A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member of a monarchs or former monarchs family. Prince is a title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess, the English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus + capio, meaning the chief, most distinguished, prince. The Latin word prīnceps, became the title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire. Emperor Augustus established the position of monarch on the basis of principate. The term may be used of persons in various cultures. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, in medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, prince is used of any and all rulers and this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Niccolò Machiavellis famous work, Il Principe. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial and this is attested in some surviving styles for e. g.
British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high, in parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the familys hereditary titles. Gradual substitution of the title of Prinz for the title of Fürst occurred. Both Prinz and Fürst are translated into English as prince, but they not only different. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany, note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which became customary. Cadets of Frances other princes étrangers affected similar usage under the Bourbon kings, the post-medieval rank of gefürsteter Graf embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French and Spanish nobles. By the 19th century, cadets of a Fürst would become known as Prinzen, the husband of a queen regnant is usually titled prince consort or simply prince, whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent of their husbands title.
In Brazil and Spain, the husband of a monarch was accorded the masculine equivalent of her title. To complicate matters, the style His/Her Highness, a prefix often accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, although the arrangement set out above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are different systems. Depending on country and translation, other usages of prince are possible, foreign-language titles such as Italian principe, French prince, German Fürst and Prinz, Russian knyaz, etc. are usually translated as prince in English
Adelaide of Maurienne
Adelaide of Savoy was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France. Adelaide was the daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II and she became the second wife of Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1113/14 in Paris, France. They had eight children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France, adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens. Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI, during her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. Among many other religious benefactions and Louis founded the monastery of St Peters at Montmartre, after Louis VIs death, Adélaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, with whom she had one child and she remained active in the French court and in religious activities. Adélaide is one of two queens in a legend related by William Dugdale, as the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William dAlbini, at a joust.
But he was engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion and this story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. In 1153 she retired to the abbey of Montmartre, which she had founded with Louis VII and she died there on 18 November 1154. She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre, not to be confused with his elder brother. Peter, married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay Nolan, Kathleen D. Capetian Women Facinger, a Study of Medieval Queenship, Capetian France, 987–1237 Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 5 (1968, 3–48
Aumale, formerly known as Albemarle, is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Haute-Normandie region in north-western France. The towns Latin name was Alba Maria and it was raised by William the Bastard into a county, which was held by the houses of Castile, Dammartin and Lorraine. In 1547, it was raised to the status of a duchy for Francis of Lorraine and it passed to the house of Savoy, from whom Louis XIV purchased the title in 1675 in order to bestow it upon one of his bastards as an appanage. In 1769, it passed to the house of Orleans, the British Earls of Albemarle, derive their name from the area. A village of farming and associated light industry, situated in the valley of the Bresle River of the Norman Pays de Bray in Normandy on the border with Picardie. It is around 34 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D916, D920, D929, the A29 autoroute passes through the commune’s northern sector. SNCF, the French railway has a TER station here, on the Beauvais – Le Tréport-Mers line, the church of St.
Pierre & St. Paul, dating from the sixteenth century. The chapel of Notre-Dame du Cardonnoy, from the thirteenth century, the seventeenth-century château du Bois Robin The tower and buildings of the 16th-century abbey
Agnes of Merania
Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France. She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers, Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, who was Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz, in June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Pope Innocent III espoused the cause of Ingeborg, but Philip did not submit until 1200, Agnes died broken-hearted in July of the next year, at the castle of Poissy, and was buried in the Convent of St Corentin, near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children, Philip I, Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized by the Pope in 1201 at the request of the King, little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made the heroine of a tragedy by François Ponsard, Agnès de Méranie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Agnes of Meran. Endnotes, See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II, a genealogical notice is furnished by the Chronicon of the monk Alberic of Fontaines, in Pertz, vol. xxiii. Pp.872 f. and by the Genealogia Wettinensis, ibid. p.229, media related to Agnes of Merania at Wikimedia Commons
Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne
Mahaut or Matilda II of Boulogne was Countess of Boulogne in her own right and Queen of Portugal by marriage to King Afonso III from 1248 until their divorce in 1253. She was the daughter of Ida, Countess of Boulogne and her husband and co-ruler Renaud and she succeeded her mother as Countess of Boulogne in 1216. She was the great-granddaughter of King Stephen of England, in 1223, Matilda married her first husband, Philippe Hurepel, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvais, a younger, arguably illegitimate son of King Philip II of France. By marriage to her, Philippe became her co-ruler of Boulogne, Count Philippe revolted against his widowed sister-in-law, Blanche of Castile, when his half-brother King Louis VIII died in 1226. Count Philippe died in 1234, and Matilda reigned independently for three years, to give the county a male head, she married again in 1238 to Infante Afonso, second in line to the Portuguese throne, younger brother of King Sancho II of Portugal. He became King Afonso III of Portugal on 4 January 1248, at that time he renounced Boulogne.
In 1258, Matilda charged Afonso with bigamy, following his marriage to Beatrice of Castile, pope Alexander in response, imposed interdict upon any place the couple stayed. At the time of Matildas death and Beatriz were still together and she had a son and a daughter with Count Philippe, but no surviving issue with Afonso. Matildas apparent barrenness was the reason for their divorce. According to reports, Queen Matilda remained in Boulogne and was not allowed to follow her husband to Portugal and her son reportedly renounced his rights and went to England, for unknown reasons. Apparently he survived his mother the Countess, but presumably did not leave issue, Matildas daughter, having married a lord de Châtillon-Montjay, predeceased her, and presumably left no surviving issue. After Matilda II, the county of Boulogne passed to Adelaide of Brabant, Matildas cousin, the then-widow Adelaides husband had been William X, Count of Auvergne. Their son Robert of Auvergne succeeded his mother in Boulogne and their heirs continued to rule Auvergne and Boulogne together
Mortain is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Mortain-Bocage, Mortain is situated on a rocky hill rising above the gorge of the Cance, a tributary of the Sélune. Mortain is the seat of a canton and it is a former subprefecture of the Manche department and the seat of the former arrondissement of Mortain, which existed from 1790 to 1926. In the Middle Ages Mortain was the head of an important county, around 1027 it was established for Robert, who was probably an illegitimate son of Richard I of Normandy. He was succeeded by William Warlenc who was probably his son, Robert was succeeded as count by his son William, Count of Mortain, who rebelled against Henry I, was captured at the battle of Tinchebrai and forfeited his possessions. Some years later, Henry bestowed the comtéship on his nephew Stephen, on Stephens death his surviving son William became count of Mortain, but when William died childless in 1159 the title was resumed by Henry II.
On the accession of Richard I he granted it to his brother John, in August 1944, Mortain was the site of an important battle between the German and American forces. Over a period of six nights the 30th Infantry Division fought valiantly against the German Panzer counter-attack of Operation Lüttich, famed author J. D. Salinger fought alongside the American forces - an experience in which his daughter claims led to post-traumatic syndrome. The parish church of St Evroult is a magnificent example of the style of the early 13th century. Close to the town is the Abbaye Blanche, founded as a Benedictine convent in 1105, the church is a perfect example of a Cistercian monastic church of the late 12th century, and portions of the 12th-century cloisters survive. The ruins of a castle was once the home of the cruel Sir Guillaume de Mortain, Mortain was the birthplace of Ferdinand André Fouqué, geologist and petrologist
Tour du Guet
The Tour du Guet is a 13th-century watchtower in Calais, Pas-de-Calais, northern France. Located on Place dArmes behind the Hotel de Ville, it is 39 metres in height, the tower dates from 1214, when Philip I, Count of Boulogne built fortifications in the town. Damaged by a 1580 earthquake, it was used as a lighthouse until 1848, during World War I, it served as a military post
Counts and dukes of Aumale
The County of Aumale, elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy. It was disputed between England and France during parts of the Hundred Years War, the title was re-created in 1547 for Francis, styled Count of Aumale by courtesy. On his accession as Duke of Guise, he ceded it to his brother Claude and it was used as a title by Henri dOrléans, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe, King of the French and Duke of Orléans. The present titleholder is a grandson of the late Henri, Count of Paris, Orléans heir, Prince Foulques, Duke of Aumale, son of Prince Jacques, Duke of Orléans and the duchess, née Gersende de Sabran-Pontèves, added it to his title of Comte dEu. Norman Counts, lord before 996–, the title of Count or Duke of Aumale was granted several times during this period. In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale, despite Philips conquest of Aumale, the kings of England continued to claim the Duchy of Normandy, and to recognize the old line of Counts or Earls of Aumale.
These were, see above for Counts before 1196 Hawise of Aumale, 2nd Countess of Aumale, married, a claim upon the inheritance by John de Eston was settled in 1278 with the surrender of the earldom to the Crown. It was almost certainly forfeit upon his murder while awaiting trial for treason, This creation is not listed in several sources such as The Complete Peerage but indicate the next creation shown in line as the 1st. Also, Earl of Warwick Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, in further creations in the English peerage after the Hundred Years War, Aumale was spelled in the Latinised form Albemarle. For these, see Duke of Albemarle and Earl of Albemarle
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
Adela of Champagne
Adela of Champagne, known as Adelaide and Alix, was Queen of France as the third wife of Louis VII. She was the daughter of Theobald II, Count of Champagne, and Matilda of Carinthia and Adela married on 18 October 1160, five weeks after his previous wife, Constance of Castile, died in childbirth. Queen Adèle was the mother of Louis VIIs only son, Philip II, Adela was active in the political life of the kingdom, along with her brothers Henry I, Theobald V, and Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. Henry and Theobald were married to daughters of Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine and her brothers felt their position threatened when the heiress of Artois, Isabella of Hainault, married Adèles son Philip. Adèle formed an alliance with Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, and Philip of Flanders, war broke out in 1181, and relations became so bad that Philip attempted to divorce Isabella in 1184. Although her power decreased after the accession of Philip in 1180 and she returned to the shadows when he returned in 1192 but participated in the founding of many abbeys.
Queen Adela died on 4 June 1206 in Paris, Île-de-France and was buried in the church of Pontigny Abbey near Auxerre
Adela of Normandy
Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England, known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism, was, by marriage, Countess of Blois and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders and she was the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Her birthdate is generally believed to be between 1066 and 1070, after her fathers accession to the English throne in 1066 and she was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England, they were probably the youngest of the Conquerors children. Adela was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin and she married Stephen Henry and heir to the count of Blois, between 1080 and 1083, around her fifteenth birthday. Stephen was nearly twenty years her senior, Stephen inherited Blois and Meaux upon his fathers death in 1089, as well as lands and right in parts of Berry and Burgundy. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade in 1096, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose, Stephens letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusades leaders and show that he trusted Adela to rule as regent while he was on crusade.
The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps and other treasures and he was, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101. He was ultimately killed in a charge at the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Adela and Stephens children are listed here in probable birth order, Count of Sully married Agnes of Sully and had issue Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. Died young Adela, married Milo II of Montlhéry King Stephen of England, married Matilda of Boulogne Lucia-Mahaut, married Richard dAvranches, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. It is known that Adela had five sons and may have had three or more daughters, though not all of the daughters were necessarily Adelas biological children. The daughters are not mentioned by name during their youth, only appearing when they reach marriageable age, Adela, a devout Benedictine sympathizer, employed several high-ranking tutors to educate her children.
Her youngest son, was conceived during the single year Stephen was in France between crusading duties. At two years of age Henry was pledged to the Church at Cluny Abbey, Saône-et-Loire, France, as an oblate child, Henry went on to be appointed Abbot of Glastonbury and Bishop of Winchester. In that capacity he sponsored hundreds of constructions including bridges, palaces, castles, in addition, Bishop Henry built dozens of abbeys and chapels and sponsored books including the treasured Winchester Bible. Adela quarrelled with her eldest son William and despite his previously being named heir-designate and her son Stephen moved to London in 1111 to join his uncles court and became the favorite of his uncle King Henry I. Upon Beauclercs death in Normandy, Stephen of Blois seized the English throne, Adela filled in as regent for her husbands duties during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade as well as during his second expedition in 1101. This included granting monks the right to build new churches, as well as other charters, while her husband was away, Adela would continue to tour their lands, settling disputes, promoting economic growth, and even commanding knights to go to battle with the king
Bertha of Holland
Bertha of Holland, known as Berthe or Bertha of Frisia and erroneously as Berta or Bertrada, was queen consort of the Franks from 1072 until 1092, as the first wife of King Philip I. Berthas marriage to the king in 1072 was a result of negotiations between him and her stepfather, Count Robert the Frisian of Flanders. After nine years of childlessness, the couple had three children, including Philips successor, Louis the Fat. Philip, grew tired of his wife by 1090 and that marriage was a scandal since both Philip and Bertrada were already married to other people, at least until Queen Bertha died the next year. Bertha was the daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and his wife and she is erroneously referred to as Matilda by Chronologia Johannes de Beke. Bertha had six siblings and both of her parents came from large families and her father ruled a territory vaguely described as Friesland west of the Vlie, which is where Bertha spent her childhood. Count Floris I was assassinated in 1061, and two years her mother remarried to Robert of Flanders, now known as Robert the Frisian, became guardian of Bertha and her six siblings.
In 1070, Robert the Frisian became involved in a war with King Philip I of France over succession to the County of Flanders. Within two years and Philip concluded a treaty which was to be sealed by a marriage, Roberts own daughters were too young. Robert thus agreed to the marriage of his stepdaughter to King Philip, Bertha married Philip, thus becoming queen of the Franks, probably in 1072. Bertha had no kings among her ancestors and lacked even tenuous links with the Carolingian that her predecessors could claim. Consequently, contemporary chroniclers did not even try to present her lineage as more exalted than that of a counts daughter, the shortage of royal candidates made Bertha a suitable choice. Little is known about Berthas queenship and she co-signed only three donation charters. However, she plays a prominent role in the hagiography titled Vita Arnulfi, the hagiography describes how she used her regal power to expel Abbot Gerard of Saint-Médard and reinstate the former abbot, who had been removed due to his mismanagement of the abbey.
Saint Arnulf of Soissons warned her that doing so would incur the wrath of God and lead to her being out of the kingdom into exile. The queen furiously refused to listen to him, the hagiography, was written after Bertha died and during Bertradas queenship, which might explain the name confusion. For six years, King Philip and Queen Bertha were troubled by their childlessness and especially by the lack of male children, the birth of the long-awaited heir apparent had such a great impact that a story of a miracle developed around it. Reportedly, the couples fertility was only restored thanks to the prayers of a hermit, Arnulf informed Queen Bertha that she was expecting a son and that it would be appropriate to give him the Carolingian name of Louis