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Philip Francis (politician)

Sir Philip Francis was an Irish-born British politician and pamphleteer, thought to be the author of the Letters of Junius, the chief antagonist of Warren Hastings. His accusations against the latter led to the impeachment of Warren Hastings and Elijah Impey by Parliament, he belonged to the Whig party. Born in Dublin, he was the only son of Dr Philip Francis, a man of some literary celebrity in his time, known by his translations of Horace and Demosthenes, he received the rudiments of an excellent education at a free school in Dublin, afterwards spent a year or two under his father's roof at Skeyton Rectory and elsewhere, for a short time he had Edward Gibbon as a fellow-pupil. In March 1753, he entered St Paul's school, where he remained for three and a half years, becoming a proficient classical scholar. In 1756 on his leaving school, he was appointed to a junior clerkship in the secretary of state's office by Henry Fox, with whose family Dr Francis was at that time on intimate terms. In 1758 he was employed as secretary to General Bligh in the expedition against Cherbourg.

In 1761, he became known to William Pitt the Elder who, recognising his ability and discretion, made use of his services as private amanuensis from time to time. In 1762 he was appointed to a principal clerkship in the war office, where he formed a warm friendship with Christopher D'Oyly, Deputy-Secretary at War, whose dismissal from office in 1772 was hotly resented by Junius. On 27 February 1762 he married the daughter of a retired London merchant, his daughter, Catherine Francis married George James Cholmondeley. His official duties brought him into direct relations with many who were well versed in the politics of the time. In 1763 the great constitutional questions arising out of the arrest of Wilkes began to be canvassed, it was natural that Francis, who from a early age had been in the habit of writing to the newspapers, should be eager to take an active part in the discussion, though his position as a government official made it necessary that his intervention should be disguised. He is known to have written to the Public Ledger and Public Advertiser, as an advocate of the popular cause, on many occasions about and after the year 1763.

In January 1769 the first of the Letters of Junius appeared, the series continued till 21 January 1772. They had been preceded by others under signatures such as "Candor", "Father of Candor", "Anti-Sejanus", "Lucius", "Nemesis"; the authorship of the letters has been assigned to Francis on a variety of grounds, including a computer-aided analysis of the Junius texts in the 1960s. Comparing stylistic patterns from the letters with attributed writings of the period allowed a reasonable statistical conclusion to be drawn that Francis was by far the most author; some evidence to support the claim of Sir Philip Francis is given in Macaulay's History of England in which Macaulay mentions the reference to Henry Luttrell, who although obscure to the British of the 1770s, would have been well known to the Irish and to Sir Philip Francis who spent the early part of his life near Luttrellstown. In March 1772 Francis left the war office, in July of the same year he left England for a tour through France and Italy, which lasted until the following December.

On his return he was contemplating emigration to New England, when in June 1773 Lord North, on the recommendation of Lord Barrington, appointed him a member of the newly constituted supreme council of Bengal at a salary of 10,000 pounds per annum. Along with his colleagues Monson and Clavering he reached Calcutta in October 1774, a long struggle with Warren Hastings, the governor-general began; these three, actuated by petty personal motives, combined to form a majority of the council in harassing opposition to the governor-general's policy. The death of Monson in 1776, of Clavering in the following year, made Hastings again supreme in the council, but a dispute with Francis, more than embittered, led in August 1780 to a minute being delivered to the council board by Hastings, in which he stated that he judged of the public conduct of Mr Francis by his experience of his private, which he had found to be "void of truth and honor". A duel was the consequence. Though his recovery was rapid and complete, he did not choose to prolong his stay abroad.

He arrived in England in October 1781, was received with little favour. Little is known of the nature of his occupations during the next two years, except that he was untiring in his efforts to procure first the recall, afterwards the impeachment, of his hitherto triumphant adversary. In 1783 Fox produced his India Bill. In 1784 Francis was returned to the House of Commons as Member of Parliament for the boro


Lemington is a housing area and electoral ward of Newcastle upon Tyne in North East England. Lemington has a strong industrial history, it is famous for its brick glassworks cone, built in 1787. The River Tyne used to pass close to Lemington, until the Tyne Improvement Commission cut a new, straighter channel over the Blaydon Haugh, leaving behind the Lemington Gut. Visible are the ruins of the former Tyne Iron Company Ironworks which were built in 1797 and decommissioned in 1886, its coke ovens are still evident near Lemington Power Station. The power station was built in 1903 to supply the tram system with electricity, it was demolished in 1946. The remains of Lemington Staithes can be seen on the Lemington Gut near the power station; the staithes used to mark the end of the North Wylam to Lemington Point waggonway, which took coal from the local collieries to the staithes for export. On 12 July 1875 Lemington Station opened on the Newburn & Wylam Railway. On 15 September 1958 the station closed to passengers and on 4 January 1960 the station was closed to goods, but the lines weren't lifted until 1992, when the Ever Ready battery factory in Newburn closed.

The Anglo Great Lakes Graphite Plant which operated in the area closed around this time. Newcastle Council Ward Info: Lemington

Leah McFall

Leah McFall is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter. She rose to fame after finishing as runner-up on the second series of the BBC talent series The Voice. McFall began her singing career at Glenabbey, at the age of six, she was a pupil at Antrim Grammar School. During her childhood she listened to Motown, gospel and pop music, played around the family home, influences both her vocal and song writing style. After years of gigging around Northern Ireland, Leah moved to London to attend college. After six months there, she began playing at the Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club. In 2010, McFall opened for Leon Jackson on tour, where she performed a number of songs from her EP. In 2013, McFall auditioned for the second series of The Voice. In the battle round, she sang against CJ Edwards; the pair duetted on the Michael Jackson song "The Way You Make Me Feel", McFall was chosen to proceed. In the Knockout round, gave his Fast Pass to McFall and she performed Minnie Riperton's "Lovin' You". In the first live show, McFall sang "I Will Survive" by Gloria Gaynor.

The studio version of her performance charted at number 16 on the UK Singles Chart, selling 19,213 copies within a week. A week it rose to number 8. McFall performed the Fugees' version of "Killing Me Softly" in the semi-final on 15 June 2013; the result was revealed that McFall had received the most public votes, would therefore represent Team Will in the final. In July 2013, revealed that he would release a new version of his single "Bang Bang" featuring McFall. On 14 July 2013, McFall made her debut performance at the Wireless Festival alongside her mentor During the tour, McFall revealed she would release three music videos before her first official single and album are released; the first of these videos, "No Ordinary Love", was released on 1 February 2014. On 6 June, McFall announced; the single was released on 27 July 2014. On 21 July 2014, McFall announced her debut album, titled Weird to Wonderful, was due to be released in October 2014, but was cancelled, she was dropped from her record label.

McFall returned in September 2016 with "Wolf Den". This was followed by the release of single "Happy Human", the release of her EP, INK; the release of the EP was preceded by the "INK Tour", which saw McFall perform at dates around the UK and Ireland. Since INK, McFall has released three singles.

St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, Saskatchewan

St. Isidore-de-Bellevue is a Fransaskois community in Saskatchewan, northeast of Saskatoon in the rural municipality of St. Louis No. 431, Saskatchewan. Listed as a designated place by Statistics Canada, the hamlet had a population of 110 in the Canada 2006 Census; the hamlet was named Bellevue because of the beautiful view from atop Minnitinas Hill. Today the hamlet consists of a garage, church, pea cleaning/splitting plant, post office, insurance broker, francophone school, old age home, archive facility, cultural centre and more. Foyer - Bellevue Care Home Town of Bellevue Mission Hill Productions


The publication strategy+business is a business magazine focusing on management issues and corporate strategy. Headquartered in New York, it is published by certain member firms of the PricewaterhouseCoopers network. Prior to the separation of Booz & Company from Booz Allen Hamilton in 2008, strategy+business was published by Booz Allen Hamilton, which launched the magazine titled Strategy & Business, in 1995. Full issues of strategy+business appear in print and digital edition form on a quarterly basis, other original material is published daily on its website. Articles cover a range of industry and organizational topics that are of interest to CEOs and other senior executives as well as to business thinkers and researchers; the articles, written in English, are authored by a mix of leading figures from both the executive suite and academia in addition to journalists and consultants from PwC. The magazine's founding editor-in-chief, Joel Kurtzman, coined the term thought leadership when he published interviews with influential business figures under the rubric “Thought Leaders.”

Today, interviews with “Thought Leaders” remain a recurring column in the print magazine and on the website. The late Joel Kurtzman editor-in-chief of the Harvard Business Review and a business editor and columnist at the New York Times—together with a group of partners at Booz & Company part of Booz Allen Hamilton—founded strategy+business in 1995. A collection of Kurtzman's Thought Leader columns was published in book form, Thought Leaders: Insights on the Future of Business. Kurtzman served as editor-in-chief between 1995 and 1999. Randall Rothenberg succeeded Kurtzman, serving as editor-in-chief between 2000 and 2005. Rothenberg had been an editor of the New York Times Magazine and had served as the newspaper's advertising columnist, he redesigned strategy+business, introduced the “Best Business Books” feature, expanded coverage of the burgeoning electronic media infrastructure. Rothenberg's first major issue, published in February 2000, was titled “E-Business: Lessons from Planet Earth,” and it contained articles that prophesied the dot-com crash that occurred several months later.

During Rothenberg's tenure, the strategy+business staff was formally brought into the Booz Allen Hamilton operation. By 2002, the firm's e-commerce businesses had hit serious headwinds, the future of strategy+business was not certain, but Booz Allen's partners decided to keep publishing it. Rothenberg began developing what he and Cesare Mainardi called the “functional agenda.” They started to build a body of research and practice around six major functions: strategy and leadership. Many of the regular, annual features in strategy+business—including the “Global Innovation 1000” survey of top R&D spenders and the “CEO Succession” report on CEO tenure—date back to this effort. Art Kleiner succeeded Rothenberg in 2005 and served as editor-in-chief until January 2020. A writer and commentator, Kleiner is the author of The Age of Heretics: A History of the Radical Thinkers Who Reinvented Corporate Management and Who Really Matters: The Core Group Theory of Power and Success. During Kleiner's tenure, the magazine has published influential articles on such topics as neuroscience and leadership, women in emerging markets, capabilities-driven strategy, investment in infrastructure, organizational culture, long-wave theories of economic change, market dislocation.

After a private equity takeover by the Carlyle Group in 2008, Booz Allen Hamilton was split into two entities. At that time, strategy+business became the flagship publication of the global commercial firm, Booz & Company. Strategy& is part of PricewaterhouseCoopers, which acquired the former Booz & Company on April 3, 2014. Strategy+business claims a global audience of more than 1,000,000 readers, with a circulation of about 600,000 through its print and digital editions, including sales at newsstands and airports, an opt-in audience of more than 115,000 for its email newsletters; the magazine has drawn more than 500,000 Web registrants and 350,000-plus readers on social media. According to a recent study analyzing s+b’s readership, 34 percent of s+b print readers are C-suite and senior executives and 39 percent have served on a board of directors. 80 percent of readers have pursued post-graduate degrees, 92 percent hold professional or managerial positions, their average household net worth is more than US$1.6 million.

Over the years, the magazine's contributors have included Warren Bennis, Ram Charan, Stewart Brand, Nicholas Carr, Denise Caruso, Glenn Hubbard, Sheena Iyengar, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Jon Katzenbach, A. G. Lafley, Franco Modigliani, Kenichi Ohmae, C. K. Prahalad, Sally Helgesen, Marshall Goldsmith, Sylvia Ann Hewlett, Peter Senge; those interviewed as thought leaders include Bob Wright, Vineet Jain, Sir Martin Sorrell, Tom Peters, Joe Kaeser, Jonathan Haidt, Bran Ferren, Frances Hesselbein, Andrew Ng, Geoffrey West, Mark Bertolini, Ellen Langer, Zhang Ruimin, Rita Gunther McGrath, Christine Bader, Eric Ries, Douglas Rushkoff, David Kantor, Douglas Conant, Cynthia Montgomery, Otto Scharmer and Arawana Hayashi, Clayton Christensen, Betty Sue Flowers

Diffusion (business)

Diffusion is the process by which a new idea or new product is accepted by the market. The rate of diffusion is the speed. Adoption is similar to diffusion except that it deals with the psychological processes an individual goes through, rather than an aggregate market process. There are several theories that purport to explain the mechanics of diffusion: The two-step hypothesis – information and acceptance flows, via the media, first to opinion leaders to the general population The trickle-down effect – products tend to be expensive at first, therefore only accessible to the wealthy social strata – in time they become less expensive and are diffused to lower and lower strata; the Everett Rogers Diffusion of innovations theory – for any given product category, there are five categories of product adopters: Innovators – venturesome, multiple info sources. Crossing the Chasm model developed by Geoffrey Moore – This model overlays the Everett Rogers' adoption curve with a'chasm'. According to Moore, the marketer should focus on one group of customers at a time, using each group as a base for marketing to the next group.

The most difficult step is making the transition between pragmatists. This is the chasm. Technologies or products that can not cross this chasm will remain niche. If successful, a firm can create a bandwagon effect in which the momentum builds and the product becomes ubiquitous. Technology driven models – These are relevant to software diffusion; the rate of acceptance of technology is determined by factors such as ease of usefulness. According to Everett M. Rogers, the rate of diffusion is influenced by: The product's perceived advantage or benefit. Riskiness of purchase. Ease of product use – complexity of the product. Immediacy of benefits. Observability. Trialability. Price. Extent of behavioural changes required. Return on investment in the case of industrial products. There are several types of diffusion rate models: Penetration models – use test market data to develop acceptance equations of expected sales volume as a function of time. Three examples of penetration models are: Bass trial only model Bass declining trial model Fourt and Woodlock model Trial/Repeat models – number of repeat buyers is a function of the number of trial buyers.

Deterministic models – assess number of buyers at various states of acceptance – states are determined from calculations to previous states. Stochastic models – recognize that many elements of the diffusion process are unknown but explicitly incorporate probabilistic terms. Bass diffusion model Coolhunting Diffusion Diffusion of innovations Early adopter Marketing Marketing management Marketing plan New Product Development Percolation Product life-cycle management Technology Adoption Lifecycle Technology lifecycle Bass, F. M.. "A new product growth model for consumer durables". Management Science, 15, 215–227. Bass, F. M.. "The adoption of a marketing model: Comments and observations". In V. Mahajan & Y. Wind, Innovation Diffusion Models of New Product Acceptance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger. Moore, Geoffrey. Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Hightech Products to Mainstream Customers New York: Harper Collins. Moore, Geoffrey. Dealing with Darwin: How Great Companies Innovate at Every Phase of Their Evolution New York: Penguin.

Rogers, Everett M. "New Product Adoption and Diffusion". Journal of Consumer Research. Volume 2 pp. 290–301. Rogers, Everett M. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press