Government of Pennsylvania
The Government of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the governmental structure of the state of Pennsylvania as established by the Pennsylvania Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive and judicial; the capital of the Commonwealth is Harrisburg. The elected officers are: In Pennsylvania all members of the executive branch are not on the ballot in the same year: elections for governor and lieutenant governor are held in years when there is not a presidential election, while the other three statewide offices are elected in presidential election years; the Governor's Cabinet comprises the directors of various state agencies: Department of Community and Economic Development Department of Aging Office of General Counsel Department of Insurance Department of Corrections Department of Transportation Department of State Department of General Services Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Emergency Management Agency Department of Health Department of Banking and Securities Office of the Budget Department of Environmental Protection Pennsylvania State Police Office of Inspector General Department of Human Services Department of Labor & Industry Department of Agriculture Department of Revenue Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Office of Administration Department of Education Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs The Pennsylvania Bulletin is the weekly gazette containing proposed and emergency rules and other notices and important documents, which are codified in the Pennsylvania Code.
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the bicameral state legislature composed of 253 members: the House of Representatives with 203 members, the Senate with 50 members. The Speaker of the House of Representatives or their designated speaker pro tempore holds sessions of the House; the President of the Senate is the Lieutenant Governor, who has no vote except in the event of tie in the Senate, where the vote is 25-25. The legislature meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg, its session laws are published in the official Laws of Pennsylvania, which are codified in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Members of the Senate and the House cannot hold a position in any civic office, both the houses may expel a member with two-thirds vote. Any member, expelled for corruption may never run again for reelection in either portion of the legislature. Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts, most of which have magisterial district judges, who preside over minor criminal offenses and small civil claims.
Magisterial District Judges preside over preliminary hearings in all misdemeanor and felony criminal cases. Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions; the Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. It has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance; the Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected. In total, 439 judges preside over the Court of Common Pleas, 9 judges preside over the Commonwealth Court, 15 judges preside over the Superior Court, 7 justices preside over the Supreme Court. Elected judges run in 10 year terms, at which point they are required to run in a non-partisan retention election if they wish to continue to serve.
Local government in Pennsylvania consists of five types of local governments: county, borough and school district. All of Pennsylvania is included in one of the state's 67 counties and each county is divided into one of the state's 2,562 municipalities. There are no independent cities or unincorporated territory within Pennsylvania. Local municipalities are either governed by statutes enacted by the Pennsylvania Legislature and administered through the Pennsylvania Code, by a home rule charter or optional form of government adopted by the municipality with consent of the Legislature. Municipalities may enforce local ordinances. Pennsylvania enacted the Local Government Commission by an Act of Assembly; the commission is one of the oldest in the country, composed of five members of the state Senate and House of Representatives who are appointed by the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. The commission provides assistance to Members of the General Assembly on researching local issues.
Politics of Pennsylvania Elections in Pennsylvania Law of Pennsylvania PA. GOV Pennsylvania General Assembly Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania
Avenue of Technology (Philadelphia)
Avenue of Technology is a city designated technology-based district on a segment of Market Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The area is known for being the "portal of technology" of the city that includes the University City Science Center and Drexel University; the area was dedicated by the mayor Ed Rendell with street plates acknowledging this section of road with turquoise signs. In May 2014, a project with Google Earth will document the mobility in the region. Market Street Avenue of the Arts designated by former Mayor Ed Rendell Notes
Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U. S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of asphalt.
This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.
S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D. C; the nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; as of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, 12,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile. There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76 % of the population were Latino people of any race. The largest ethnic groups in Lancaster as of recent estimates are: Puerto Rican 29.2% German 21.2% African American 12.8% Irish 8.6% English 8.2% Italian 4.1% Dominican 3.2% Polish 2.0% Scottish 1.9% Mexican 1.8% Cuban 1.7% West Indian 1.0%In 2010, 29.2% of Lancaster residents were of P
Altoona is a city in Blair County, United States. It is the principal city of the Altoona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 46,320 at the time of the 2010 Census, making it the eleventh most populous city in Pennsylvania. The Altoona MSA includes all of Blair County and was recorded as having a population of 127,089 at the 2010 Census, around 100,000 of whom live within a 5-mile radius of the Altoona city center according to U. S. Census ZIP Code population data; this includes the adjacent boroughs of Hollidaysburg and Duncansville, adjacent townships of Logan, Blair, Frankstown and Tyrone, as well as nearby boroughs of Bellwood and Newry. Having grown around the railroad industry, the city is working to recover from industrial decline and urban decentralization experienced in recent decades; the city is home to the Altoona Curve baseball team of the Double A Eastern League, the affiliate of the Major League Baseball team Pittsburgh Pirates. The 90-year-old Altoona Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Maestra Teresa Cheung has been calling Altoona home since 1928.
Prominent landmarks include the Horseshoe Curve, the Railroaders Memorial Museum, the Juniata Shops of the Altoona Works, the Mishler Theatre, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, the Jaffa Shrine Center. As a major railroad town, Altoona was founded by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1849 as the site for a shop and maintenance complex. Altoona was incorporated as a borough on February 6, 1854, as a city under legislation approved on April 3, 1867, February 8, 1868. One explanation of the city's name is that the word "Altoona" is a derivative of the Latin word altus, meaning "high"; this explanation is contradicted by Pennsylvania Place Names. Although Altoona, in Blair Country, is popularly known as "the Mountain City", its name has no direct or indirect etymological relation to the Latin adjective altus, signifying "elevated, lofty." Two different explanations of the origin of this name are current. The one which seems to be most natural and reasonable runs as follows: "The locomotive engineer who ran the first train into Altoona in 1851 was Robert Steele, who died several years ago, aged nearly ninety years.
He was the oldest continuous resident of the city. He was much respected, had long been one of the private pensioners of Andrew Carnegie. Mr. Steele is authority for the statement that Colonel Beverly Mayer, of Columbia, who, as a civil engineer of what was the Pennsylvania Central Railway, had laid out the tracks in the yards of the newly projected city, named the place Altoona after the city of Altona in Danish Holstein, which became part of Germany in 1864." The German Altona, today a district of Hamburg, lies on the right bank of the Elbe west of Hamburg city center, is an important railway and manufacturing centre with a population of nearly 200,000. The etymological derivation of the name Altona is not known with certainty, but believed to be Low German all to na, meaning "all too near". In 1849 David Robinson sold his farm to Archibald Wright of Philadelphia, who transferred the property to his son, John A. Wright, who laid it out in building lots, became one of the founders of Altoona, was responsible for the naming of the town.
According to his own statement, he had spent considerable time in the Cherokee country of Georgia, where he had been attracted by the beautiful name of Allatoona, which he had bestowed upon the new town in the belief that it was a Cherokee word meaning "the high lands of great worth." In the Cherokee language there is a word eladuni, which means "high lands", or "where it is high". An older history dated 1883 favored the Cherokee derivation, stating that "Its name is not derived from the Latin word altus nor from the French word alto, as has been asserted and published, but from the beautiful and expressive Cherokee word allatoona; this is on the authority of the person who bestowed the name, Mr. Wright, of Philadelphia, long a resident of the Cherokee country in Georgia, an admirer of the musical names of that Indian language."For 60 days in 2011, the city changed its name to "POM Wonderful Presents: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold" in exchange for $25,000 as part of a marketing gimmick for the movie of the same name.
In late September 1862, Altoona was home to the War Governors' Conference which brought together 13 governors of Union states. This body gave early approval to the Emancipation Proclamation; the town grew in the late 19th century, its population 2,000 in 1854, 10,000 in 1870, 20,000 in 1880. The demand for locomotives during the Civil War stimulated much of this growth, by the years of the war Altoona was known as a valuable city for the North. Altoona was the site of the first Interstate Commission meeting to create and design the Gettysburg National Cemetery following the devastating Battle of Gettysburg; the centrality and convenience of the town's rail transportation brought these two important gatherings to the city during the war. Horseshoe Curve, a curved section of track built by the PRR, has become a tourist attraction and National Historic Landmark; the curve was used to raise trains to a sufficient elevation to cross the Allegheny Ridge to the west. The Allegheny Ridge had been a major barrier and construction of the Erie Canal in New York twenty years earlier had diverted much port traffic which had used Philadelphia to New York City instead, causing the rise of that city's commercial dominance.
Because the curve was an industrial link to the western U. S
United States congressional delegations from Pennsylvania
These are tables of congressional delegations from Pennsylvania to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the Pennsylvanian United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has 17 members, with 9 Democrats. One seat is vacant. For the first two Congresses, Pennsylvania had eight seats. In the First Congress, Representatives were selected At-large on a general ticket. Districts were used in the Second Congress. Pennsylvania had thirteen seats. For the third Congress representatives were selected at-large on a general ticket. After that, districts were created. There were eighteen seats, apportioned among eleven districts. Districts 1–3 each had three seats elected on a general ticket. District 4 had two such seats. Districts 5–11 each had one seat. There were 15 districts; the 1st district had four seats elected on a general ticket. The 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 10th each had two seats elected on a general ticket.
The rest of the districts each had one seat. Following the 1830 census, Pennsylvania was apportioned 28 seats; the commonwealth divided them into 25 districts and two districts, the 2nd and the 4th, had two and three seats respectively. Following the 1880 Census, the delegation grew by one seat; until 1889, that seat was elected at-large statewide. After 1889, the state was redistricted into 28 districts. Following the 1890 Census, the delegation grew by two seats; those two additional seats were elected at-large across the entire commonwealth. Following the 1900 Census, the delegation grew by two seats. Following the 1910 Census, the delegation grew by four seats to its largest size to date; the four new seats were elected at-large statewide. Starting in 1923, four new districts were added to replace the at-large seats. Following the 1930 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1940 Census, the delegation lost one seat. For the 78th Congress, there were 1 at-large seat. Starting with the 79th Congress, there were 33 districts.
Following the 1950 Census, the delegation lost three seats. Following the 1960 Census, the delegation lost three seats. Following the 1970 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1980 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 1990 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 2000 Census, the delegation lost two seats. Following the 2010 Census, the delegation lost one seat. With court ordered Redistricting in Pennsylvania on February 19, 2018, none of the congressmen who served in 115th congress and were re-elected are in the same district in the 116th congress; as of January 2019, there is one living former senator. List of United States congressional districts
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Wayne is an unincorporated community centered in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on the Main Line, a series of affluent Philadelphia suburbs located along the railroad tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and one of the wealthiest areas in the nation. While the center of Wayne is in Radnor Township, Wayne extends into both Tredyffrin Township in Chester County and Upper Merion Township in Montgomery County; the center of Wayne was designated the Downtown Wayne Historic District in 2012. Considering the large area served by the Wayne post office, the community may extend into Easttown Township, Chester County, as well; the center of the Wayne business district is the intersection of Lancaster Avenue and Wayne Avenue, its main street. The historic Wayne station is located one block north of this intersection; the Wayne business district includes a post office, a cinema, a hotel, a library, the new Radnor Middle School, several banks, restaurants, cafes and other commercial establishments. Other institutions and attractions in Wayne include the Wayne Hotel, Chanticleer Garden, the Valley Forge Military Academy and College and the headquarters of Traffic Pulse, a worldwide traffic information provider.
Wayne's development began. It was renamed Wayne Station after General Anthony Wayne. Parcels in the area totaling 293 acres were bought by banker J. H. Askin, where he built a mansion named "Louella" after his daughters Louisa and Ella. "Louella" was described as an 8-room stone building with a large porch overlooking manicured lawn. His and surrounding land were bought in 1880 by banker A. J. Drexel and newspaper editor G. W. Childs, to form a larger development they called Wayne Estate. More homes and a hotel were built. In a brochure from 1887 about their development they noted they had provided Wayne with "water and drainage — the three great conveniences of a large city — by the most approved modern methods." They described Wayne Estate as follows: The suburban village known as Wayne, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, fourteen miles from Philadelphia, differs so much from the ordinary town allowed to grow up hap-hazard and to develop conveniences as population increases, that it is necessary, in describing it as it appears, to keep in mind some facts about its history.
Wayne is not an accidental aggregation of cottages. The scheme of the town was well thought out and planned before any of the new cottages were built, and, as it was undertaken by liberal gentlemen of abundant means, no expense was spared in the preliminary municipal work; the Chanticleer Garden, Downtown Wayne Historic District, North Wayne Historic District, Pennsylvania Railroad Station at Wayne, South Wayne Historic District and Wayne Hotel are all located on the National Register of Historic Places. Wayne is located on the Main Line; the central business district of Wayne is located at the intersection of Lancaster and Wayne Avenues in Radnor Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The area served by the Wayne ZIP code is large and encompasses areas both in Radnor Township and in the neighboring adjacent municipalities of Upper Merion in Montgomery County and Tredyffrin in Chester County, including the communities of Radnor, Strafford, St. Davids, Chesterbrook. Since Wayne is neither an incorporated area nor a census-designated place, all the data is for the ZIP code 19087.
As of the census of 2010, there were 12,754 households residing in the community. The median age was 40.8. The racial makeup of the community was 85.5% White, 7.9% Asian and 5.3% African American, while 3.7% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The median income for a household in the community was $118,801, 5.1% of the population was below the poverty line. Kenexa and SunGard are based in Wayne. Pupils in the Radnor Township portion of Wayne attend schools in Radnor Township School District, while pupils in the Tredyffrin portion attend schools in Tredyffrin/Easttown School District; those in the northeastern portion of the community in Upper Merion Township attend the Upper Merion Area School District. Students in Radnor Township attend Radnor High School. Students in Tredyffrin Township attend Conestoga High School. Students in Upper Merion Township attend Upper Merion Area High School; the St. Katharine of Siena School is a Catholic K-8 grade school located in downtown Wayne operated by the Archdiocese of Philadelphia.
Catholic students who live in Radnor Township as well as other towns in the Delaware Valley may choose to attend Archbishop John Carroll High School, located in the nearby community of Radnor. Many private schools are located nearby including the Quaker-affiliated Shipley School, all-boys Haverford School and all-girls Agnes Irwin School, all located east of Wayne on or near Lancaster Avenue; the Valley Forge Military Academy and College is located in Wayne. Nearby post-secondary institutions include Villanova University, Cabrini University and Eastern University; the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer opened its own private school called YSC Academy on September 3, 2013. The Wayne-based academy is designed for student-athletes the club aims to groom for professional soccer; the initial 32 pupils had experience playing for one of the Union's academy and Juniors teams. Diane Meredith Belcher, concert organist, church musician Robert Elmore, organist