Philip Donald Estridge, known as Don Estridge, was an American computer engineer who led development of the original IBM Personal Computer, thus is known as the "father of the IBM PC". His decisions changed the computer industry, resulting in a vast increase in sales of personal computers, thus creating an entire industry of hardware manufacturers of IBM PCs. Estridge was born in Florida, his father was a professional photographer. He graduated from Bishop Kenny High School in 1955, from the University of Florida in 1959, he married Mary Ann Hellier in September, 1958, they had three children: Patricia Ann, Mary Evelyn and Sandra Marie. He completed a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering at the University of Florida and worked at the Army, designing a radar system using computers, IBM and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center until he moved to Boca Raton, Florida in 1969. Before being the leader of the team to develop the IBM PC he had been the lead manager for the development of the IBM Series/1 mini-computer.
After this project was unsuccessful, he was said to have fallen out of grace with IBM and was reassigned to headquarters staff – a position that IBM employees considered a form of penalty. His efforts to develop the IBM PC began when he took control of the IBM Entry Level Systems in 1980, with the goal of developing a low-cost personal computer to compete against popular offerings from the likes of Apple Computer, Commodore International, other perceived IBM competitors. To create a cost-effective alternative to those companies' products, Estridge realized that it would be necessary to rely on third-party hardware and software; this was a marked departure from previous IBM strategy, which centered on in-house vertical development of complicated mainframe systems and their requisite access terminals. Estridge published the specifications of the IBM PC, allowing a booming third-party aftermarket hardware business to take advantage of the machine's expansion card slots; the competitive cost and expandability options of the first model, IBM PC model 5150, as well as IBM's reputation, led to strong sales to both enterprise and home customers.
Estridge was promoted, by 1984 was IBM Vice President, supervising all manufacturing worldwide. Steve Jobs offered Estridge a multimillion-dollar job as president of Apple Computer but he declined. Estridge and wife Mary Ann were killed in the crash of Delta Air Lines Flight 191 at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport on August 2, 1985, he was 48 years old. The Estridges were survived by their three daughters. At the time of his death, IBM ESD, which included the development and manufacturing of the IBM PC, PC DOS, PC LAN and TopView, had nearly 10,000 employees and had sold over a million PCs. Estridge has been honored many times. In 1999, he was identified in CIO magazine as one of the people who "invented the enterprise"; the Don Estridge High-Tech Middle School — IBM Facility Building 051 — in Boca Raton, Florida, is named after him, on the occasion of its dedication received from Don Estridge's family his personal IBM 5150 computer machines. The Father of the PC Revolution: Philip "Don" Estridge at the Wayback Machine, Jan Winston, CIO Magazine, Dec. 15, 1999/Jan.
1 2000. Part of Inventing the Enterprise View from the Top by Michael J. Miller, PC Magazine, 09.04.01 The History Of The IBM Personal Computer
The Yellowhead Highway is a major interprovincial highway in Western Canada that runs from Winnipeg to Graham Island off the coast of British Columbia via Saskatoon and Edmonton. It stretches across the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba and is part of the Trans-Canada Highway system and the larger National Highway System, but should not be confused with the more southerly, originally-designated Trans-Canada Highway; the highway was opened in 1970. Beginning in 1990, the green and white Trans-Canada logo was used to designate the roadway; the highway is named for the route chosen to cross the Canadian Rockies. The pass and the highway are named after a fur explorer named Pierre Bostonais, he had yellow streaks in his hair, was nicknamed "Tête Jaune". The entire length of the highway is numbered as 16, except for the section in Manitoba, concurrent with Trans-Canada Highway 1; the highway number "16" is the number given to a branch of the Trans-Canada in New Brunswick.
However, the numeric designation is coincidental, New Brunswick Route 16 is not part of the Yellowhead. In the west, the highway begins at Masset, British Columbia on Haida Gwaii, heading south along Graham Island for 101 km to Skidegate, it connects via a 172 km ferry route to Prince Rupert passes southeastward for 724 km through to Prince George, before travelling another 268 km eastward through to Tête Jaune Cache. A spur of the Yellowhead Highway, Highway 5 known as the Southern Yellowhead Highway, connects the main highway at Tête Jaune Cache midway between the Alberta-British Columbia border and Prince George; the highway continues past Kamloops before following the Coquihalla Highway to Hope. Unlike Highway 16, route 5 is not branded as being part of the Trans-Canada system and retains the original Yellowhead signage; the highway enters Alberta through the Rocky Mountains near Jasper, 100 km from Tête Jaune Cache, passes through Edmonton 366 km further east, travels another 250 km before entering Saskatchewan at Lloydminster.
The highest point on the highway, at 1,163.9 m, is Obed Summit near Alberta. The highway travels southeast for 282 km to Saskatoon, passing through North Battleford about halfway in between. From Saskatoon, the Yellowhead Highway continues its southeastern journey through the province for 329 km to Yorkton; the highway enters Manitoba 16 km northwest of Russell. Within Manitoba, the highway travels 273 km before meeting the main Trans-Canada Highway near Portage la Prairie, where it ends its Highway 16 designation, it overlaps the TCH into Winnipeg as an unnumbered highway. The eastern end of the Yellowhead Highway is at the corner of Portage Avenue and Main Street in Winnipeg; the total length of the Yellowhead Highway, including ferries, is 2,960 km. The main Yellowhead Highway has been designated as Highway 16 for its entire length since 1977. Prior to this, only the Alberta and British Columbia portions of the highway were designated with this number; the Manitoba portion from the Trans-Canada Highway 10 km west of Portage la Prairie to the Saskatchewan border was designated as PTH 4, while the Saskatchewan portion had two numbers designated.
From the Manitoba border to Saskatoon, the highway was designated as Highway 14 while the portion from Saskatoon to Lloydminster and the Alberta border was designated as Highway 5. Prior to the opening of the Yellowhead Highway, Highways 5 and 14 both ran the width of Saskatchewan. Prior to the highway retaining the number 16 designation, a small section of the highway along Idylwyld Drive in Saskatoon was not designated with a number, as Highway 14 redirected on to 22 Street and Highway 5 would redirect on to Idylwyld Drive from 23 Street; the Yellowhead Highway remains unnumbered between Winnipeg and PTH 16, although it shares the roadway with PTH 1. The Highway 5 in British Columbia used to be designated as part of the Yellowhead Highway only between Tête Jaune Cache and Kamloops, with Highway 5 south of Kamloops being signed with the standard BC highway shield. In the 2000s, route markers along the Coquihalla Highway were changed to reflect Yellowhead Highway 5. Trans-Canada Highway Numbered highways in Canada Highway of Tears murders Trans-Canada Yellowhead Highway Association www.milepost.com
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Le Mans, France. 3rd century - Wall built around Vindunum. 4th century- Julian of Le Mans becomes bishop. 5th century - Roman Catholic Diocese of Le Mans established. 6th century - Le Mans Cathedral rebuilding begins. 832 - Aldric of Le Mans becomes bishop. 1063 - William the Conqueror in power. 1120 - Cathedral consecrated. 1133 - 5 March: Birth of Henry. 1189 - Philip II of France in power. 1508 - Maine customary laws published. 1558 - Hôtel de Vignolles built. 1562 - Le Mans sacked by Huguenots. 1756 - Town Hall built. 1760 - Prefecture built. 1790 - Le Mans becomes part of the Sarthe souveraineté. 1793 December: Battle of Le Mans. Population: 18,855. 1799 - Royalist Chouans take Le Mans. 1812 - Nouvelliste de la Sarthe newspaper begins publication. 1854 - Gare du Mans opens. 1856 - Le Mans Chamber of Commerce established. 1866 - Population: 45,230. 1868 - La Sarthe newspaper begins publication. 1871 - January: Battle of Le Mans. 1873 - Comptoir d'Escompte de la Sarthe established.
1875 - Société historique et archéologique du Maine founded. 1880 - Société philotechnique du Maine active. 1886 - Petit Manceau newspaper begins publication. 1888 - Gare du Mans-les-Halles opens. 1906 - Automobile Club de l'Ouest founded. 1908 - August: Wright brothers demonstrate flying machine. 1911 - Population: 69,361. 1923- First edition of the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race. 1936 - Population: 84,525. 1940 - 19 June: German forces take city, during the Battle of France. 1944 8 August: Germans ousted by Allied forces, during the Battle of Normandy. Le Maine Libre newspaper begins publication. 1946 - Population: 100,455. 1947 - Jean-Yves Chapalain becomes mayor. 1965 - Jacques Maury becomes mayor. 1967 Cantons Centre, Nord, Nord-Ouest and Sud-Ouest created. Le Mans twinned with Germany. 1974 - Le Mans twinned with Bolton, United Kingdom. 1977 - Robert Jarry becomes mayor. 1981 - Le Mans twinned with Rostov-on-Don, Russia. 1982 Le Mans becomes part of the Pays de la Loire region. Le Mans twinned with Western Sahara.
1983 - Le Mans twinned with Volos, Greece. 1988 - Médiathèque Louis-Aragon du Mans opens in the Quartier des Halles. 1989 - Palais des congrès et de la culture du Mans opens. 1990 - Le Mans twinned with Suzuka, Japan. 1995 - Antarès arena and Musée Vert open. 1999 - Population: 146,105. 2001 Cityglace ice rink opens. Jean-Claude Boulard becomes mayor. 2002 - Le Mans fait son cirque begins. 2005 - November: Socialist Party national congress held in Le Mans. 2006 - 9 March: Sablé-sur-Sarthe hostage crisis occurs near Le Mans. 2007 - Le Mans tramway begins operating. 2010 - Roman-era religious site discovered in nearby Neuville-sur-Sarthe. 2011 - Population: 143,240. 2014 - March: Le Mans municipal election, 2014 held. 2015 - December: Pays de la Loire regional election, 2015 held. Le Mans history History of Le Mans List of mayors of Le Mans List of heritage sites in Le Mans List of bishops of Le Mans County of Maine history List of Counts and dukes of Maine, 8th-18th c. centered in Le Mansother cities in the Pays de la Loire regionTimeline of Angers Timeline of Nantes This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia.
Items related to various dates. Items related to Le Mans, various dates
Anne Jennifer Morton, known as Jenny Morton, is a New Zealand neurobiologist and academic, specialising in neurodegenerative diseases. She has been a Fellow of Newnham College, since 1991 and a Professor of Neurobiology at the University of Cambridge since 2009, her current research is focused on Huntington's disease, she is using sheep as a large animal model for the disease. This research has led her to discover. Morton was born in Kaikohe, New Zealand, was raised in the country's Far North District, she undertook doctoral research in physiology at the University of Otago, completing her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1983. On 21 February 2009, the University of Cambridge admitted her to Master of Arts status, she was awarded a Doctor of Science degree by the University of Cambridge in 2014. Having completed her doctorate, Morton moved to England to join the Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge as a post-doctoral fellow. In 1991, she was appointed a lecturer at the university and elected a Fellow of Newnham College, Cambridge.
Since 1995, she has been the Director of Studies in medicine and veterinary medicine at Newnham College. In 2005, she was made a Reader in Experimental Neurobiology in the Department of Pharmacology. In 2009, she was appointed Professor of Neurobiology in the Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, she is the first New Zealand woman to be appointed to a professorship at Cambridge. From October 2009 to September 2010, she held a Royal Society Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship. In 2015, she was the Visiting Seelye Fellow at the University of Auckland. Morton's current research focuses on "understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and on developing strategies to delay or prevent the death of neurones in injured or degenerating brain", she has specialised in Huntington's disease since 1993. Having undertaken research into Huntington's using transgenic mice, she moved into using transgenic sheep as a large animal model of Huntington's disease. Morton's research with sheep has led to an interest in measuring their learning and memory.
Her team have been able to teach sheep to choose a familiar face over unfamiliar one when presented with two photographs, which has led to the discovery that sheep can recognise human faces. Morton is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology. Morton, A. J.. "Disintegration of the Sleep-Wake Cycle and Circadian Timing in Huntington's Disease". Journal of Neuroscience. 25: 157–163. Doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3842-04.2005. PMC 6725210. PMID 15634777. Morton, A. J.. "Measuring cognitive deficits in disabled mice using an automated interactive touchscreen system". Nature Methods. 3: 767. Doi:10.1038/nmeth1006-767. PMID 16990806. Morton, A. J.. "Paradoxical delay in the onset of disease caused by super-long CAG repeat expansions in R6/2 mice". Neurobiology of Disease. 33: 331–341. Doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2008.11.015. PMID 19130884. Morton, A. J.. "Executive Decision-Making in the Domestic Sheep". PLoS ONE. 6: e15752. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...615752M. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.293.5141. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015752. PMC 3031539. PMID 21305061.
Goodman, A. O. G.. A.. "Asymptomatic Sleep Abnormalities Are a Common Early Feature in Patients with Huntington's Disease". Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 11: 211–217. Doi:10.1007/s11910-010-0163-x. PMID 21103960. Morton, A. J.. S.. "Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment". Human Molecular Genetics. 23: 3375–3383. Doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu047. PMID 24488771
Chelsea Football Club are an English professional football club based in Fulham, London. Founded in 1905, they compete in the top division of English football. Chelsea are among England's most successful clubs, their home ground is Stamford Bridge. Chelsea won their first major honour, the League Championship, in 1955, they won the FA Cup for the first time in 1970 and their first European honour, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, in 1971. After a period of decline in the late 1970s and 1980s, the club enjoyed a revival in the 1990s and had more success in cup competitions; the past two decades have been the most successful in Chelsea's history: they won five of their six league titles and the UEFA Champions League during this period. Chelsea are one of five clubs to have won all three of UEFA's main club competitions, the only London club to have won the Champions League. Chelsea's home kit colours are royal blue shorts with white socks; the club's crest features a ceremonial lion rampant regardant holding a staff.
The club have rivalries with neighbouring teams Arsenal and Tottenham Hotspur, a historic rivalry with Leeds United. Based on attendance figures, the club have the sixth-largest fanbase in England. In terms of club value, Chelsea are the sixth most valuable football club in the world, worth £2.13 billion, are the eighth highest-earning football club in the world, with earnings of over €428 million in the 2017–18 season. Since 2003, Chelsea have been owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich. In 1904, Gus Mears acquired the Stamford Bridge athletics stadium with the aim of turning it into a football ground. An offer to lease it to nearby Fulham was turned down, so Mears opted to found his own club to use the stadium; as there was a team named Fulham in the borough, the name of the adjacent borough of Chelsea was chosen for the new club. Chelsea were founded on 10 March 1905 at The Rising Sun pub, opposite the present-day main entrance to the ground on Fulham Road, were elected to the Football League shortly afterwards.
Chelsea won promotion to the First Division in their second season, yo-yoed between the First and Second Divisions in their early years. They reached the 1915 FA Cup Final, where they lost to Sheffield United at Old Trafford, finished third in the First Division in 1920, the club's best league campaign to that point. Chelsea attracted large crowds, they were FA Cup semi-finalists in 1920 and 1932 and remained in the First Division throughout the 1930s, but success eluded the club in the inter-war years. Former Arsenal and England centre-forward Ted Drake was appointed manager in 1952 and proceeded to modernise the club, he removed the club's Chelsea pensioner crest, improved the youth set-up and training regime, rebuilt the side with shrewd signings from the lower divisions and amateur leagues, led Chelsea to their first major trophy success – the League championship – in 1954–55. The following season saw UEFA create the European Champions' Cup, but after objections from The Football League and the FA, Chelsea were persuaded to withdraw from the competition before it started.
Chelsea failed to build on this success, spent the remainder of the 1950s in mid-table. Drake was replaced by player-coach Tommy Docherty. Docherty built a new team around the group of talented young players emerging from the club's youth set-up and Chelsea challenged for honours throughout the 1960s, enduring several near-misses, they were on course for a treble of League, FA Cup and League Cup going into the final stages of the 1964–65 season, winning the League Cup but faltering late on in the other two. In three seasons the side were FA Cup runners-up. Under Docherty's successor, Dave Sexton, Chelsea won the FA Cup in 1970, beating Leeds United 2–1 in a final replay; the following year, Chelsea took their first European honour, a UEFA Cup Winners' Cup triumph, with another replayed win, this time over Real Madrid in Athens. The late 1970s through to the'80s was a turbulent period for Chelsea. An ambitious redevelopment of Stamford Bridge threatened the financial stability of the club, star players were sold and the team were relegated.
Further problems were caused by a notorious hooligan element among the support, to plague the club throughout the decade. In 1982, Chelsea were, at the nadir of their fortunes, acquired by Ken Bates for the nominal sum of £1, although by now the Stamford Bridge freehold had been sold to property developers, meaning the club faced losing their home. On the pitch, the team had fared little better, coming close to relegation to the Third Division for the first time, but in 1983 manager John Neal put together an impressive new team for minimal outlay. Chelsea won the Second Division title in 1983–84 and established themselves in the top division with two top-six finishes, before being relegated again in 1988; the club bounced back by winning the Second Division championship in 1988–89. After a long-running legal battle, Bates reunited the stadium freehold with the club in 1992 by doing a deal with the banks of the property developers, bankrupted by a market crash. Chelsea's form in the new Premier League was unconvincing, although they did reach the 1994 FA Cup Final.
The appointment of Ruud Gullit as player-manager in 1996 began an upturn in the team's fortunes. H
The Semantic Web Rule Language is a proposed language for the Semantic Web that can be used to express rules as well as logic, combining OWL DL or OWL Lite with a subset of the Rule Markup Language. The specification was submitted in May 2004 to the W3C by the National Research Council of Canada, Network Inference, Stanford University in association with the Joint US/EU ad hoc Agent Markup Language Committee; the specification was based on an earlier proposal for an OWL rules language. SWRL at the price of decidability and practical implementations. However, decidability can be regained by restricting the form of admissible rules by imposing a suitable safety condition. Rules are of the form of an implication between consequent; the intended meaning can be read as: whenever the conditions specified in the antecedent hold the conditions specified in the consequent must hold. HasParent ∧ hasBrother ⇒ hasUncle The XML Concrete Syntax is a combination of the OWL Web Ontology Language XML Presentation Syntax with the RuleML XML syntax.
It is straightforward to provide such an RDF concrete syntax for rules, but the presence of variables in rules goes beyond the RDF Semantics. Translation from the XML Concrete Syntax to RDF/XML could be accomplished by extending the XSLT transformation for the OWL XML Presentation syntax. Caveat: Reasoners do not support the full specification because the reasoning becomes undecidable. There can be three types of approach: translate SWRL into First Order Logic and demonstrate reasoning tasks with a theorem prover. Protégé 4.2 includes a Rules view in its Ontology Views. For older versions of Protégé, SWRLTab is an extension that supports editing and execution of SWRL rules. R2ML supports SWRL. Bossam, a forward chaining rule engine supports SWRL. Hoolet, an implementation of an OWL-DL reasoner that uses a first order prover supports SWRL. Pellet, an open-source Java OWL DL reasoner has SWRL-support. KAON2 is an infrastructure for managing OWL-DL, SWRL, F-Logic ontologies. RacerPro, supports processing of rules in a SWRL-based syntax by translating them into nRQL rules Stardog is an RDF database or triplestore that rewrites queries to answer questions using SWRL inferences.
Description Logic Programs are another proposal for integrating rules and OWL. Compared with Description Logic Programs, SWRL takes a diametrically opposed integration approach. DLP is the intersection of Horn OWL, whereas SWRL is the union of them. In DLP, the resultant language is a peculiar looking description logic and rather inexpressive language overall. Description Logic Web Ontology Language - "OWL" Datalog Semantic Web Semantic Grid Ontology Business Intelligence 2.0 Semantic wiki SWRL: A Semantic Web Rule Language Combining OWL and RuleML, W3C Member Submission 21 May 2004 A Proposal for a SWRL Extension towards First-Order Logic, W3C Member Submission 11 April 2005 OWL Web Ontology Language XML Presentation Syntax, W3C Note 11 June 2003