click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Philip K. Dick Award

The Philip K. Dick Award is an American science fiction award given annually at Norwescon and sponsored by the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society and the Philip K. Dick Trust. Named after science fiction and fantasy writer Philip K. Dick, it has been awarded since 1983, the year after his death, it is awarded to the best original paperback published each year in the US. The award was founded by Thomas Disch with assistance from David G. Hartwell, Paul S. Williams, Charles N. Brown; as of 2016, it is administered by Pat LoBrutto, John Silbersack, Gordon Van Gelder. Past administrators include Algis Budrys, David G. Hartwell, David Alexander Smith. Winners are listed in bold. Authors of special citation entries are listed in italics; the year in the table below indicates the year. Official website List of all winning and nominated novels

Healthy Skepticism

Healthy Skepticism Inc is an international non-profit organisation whose main aim is to "improve health by reducing harm from misleading drug promotion". Healthy Skepticism was founded in 1983 with the name Medical Lobby for Appropriate Marketing, it was begun by an Australian medical student, Peter R. Mansfield, who had the idea for the organization during his final year elective in Bangladesh in 1982. MaLAM focused on campaigning against questionable marketing practices in developing countries; these included the promotion of appetite stimulants and anabolic steroids to parents of malnourished children. MaLAM was modelled on Amnesty International and wrote open letters to the international headquarters of pharmaceutical companies questioning them about specific advertisements. MaLAM letters were signed by supporters around the world and contributed to many improvements in drug marketing, several products being removed from the market and many advertising claims changed. MaLAM reported more than 450 alleged violations of the voluntary code of conduct of the drug industry in 1987, questioned drug advertisements in Australia during 1993 to 1997 with funding from the Australian federal government.

In 2001, the organisation’s name was changed to Healthy Skepticism and its work widened to include research and advocacy about misleading drug promotion in all countries. It has concentrated on raising awareness amongst health professionals of the influence that marketing techniques have on their decisions, the psychological factors which make them vulnerable to that influence

Gerris

Gerris is a bug genus in the family Gerridae. Species of genus Gerris demonstrate a high degree of female control over most aspects of mating and there is significant evidence that supports antagonistic coevolution, the convenience polyandry hypothesis of multiple matings. There is evidence to suggest that the post-copulatory guarding exhibited by Gerris buenoi - and other species of Gerris - is a form of a direct benefit that females take advantage of to reduce superfluous matings. Male persistence is detrimental to female fitness as male species of Gerris harass females; this is believed to be the result of males having a lower number of available mates and therefore, have a reduced fitness. Females are at risk of predation during mating attempts as males mount the female in an attempt to mate and tap their legs on the surface of the water to attract predators. Females respond in turn, creating a pre-copulatory struggle in which they try to perform backwards somersault-like movements to break free of the male grapple.

If unsuccessful, female species of Gerris will resort to mating with the male as the cost of rejecting the male advances outweighs the cost of mating out of convenience. As a result of the tactics employed by both species there is evidence of rapid evolution between the sexes in a persistence-resistance form of sexual conflict; the sexes of species of genus Gerris compete between each other in an "arms race" behaviour where males and females have varying traits that serve to increase their own fitness over the other. Males evolved to harass females by chasing and lunging in an attempt to grapple the female for copulation, females evolved mechanisms such as genital shielding, evasive maneuvers, attempting to fight when grappled; however and fighting are quite costly for females and will give in if the costs of resistance outweigh the cost of mating. Genital shielding can best be seen in G. gracilicornis and a male will have a hard time at inserting his genitalia unless the female protrudes her genitalia out.

Males have evolved to overcome this mechanism by attempting an intimate courtship instead of forceful mating, as well as a more hostile approach: attracting predators to force mating with females. The rationale behind attracting predators to force mating is due to how copulation occurs: a male will attempt to mount a female on the surface water. After copulation, males continue to rest on top of females for some period of time - this is what is known as guarding duration, it can be hypothesized that when superfluous matings are plenty, females will extend this guarding duration by allowing the male to rest upon her for some time which in turn prevents harassment from other males. It is worth noting that this incurs costs for the female as they must exert energetic costs to compensate for the passive male on her back, that this might not be an effective tactic for females in the long run. Water striders, more those that fall under the genus Gerris are a model organism for studying sexual conflict as they have clear costs associated with their actions.

They have great use as a control group when comparing to other organisms where it is more unclear as what is occurring. Gerris ampla reclassified as Aquarius amplus Gerris apicalis Curtis, 1835 junior synonym for Gerris argentatus Schummel, 1832 Gerris canaliculatus reclassified as Limnoporus canaliculatus Gerris conformis reclassified as Aquarius conformis Gerris dissortis reclassified as Limnotrechus dissortis Gerris mantis reclassified as Emesa mantis Gerris gracilicornis reclassified as Limnotrechus gracilicornis Gerris najas reclassified as Aquarius najas Gerris nebularis reclassified as Aquarius nebularis Gerris nyctalis reclassified as Aquarius nyctalis Gerris remigis reclassified as Aquarius remigis Gerris rufoscutellatus reclassified as Limnoporus rufoscutellatus

927th Air Refueling Wing

The 927th Air Refueling Wing is an Air Reserve Component of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the Fourth Air Force of Air Force Reserve Command and is stationed at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; the wing is an associate unit of the 6th Air Mobility Wing of Air Mobility Command, with both units sharing and flying the same Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft. If mobilized to active duty, the wing is operationally-gained by Air Mobility Command; the mission of the 927th Air Refueling Wing is to provide a dedicated and prepared Total Force Team to fly and win in air and cyberspace. The wing directly supports the integrated Air Force mission by way of extending the global reach of United States air power through mission ready personnel and equipment while providing global air refueling and airlift operations; the wing consists of 3 groups and 11 subordinate units including: 927th Operations Group 63d Air Refueling Squadron 927th Operations Support Squadron 45th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron 927th Maintenance Group 927th Maintenance Squadron 927th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron 927th Maintenance Operations Flight 927th Mission Support Group 927th Security Forces Squadron 927th Logistical Readiness Squadron 927th Force Support Squadron Other Activities927th Aeromedical Staging Squadron 927th Aerospace Medicine Squadron Wing Staff Agencies After May 1959, the Air Force Reserve flying force consisted of 45 troop carrier squadrons assigned to 15 troop carrier wings.

The squadrons were not all located with their parent wings, but were spread over thirty-five Air Force and civilian airfields under what was called the Detached Squadron Concept. The concept offered several advantages. Communities were more to accept the smaller squadrons than the large wings and the location of separate squadrons in smaller population centers would facilitate recruiting and manning. However, under this concept, all support organizations were located with the wing headquarters. Although this was not a problem when the entire wing was called to active service, mobilizing a single flying squadron and elements to support it proved difficult; this weakness was demonstrated in the partial mobilization of Air Force Reserve units during the Berlin Crisis of 1961. To resolve this, at the start of 1962, Continental Air Command, determined to reorganize its Air Force Reserve wings by establishing groups with support elements for each of its troop carrier squadrons; this reorganization would facilitate mobilization of elements of wings in various combinations when needed.

As a result of these organizational changes, the 927th Troop Carrier Group was established at what was Selfridge Air Force Base, Michigan on 11 February 1963 as the headquarters for the 63d Troop Carrier Squadron, stationed there since November 1957. Along with group headquarters, a Combat Support Squadron, Materiel Squadron and a Tactical Infirmary were organized to support the 63d. If mobilized, the group was gained by Tactical Air Command, responsible for its training, its mission was to organize and train Air Force reservists in the tactical airlift of airborne forces, their equipment and supplies and delivery of these forces and materials by airdrop, landing or cargo extraction systems. The group was one of three Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar groups assigned to the 403d Troop Carrier Wing in 1963, the others being the 928th Troop Carrier Group at O'Hare International Airport and the 929th Troop Carrier Group at Davis Field, Oklahoma; the 927th was redesignated the 927th Tactical Airlift Group in 1967 and flew the C-119 until 1969.

The group was redesignated as the 927th Tactical Air Support Group on 18 June 1969, flew Cessna U-3 Blue Canoe aircraft until 1971. The group was once again redesignated as the 927th Tactical Airlift Group on 29 June 1971 and converted to the Lockheed C-130 Hercules aircraft. During the Vietnam War, the 927th's flying squadron ferried aircraft and delivered equipment and supplies to South Vietnam and unit personnel supported humanitarian relief efforts during the 1973 New York and Pennsylvania floods, as well as hurricane disaster relief to Honduras in 1974 and for Hurricane Hugo victims in 1989. During 1990, the 927th deployed more than 400 airmen and supplies for six months to the Middle East in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. During 1992, the unit converted to Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and was redesignated the 927th Air Refueling Group until 1 October 1994, when the unit was redesignated as the 927th Air Refueling Wing. From 1995 through 2004, the wing participated in missions and exercises around the world, including Operation Northern Watch.

During 1999, the 927th responded to Presidential Selected Recall authority, deploying members in support of Operation Noble Anvil and NATO Operation Allied Force. The wing responded within one hour after the 11 September attacks in 2001, with the wing launching from their home station of Selfridge Air National Guard Base and providing refueling services for USAF fighter aircraft patrolling the North Central United States and other concurrent support of Homeland Def

Wynwood

Wynwood is a neighborhood in Miami, Florida. Wynwood is known for being an entertainment district, with artwork, breweries, clothing stores, dance venues, among other retail options. An industrial district, the area is now known for the murals that cover the walls of many of the buildings, it is north of Downtown Miami and Overtown, adjacent to Edgewater. Wynwood has two major sub-districts, the Wynwood Art District in northern Wynwood, the Wynwood Fashion District along West 5th Avenue. Wynwood is divided by North 20th Street to the south, I-195 to the north, I-95 to the west and the Florida East Coast Railway to the east. Wynwood was long referred to as "Little San Juan", known as "El Barrio" as many Puerto Ricans began immigrating to this Miami neighborhood from the island and northeastern cities in the 1950s. Puerto Rican-owned restaurants, shops and other businesses line the streets of Wynwood. Since the early 2000s, the neighborhood has seen a rising amount of investment; the Midtown Miami development construction began in 2005 between North 29th and 36th Street and Miami Avenue and the Florida East Coast Railway on what was an FEC rail yard.

This brought renewed attention to the area, abandoned warehouses have begun to be occupied by artists, cafés, lounges. Tony Goldman, a developer assisted in the growth of Wynwood by creating a mecca out of the present graffiti. In 2009, Goldman commissioned artists to create the Wynwood Walls. Located in the Wynwood Art District, this is an outdoor exhibition of rotating street art; the Wynwood Art District is a sub-district of Wynwood that contains galleries, outdoor murals and private art collections. The district is centered around Wynwood Walls, conceived of by the late urban developer Tony Goldman in 2009, his idea was to revitalize the neighborhood by turning warehouses into works of art. According to the Walls' website, artists featured at Wynwood Walls include: Shepard Fairey, Okuda San Miguel, The London Police, Stelios Faitakis, Clare Rojas, The Date Farmers, avaf, ROA, Ron English, Jeff Soto, Logan Hicks, b. PHASE 2, Joe Grillo, COCO 144, Vhils, Interesni Kazki, Brandon Opalka, Friends With You, DALeast, Faith 47, Santiago Rubino, Maya Hayuk and Lakwena.

The Walls were cited as a tourist destination for family fun by Palm Beach Illustrated in 2018. The Walls are curated by an art dealer that has a gallery inside the wall area; the Miami Fashion District is a sub-district of Wynwood in Miami, United States. It is within the larger neighborhood of Wynwood, it is bounded by North 30th Street to the north, I-95 to the west, North 23rd Street to the south, West 2nd Avenue to the east. Its primary artery is along Northwest Fifth Avenue, where a lot of the major clothing retailers and distributors are located. Rupees Inc. is an authentic Indian Bollywood boutique located in Wynwood since 1994. The Wynwood Technology District is a sub-district of Wynwood. A co-working space called. Furthermore, Wyncode is a coding bootcamp that has helped educate new employees for over 190 companies. For some years the neighborhood has been gentrified with large developments. In 2010, the abandoned Wynwood Free Trade Zone, at 2235 NW 5th Avenue, was reconverted into a working production studio for films and television shows.

In July 2011, production plans were announced for the Charlie's Angels 2011 TV show remake to be filmed in the old free trade zone building in Wynwood. Other film production studios are located in neighboring Park West, together, form a larger, growing film production industry in Miami. Home to a large number of art galleries, artist studios, clothing wholesalers, the art and fashion industries are the main economic engines of Wynwood. Zak the Baker is a kosher restaurant in Wynwood. In 2013, Miami New Times moved its headquarters to Wynwood; as of 2015, Wynwood has a population of 8621 residents, with 2754 households in the neighborhood. The median household income in 2015 $31,256. Wynwood is served by Metrobus and Miami's free trolley service throughout the area, by Metromover's School Board station to the south, by the Miami Metrorail in adjoining Allapattah less than a mile due west at: Allapattah Miami-Dade County Public Schools operates area public schools: Eneida Hartner Elementary School Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School Phyllis Wheatley Elementary School José de Diego Middle School Miami Arts Charter School Young Men's Preparatory Academy Miami Arts Charter School Miami Ad School Bakehouse Art Complex The Marguiles Collection at the Warehouse, art Rubell Family Collection, art Calix Gustav Gallery, art Roberto Clemente Park José de Diego Park In summer 2016, Wynwood experienced a high rate of Zika infection, as part of the 2015–16 epidemic.

On August 1, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a travel warning, advising pregnant women not to visit the Wynwood, Design District and Midtown Miami areas. This was the first time the CDC had advised against visiting a neighborhood in the United States to avoid catching an infectious disease. On August 11, 2016, four more cases of Zika were diagnosed in the Wynwood section of Miami; this brought the total count in Miami to 21 cases. All of them were in the Wynwood Section. Mosquito-control efforts in Wynwood have been difficult because it's a mixed-use area, where industrial sites are located next to a blend of

Lachlan Valley Railway

The Lachlan Valley Railway Society is an Australian rail preservation society based in the New South Wales Central Western town of Cowra. It was established in 1974 to preserve and operate former New South Wales Government Railways locomotives and rolling stock, it operates regular heritage train tours to a variety of locations across New South Wales. The Lachlan Valley Railway was formed in 1974 to preserve locomotive 5917 and four carriages, it soon acquired other locomotives and formed a relationship with the Lachlan Vintage Village, Forbes. It operated rail tours, including an interstate tours from Parkes to Peterborough in August 1976 with 5917. At that stage, rolling stock was stabled at Parkes locomotive depot. On 18 June 1977, the society moved its base to the 1923-built Cowra roundhouse. Allocated a couple of roads, in 1985 it took over the entire facility when the State Rail Authority vacated it. In 1979, the LVR commenced operating tours from Sydney to Kiama, with a base established at West Ryde in Sydney.

However, the site had to be vacated in August 1987 to make way for the Northern line to expand. In November 1983, the LVR purchased its first diesel locomotive, 4204, shortly afterwards Australian Iron & Steel shunter D9; the State Rail Authority ceased services on the Cowra to Blayney section of the Demondrille to Blayney line in 1987 and leased it to the LVR. The line was closed for repairs in 1990 and was reopened in 1993. In late 1990, the society's subsidiary, Lachlan Valley Rail Freight tendered to operate wheat trains between Woodstock and Cowra on the Blayney to Cowra line for the Grain Handling Authority. However, since the line was closed for repairs, those services did not start until September 1993. Diesel locomotive 4204 hauled the first of these services. In August 1994 the LVR operated wheat trains from Trajere on the Eugowra line to Cowra with 47 class locomotives. In June 1999 Lachlan Valley Rail Freight, a subsidiary company, commenced operating trip working services between Port Botany and the Cooks River container terminal in Sydney using 47 class locomotives and former Australian National wagons.

In July 1999 Lachlan Valley Rail Freight commenced operating a service between Cooks River and Carrington with 44 and 47 class locomotives for R&H Transport Services. Congestion in Carrington saw the service diverted to the Toll Holdings siding at Sandgate. In January 2000 Lachlan Valley Rail Freight started hiring locomotives from Chicago Freight Car Leasing Australia and Freight Australia, in September 2000 from Great Northern Rail Services. In October 2006, the company was sold to Stephen Heraghty of Bowport Allroads Transport and rebranded as Independent Railways of Australia. A government decision in 1999 to reopen the Cowra–Blayney section to other users caused LVR to lose its rights to exclusive use of the Demondrille to Cowra line, although its trains were still able to operate on the line. In 2009 RailCorp closed the line, first to Blayney and Harden. In August 2009 the society hurriedly moved its serviceable rolling stock to Junee. Since it has operated steam and diesel trains in other parts of the state.

It is planned to reopen a short section of the Blayney line for heritage train operations. The society's present complex houses more than 55 carriages and locomotives under cover, is open to visits daily; the Lachlan Valley Railway Society has 300 members. It is administered by a voluntary board; the society is an accredited rail operator under the NSW Rail Safety Act 2002 meaning it has network access rights on the NSW main line rail network. The Lachlan Valley Railway Society has in its custody the following locomotives: 45 class: 4502, 4528 both stored by pop 47 class: 4703, 4707, 4708 & HTV2000 ex 4719 with 4715's cab on the 2nd end 80 class: 8014 Scrapped for parts CPH railmotors CPH12, CPH24, CPH25, CPH16, CPH31 at Cowra 620/720 set: 638/738 at Cowra, 629/729 at Rothbury DEB set: PF901, PF907, PF909, HPF953, HPF959, TFR852, TM853, TCR861, TM857 & TCR862 at Cowra ABS Dining car: 2304 FS Economy car: 2029, 2091, 2126, 2130, 2133 MFS Economy car: 2028, 2121 XFS Economy car: 2015 RBS First/Buffet car: 2160 EAM Sleeping car: 1831 MBV Lounge Car: 931 MCE Corridor car: 114 MHG Crew/Workshop Van: 11604 FHG Power/Guards Van: 31772 EHG Guards/Luggage Van: 2409 OAM Twinette Crew Sleeping Car: 2329 OAN Roomette Crew Sleeping Car: 2378 OAS Twinette Crew Sleeping Car: 2261 OAH Twinette Crew Sleeping Car: 2237 OSS Lounge/Bar Car: 2271 OSH Lounge/Bar Car: 2223 ORS Dining Car: 2300 OPV Power/Guards Van: 2402 Blue Suede Express, Sydney - Parkes - Sydney ABBA Express, Sydney - Parkes - Trundle - Sydney Richmond Shuttles, Richmond - Mulgrave - Richmond Media related to Lachlan Valley Railway at Wikimedia Commons Lachlan Valley Railway website Cowra Shire Council Cowra Tourism