléans branch, the second from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch; as a child and his elder brother spent over four years in captivity in Spain as hostages in exchange for their father. Henry pursued his father's policies in matter of arts and religion, he persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation as the Huguenot numbers were increasing drastically in France during his reign. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, which put an end to the Italian Wars, had mixed results: France renounced its claims to territories in Italy, but gained certain other territories, including the Pale of Calais and the Three Bishoprics. France failed to change the balance of power in Europe, as Spain remained the sole dominant power, but it did benefit from the division of the holdings of its ruler, Charles V, from the weakening of the Holy Roman Empire, which Charles ruled.
Henry suffered an untimely death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The king's surgeon, Ambroise Paré, was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery, the captain of his Scottish Guard, he was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, whose ineffective reigns helped to spark the French Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of King Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany, his father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, held prisoner in Spain. To obtain his release, it was agreed that his older brother be sent to Spain in his place, they remained in captivity for over four years. Henry married Catherine de' Medici, a member of the ruling family of Florence, on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. At this time, his elder brother was alive and there was little prospect of Henry coming to the throne.
The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. Henry and Diane had always been close: the young lady had fondly embraced Henry on the day he, as a 7-year-old child, set off to captivity in Spain, the bond had been renewed after his return to France. In a tournament to honor his father's new bride, Eleanor and his older brother were dressed as chevaliers, in which Henry wore Diane's colors. Confident and intelligent, Diane left Catherine powerless to intervene, she did, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne. When his elder brother Francis, the Dauphin and Duke of Brittany, died in 1536 after a game of tennis, Henry became heir apparent to the throne, he succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Reims Cathedral. Henry's reign was marked by wars with Austria and the persecution of Protestants Calvinists known as Huguenots. Henry II punished them the ministers, for example by burning at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies.
Henry II was made a Knight of the Garter, April 1515. The Edict of Châteaubriant called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots, including the loss of one-third of their property to informers, confiscations; the Edict strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II that Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, with the short-lived formation of France Antarctique; the Eighth Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War, began when Henry declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552; the continuation of his father's Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France.
An early offensive into Lorraine was successful. Henry captured the three episcopal cities of Metz and Verdun, secured them by defeating the Habsburg army at the Battle of Renty in 1554; however the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano. After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg empire was split between Philip II of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I; the focus of Henry's conflict with the Habsburgs shifted to Flanders, where Phillip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin. England's entry into the war that year led to the French capture of Calais, French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry was nonetheless forced to accept the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, in which he renounced any further claims to territories in Italy; the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Henry and Elizabeth I of England on 2 April and between Henry and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559 at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to