Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Stuart Oliver Knussen was a British composer and conductor. Oliver Knussen was born in Scotland, his father, Stuart Knussen, was principal double bass of the London Symphony Orchestra, participated in a number of premieres of Benjamin Britten's music. Oliver Knussen studied composition with John Lambert between 1963 and 1969, received encouragement from Britten, he spent several summers studying with Gunther Schuller at Tanglewood in Massachusetts and in Boston. He became the head of contemporary music activities at Tanglewood, between 1986 and 1993, he was married to Sue Knussen, a US-born producer and director of music programmes for BBC television and for the UK's Channel 4 – for which she made Leaving Home, an introduction to 20th-century music presented by Simon Rattle in a series of seven one-hour programmes, which won the 1996 BAFTA award for "Best Arts Series". She ran the Los Angeles Philharmonic's education department in the late 1990s. Oliver and Sue Knussen had a daughter, Sonya Knussen, a mezzo-soprano.
Sue Knussen died of a blood infection in London in 2003. The Sue Knussen Composers Fund "honours her memory and professional legacy...and...commissions works from emerging composers to be performed by contemporary music ensembles worldwide."Knussen lived in Snape, Benjamin Britten's base during one of his most creative periods. Snape Maltings concert hall is the home of the Aldeburgh Festival. Knussen died on 8 July 2018, aged 66. Knussen began composing at about the age of six. Aged 15, Knussen stepped in to conduct his symphony's première at the Royal Festival Hall, London, on 7 April 1968, after István Kertész fell ill. After his debut, Daniel Barenboim asked him to conduct the work's first two movements in New York a week later. In this work and his Concerto for Orchestra, he had and fluently absorbed the influences of modernist composers Britten and Berg as well as many mid-century symphonists, while displaying an unusual flair for pacing and orchestration, it was as early as the Second Symphony, in the words of Julian Anderson, that "Knussen's compositional personality abruptly appeared formed".
He was awarded CBE in the 1994 Birthday Honours. Knussen was principal guest conductor of The Hague's Het Residentie Orkest between 1992 and 1996, the Aldeburgh Festival's co-artistic director between 1983 and 1998 and the London Sinfonietta's music director between 1998 and 2002 – and became that ensemble's conductor laureate. In 2005 Knussen was the music director of the Ojai Music Festival. From September 2006, Knussen was artist-in-association to the Birmingham Contemporary Music Group, from 2009 to the BBC Symphony Orchestra, his major works from the 1980s were his two children's operas, Where the Wild Things Are and Higglety Pigglety Pop!, both libretti by Maurice Sendak – and based on Sendak's own eponymous children's books. Where the Wild Things Are received its New York premiere in November 1986 by New York City Opera, which performed the work in April 2011. A much-admired orchestral work from 1994 is his Horn Concerto written for Barry Tuckwell, which "combines the colorful sound world of early 20th century music with a contemporary approach to time and melody".
Knussen wrote his Songs for Sue, a setting of four poems for soprano and 15-piece ensemble, as a memorial tribute to his late wife, the music received its world première in Chicago in 2006. Knussen told Tom Service in The Guardian:I knew there were a number of Dickinson poems addressed to her sister, Sue, so one week I read all 1,700 poems of Emily Dickinson... and I copied out about 35 of them by hand, I have no idea where the notes for this piece come from... It seemed to want to be written... I wasn't sure whether it... ought to be let out at all... because I didn't want it to be a self-indulgent thing. But it's restrained. It's not a huge work – about 13 minutes – but it's a big piece emotionally; as of autumn 2012, Knussen was writing a symphonic adagio for the Philadelphia Orchestra. He was planning to finish two concertos that he had worked on for several years: one for piano and one for cello, his recordings as a conductor included works by Modest Mussorgsky, Ruth Crawford Seeger, Elliott Carter, Igor Stravinsky, Toru Takemitsu, Colin Matthews, Alexander Goehr, Robin Holloway and Poul Ruders.
Symphony No. 1, Op. 1, for orchestra Processionals, Op. 2, for chamber ensemble Masks, Op. 3, for solo flute and glass chimes'ad lib' Concerto for Orchestra Symphony in One Movement, Op. 5, for orchestra – a revised version of the Concerto for Orchestra Hums and Songs of Winnie-the-Pooh, Op. 6, for soprano solo, cor anglais, clarinet and cello Three Little Fantasies, Op. 6a, for wind quintet Symphony No. 2, Op. 7, for high soprano and chamber orchestra Choral, Op. 8, for wind and double basses Rosary Songs, Op. 9, for soprano solo, clarinet and viola Océan de Terre, Op. 10, for soprano and chamber ensemble Music for a Puppet Court, Op. 11, "puzzle pieces" for two chamber orchestras Trumpets, Op. 12, for soprano and three clarinets Ophelia Dances, Op. 13, for flute, cor anglais, horn, piano and string trio Autumnal, Op. 14, for violin and piano Cantata Op. 15, for oboe and string trio Sonya's Lullaby Op. 16, for piano so
Lukas Foss was a German-American composer and conductor. Born as Lukas Fuchs in Berlin, Germany in 1922, Foss was soon recognized as a child prodigy, he began theory lessons with Julius Goldstein in Berlin at the age of six. His parents were the philosopher and scholar Martin Foss, he moved with his family to Paris in 1933, where he studied piano with Lazare Lévy, composition with Noël Gallon, orchestration with Felix Wolfes, flute with Louis Moyse. In 1937 he moved with his parents and brother to the United States, where his father changed the family name to Foss, he studied at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, with Isabelle Vengerova, Rosario Scalero and Fritz Reiner. At Curtis, Foss began a lifelong friendship with classmate Leonard Bernstein, who described Foss as an "authentic genius." In 1961 Bernstein conducted the premiere of Foss's Time Cycle, while Foss would conduct the premiere of Bernstein's Symphonic Dances from West Side Story. Foss studied with Serge Koussevitzky during the summers from 1939 to 1943 at the Berkshire Music Center and, as a special student, composition with Paul Hindemith at Yale University from 1939 to 1940.
He became an American citizen in 1942. Foss was appointed professor of music at UCLA in 1953. While there he founded the Improvisation Chamber Ensemble, which made its Boston debut in 1962 for the Peabody Mason Concert series, he founded the Center of the Creative and Performing Arts in 1963 while at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Six different years from 1961 to 1987, Foss was the music director of the Ojai Music Festival. From 1963 to 1970 he was music director of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1971 to 1988 he was music director of the Brooklyn Philharmonic. From 1981 to 1986, he was conductor of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, he was a professor of music and composition at Boston University beginning in 1991. His notable students include Claire Polin and Rocco Di Pietro, he is grouped in the "Boston school" along with Arthur Berger, Irving Fine, Alexei Haieff, Harold Shapero, Claudio Spies. He was a National Patron of an international professional music fraternity. In 2000 he was awarded a Gold Medal by the American Academy of Letters.
In 1951 Foss married Cornelia Brendel, an artist and painter, born in Berlin in 1931, the daughter of art historian Otto Brendel and Maria Weigert Brendel. The couple had two children, Christopher Brendel Foss, who became a documentary filmmaker and corporate consultant on social and environmental engagement/sustainability communications, Eliza Foss Topol, an actress. Foss and his wife were separated for five years, from 1968 to 1972, while Cornelia was the lover of pianist Glenn Gould and moved, with the two children, to Toronto, an arrangement that she called, "a perfect triangle". Foss, afflicted with Parkinson's disease in his final years, died at his home in Manhattan on February 1, 2009, aged 86, of a heart attack. Lukas Foss at Encyclopædia Britannica Lukas Foss' page at Carl Fischer Allmusic: Lukas Foss Humanities Web: Lukas Foss Index CDeMusic: Lukas Foss New Albion Artists: Lukas Foss Lukas Foss: A Twentieth-Century Composer's Confessions about the Creative Process at the Wayback Machine Art of the States: Lukas Foss Lukas Foss interview by Gabrielle Zuckerman, from American Mavericks site Lukas Foss interview by Terry Gross, from Fresh Air program broadcast October 7, 1987 Interview with Lukas Foss by Bruce Duffie, February 2, 1987
London Symphony Orchestra
The London Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras. It was set up by a group of players who left Henry Wood's Queen's Hall Orchestra because of a new rule requiring players to give the orchestra their exclusive services; the LSO itself introduced a similar rule for its members. From the outset the LSO was organised on co-operative lines, with all players sharing the profits at the end of each season; this practice continued for the orchestra's first four decades. The LSO underwent periods of eclipse in the 1930s and 1950s when it was regarded as inferior in quality to new London orchestras, to which it lost players and bookings: the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic in the 1930s and the Philharmonia and Royal Philharmonic after the Second World War; the profit-sharing principle was abandoned in the post-war era as a condition of receiving public subsidy for the first time. In the 1950s the orchestra debated whether to concentrate on film work at the expense of symphony concerts.
By the 1960s the LSO had recovered its leading position. In 1966, to perform alongside it in choral works, the orchestra established the LSO Chorus a mix of professional and amateur singers a wholly amateur ensemble; as a self-governing body, the orchestra selects the conductors with. At some stages in its history it has dispensed with a principal conductor and worked only with guests. Among conductors with whom it is most associated are, in its early days, Hans Richter, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Thomas Beecham, in more recent decades Pierre Monteux, André Previn, Claudio Abbado, Sir Colin Davis, Valery Gergiev. Since 1982 the LSO has been based in the Barbican Centre in the City of London. Among its programmes there have been large-scale festivals celebrating composers as diverse as Berlioz and Bernstein; the LSO claims to be the world's most recorded orchestra. At the turn of the twentieth century there were no permanent salaried orchestras in London; the main orchestras were those of the Philharmonic Society and the Queen's Hall.
As there were competing demands for the services of the finest players it was an accepted practice that though under contract to play for a concert, a player was at liberty to accept a better-paid engagement if it were offered. He would engage another player to deputise at him for the original concert and the rehearsals for it; the treasurer of the Philharmonic Society described the system thus: "A, whom you want, signs to play at your concert. He sends B to the first rehearsal. B, without your consent, sends C to the second rehearsal. Not being able to play at the concert, C sends D, whom you would have paid five shillings to stay away." There was much competition for good orchestral players, with well-paid engagements offered by more than fifty music halls, by pit bands in West End musical comedies, by grand hotels and restaurants which maintained orchestras. In 1904, the manager of the Queen's Hall, Robert Newman and the conductor of his promenade concerts, Henry Wood, agreed that they could no longer tolerate the deputy system.
After a rehearsal in which Wood was faced with dozens of unfamiliar faces in his own orchestra, Newman came to the platform and announced: "Gentlemen, in future there will be no deputies! Good morning!" This caused a furore. Orchestral musicians were not paid, removing their chances of better-paid engagements permitted by the deputy system was a serious financial blow to many of them. While travelling by train to play under Wood at a music festival in the north of England in May 1904, soon after Newman's announcement, some of his leading players discussed the situation and agreed to try to form their own orchestra; the principal movers were a trumpeter, John Solomon. Busby organised a meeting at St. Andrew's Hall, not far from the Queen's Hall. Invitations were sent to former members of the Queen's Hall Orchestra. About a hundred players attended. Busby explained the scheme: a new ensemble, the London Symphony Orchestra, to be run on co-operative lines, "something akin to a Musical Republic", with a constitution that gave the organisation independence.
At concerts promoted by the LSO the members played without fee, their remuneration coming at the end of each season in a division of the orchestra's profits. This worked well in good years, but any poorly-patronised series left members out of pocket, reliant on the LSO's engagements to play for provincial choral societies and other managements; the proposal was approved unanimously, a management committee was elected, comprising the four original movers and Alfred Hobday and E F James. Busby was appointed chief executive, a post variously titled "Secretary", "Managing Director", "General Secretary" and "General Manager" over the years. Borsdorf was a player of international reputation, through his influence, the orchestra secured Hans Richter to conduct its first concert. Newman made the Queen's Hall available to them, he and Wood attended the LSO's first concert, on 9 June 1904. The programme consisted of the prelude to Die Meistersinger, music by Bach, Mozart and Liszt, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.
In a favourable review in The Times, J A Fuller Maitland noted that 49 members
PRS for Music
PRS for Music Limited is the UK's leading collection society, bringing together two collection societies: the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society and the Performing Right Society. It undertakes collective rights management for musical works on behalf of its 130,000 members. PRS for Music was formed in 1997 following the MCPS-PRS Alliance. In 2009, PRS and MCPS-PRS Alliance became PRS for Music. PRS represents their songwriter and music publisher members’ performing rights, collects royalties on their behalf whenever their music is played or performed publicly. MCPS represents songwriters and music publishers – representing their mechanical rights, collects royalties whenever their music is reproduced as a physical product – this includes CDs, DVDs, digital downloads and broadcast or online. PRS and MCPS are two separate collection societies with PRS running its own operations, providing services to MCPS under the name PRS for Music; the Performing Right Society was founded in 1914 by a group of music publishers, to protect the value of copyright and to help provide an income for composers and music publishers.
At the time, PRS collected fees for live performance from sheet music. PRS was distinct from both the activities of the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society, founded in 1910, the Phonographic Performance Limited, founded in 1934 by Decca and EMI; the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society began as Mecolico, the Mechanical Copyright Licenses Company, founded in 1910 in anticipation of the Copyright Act of 1911. Mecolico licensed the mechanical rights within musical works and merged with the Copyright Protection Society in 1924. While Phonographic Performance Limited collected fees for playing gramophone recordings. Another agency, the British Copyright Protection Company or Britico was founded in 1932 by Alphonse Tournier, specialising on collecting royalties in the UK on French and German musical copyright, becoming the British Copyright Protection Association in 1962; this company, started to share computer facilities with PRS in 1970. PRS for Music administers the performance rights and mechanical rights of about 22million musical works on behalf of its songwriter and publisher members and in 2015 processed over 2 trillion uses of music.
PRS for Music licenses and collects royalties for its members' musical works whenever they are publicly performed, or recordings of them are broadcast, streamed online or played in public spaces, both in the UK and globally through its partner network. After operating costs are deducted, the remaining money is distributed to PRS for Music's songwriter and publisher members and to affiliate societies; the principal sources of PRS for Music revenue collection come from. PRS for Music has a number of tariffs for organisations in different sectors. Dependent on their size and the extent to which each premises uses music, whether they are commercial premises or not, as well as other criteria, PRS for Music's tariffs vary. Around 350,000 UK businesses have paid and are licensed to play music under a PRS for Music licence, however some workplaces do not need one: · Inpatient and treatment areas in hospitals · Medical day centres · Residential homes · Music used in divine worship · Civil wedding ceremonies and partnership ceremonies · Lone and home workers.
In 2018, PPL and PRS for Music formed a jointly owned subsidiary, PPL PRS Ltd, to collect all licence fees for public performances. PPL PRS Ltd is based in England. ICE - Global Licensing Hub In July 2015, PRS for Music, Sweden collecting society STIM and German collecting society GEMA announced the completion of a joint venture to launch an integrated multi-territory music licensing and processing hub covering European territories. In November 2015, it was confirmed the new hub would be called ‘ICE’. PRS for Music and PPL joint venture for public performance licensing In February 2016, PRS for Music and PPL, the body who licenses the sound recording of a song, confirmed plans to create a new joint venture for public performance licensing; the new JV would focus on servicing all UK public performance licensing customers. The joint venture launched in 2018. Streamfair In July 2015, PRS for Music launched; the campaign focused on four areas, Copyright Legislation, Online Licensing, Promoting the value of music creators and education.
The campaign was supported by acclaimed songwriters and composers including Jimmy Napes, Michael Price, Crispin Hunt, Gary Clark and Debbie Wiseman. Heritage Awards The PRS for Music Heritage Award scheme launched in 2009 with the first award going to Blur. Ceremonial plaques are unveiled to honour the performance birthplaces of legendary bands and songwriters - as well as recognising the network of pubs and live music venues; those honoured include Squeeze, Elton John, Queen and UB40. In May 2016, PRS for Music announced its 2015 financial results, which showed an 8.4% increase in distributions to its songwriter members. The figures for 2016 were announced in May 2017 showing that revenues increased by 10.1% and royalty payments to its members increased to £527.6m. The organisation reported record royalty
Cardiff University is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales. Founded in 1883 as the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, it became one of the founding colleges of the University of Wales in 1893, in 1997 received its own degree-awarding powers, it merged with the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology in 1988. The college adopted the public name of Cardiff University in 1999, in 2005 this became its legal name, when it became an independent university awarding its own degrees; the third oldest university institution in Wales, it is composed of three colleges: Arts and Social Sciences. Cardiff is the only Welsh member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, it is recognised as providing high-quality, research-based university education, placed between 100th and 200th in the world by the four major international rankings, in the top 60 in all three UK achievement tables. It ranked 5th in the UK among multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 17th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework.
For 2017–2018, Cardiff had a turnover of £516.1 million, including £106.0 million from research grants and contracts. The university has an undergraduate enrolment of 23,085 and a total enrolment of 31,595 making it one of the ten largest universities in the UK; the Cardiff University Students' Union works to promote the interests of the student body within the University and further afield. The university's sports teams compete in the British Universities and Colleges Sport leagues. Discussions on the founding of a university college in South Wales began in 1879, when a group of Welsh and English MPs urged the government to consider the poor provision of higher and intermediate education in Wales and "the best means of assisting any local effort which may be made for supplying such deficiency."In October 1881, William Gladstone's government appointed a departmental committee to conduct "an enquiry into the nature and extent of intermediate and higher education in Wales", chaired by Lord Aberdare and consisting of Viscount Emlyn, Reverend Prebendary H. G. Robinson, Henry Richard, John Rhys and Lewis Morris.
The Aberdare Report, as it came to be known, took evidence from a wide range of sources and over 250 witnesses and recommended a college each for North Wales and South Wales, the latter to be located in Glamorgan and the former to be the established University College of Wales in Aberystwyth. The committee cited the unique Welsh national identity and noted that many students in Wales could not afford to travel to University in England or Scotland, it advocated a national degree-awarding university for Wales, composed of regional colleges, which should be non-sectarian in nature and exclude the teaching of theology. After the recommendation was published, Cardiff Corporation sought to secure the location of the college in Cardiff, on 12 December 1881 formed a University College Committee to aid the matter. There was competition to be the site between Cardiff. On 12 March 1883, after arbitration, a decision was made in Cardiff's favour; this was strengthened by the need to consider the interests of Monmouthshire, at that time not incorporated into Wales, the greater sum received by Cardiff in support of the college, through a public appeal that raised £37,000 and a number of private donations, notably from the Lord Bute and Lord Windsor.
In April Lord Aberdare was appointed as the College's first president. The possible locations considered included Cardiff Arms Park, Cathedral Road, Moria Terrace, before the site of the Old Royal Infirmary buildings on Newport Road was chosen; the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire opened on 24 October 1883 with courses in Biology, English, German, History, Latin and Astronomy, Welsh and Philosophy, Physics. It was incorporated by Royal Charter the following year, this being the first in Wales to allow the enrolment of women, forbidding religious tests for entry. John Viriamu Jones was appointed as the University's first Principal at the age of 27; as Cardiff was not an independent university and could not award its own degrees, it prepared its students for examinations of the University of London or for further study at Oxford or Cambridge. In 1888 the University College at Cardiff and that of North Wales proposed to the University College Wales at Aberystwyth joint action to gain a university charter for Wales, modelled on that of Victoria University, a confederation of new universities in Northern England.
Such a charter was granted to the new University of Wales in 1893, allowing the colleges to award degrees as members. The Chancellor was set ex officio as the Prince of Wales, the position of operational head would rotate among heads of the colleges. In 1885, Aberdare Hall opened as the first hall of residence, allowing women access to the university; this remains a single-sex hall. In 1904 came the appointment of the first female associate professor in the UK, Millicent Mackenzie, who in 1910 became the first female full professor at a chartered UK university. In 1901 Principal Jones persuaded Cardiff Corporation to give the college a five-acre site in Cathays Park. Soon after, in 1905, work on a new building commenced under the architect W. D. Caröe. Money ran short for the project, however. Although the side-wings were completed in the 1960s, the planned Great Hall has n
Durham University is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years, after Oxford and Cambridge, is one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England; as a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare; the university is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities after being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel.
The university owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library. Among British universities, it had the eighth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2016 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent. The university is ranked 5th to 7th by recent national league tables of the British universities, 74th to 114th in three of the four major global tables and in the 201–300 range in the fourth, it was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015, was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2018. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in 2012. Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society, 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5 Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis. The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who issued letters patent and nominated a proctor and fellows for the establishment of a college in 1657. However, there was deep concern expressed by Oxford and Cambridge that the awarding of degree powers could hinder their position, it was not until 1832 when Parliament, at the instigation of Archdeacon Charles Thorp and with the support of the Bishop of Durham, William van Mildert, passed "an Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral to appropriate part of the property of their church to the establishment of a University in connection therewith" that the university came into being. The act received Royal Assent from King William IV on 4 July 1832; the university opened on 28 October 1833. In 1834 all but two of the bishops of the Church of England confirmed that they would accept holders of Durham degrees for ordination.
In 1835 a fundamental statute was passed by the Dean and Chapter, as governors of the University, setting up Convocation and laying down that Durham degrees would only be open to members of the Church of England. Regulations for degrees were finalised in 1836 and the university was incorporated by Royal Charter granted by William IV on 1 June 1837 as the "Warden and Scholars of the University of Durham", with the first students graduating a week later. Accommodation was provided in the Archdeacon's Inn from 1833 to 1837. On the accession of Queen Victoria an order of the Queen-in-Council was issued granting the use of Durham Castle to the university. In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall was founded, providing the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with catered communal eating, a revolutionary idea at the time, endorsed by a Royal Commission in 1862 and spread to other universities; those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on.
The level of applications to Bishop Hatfield's Hall led to a second hall along similar lines, Bishop Cosin's Hall, being founded in 1851, although this only survived until 1864. Elsewhere, the university expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there became a college of the university; this was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences. St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 for non-collegiate mature, male students as a non-residential society run by the students themselves. Two teacher-training colleges – St Hild's for women, established in 1858, The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839 existed in the city and these merged to form the mixed College of St Hild and St Bede in 1975. From 1896 these were associated with the university and graduates of St Hild's were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. During its expansion phase the University became the first English university to establish relationships with overseas institutions.