Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed.
Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates.
This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912
University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California and its headquarters are located in Oakland, California. It distributes titles published by the Huntington Library, Watershed Media, each year it publishes approximately 180 new books and 31 journals in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences and keeps about 3,500 book titles in print. The Press commissioned as its corporate typeface University of California Old Style from type designer Frederic Goudy from 1936-8, finley Joan of Arc, The Image of Female Heroism, Marina Warner Strong Democracy, Participatory Politics for a New Age, Benjamin R. These titles were selected for their merit and for their illumination of California history. The Ford by Mary Austin Thieves Market by A. I, by Al Young Official University of California Press website California Digital Library - University of California Libraries Free Online - UC Press E-Books Collection Mark Twain Project Online
University of California, Riverside
The University of California, Riverside, is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres in a district of Riverside, United States. Some of the worlds most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction, UCRs undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UCR a general campus of the system in 1959, to accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC Riverside School of Medicine granted in October 2012 and it is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years. UCR is consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically and economically diverse universities in the United States, nearly two-thirds of all UCR students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity.
UCRs extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a campus of choice for minority students, in 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UCRs sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UCR womens basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007, in 2007, the mens baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001. At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a producer of citrus. The industry developed from the countrys first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station on February 14,1907.
The station conducted experiments in fertilization and crop improvement, in 1917, the station was moved to a larger site,475 acres near Box Springs Mountain. The 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the university system in California. A local group of growers and civic leaders, including many UC Berkeley alumni. State Senator Nelson Dilworth, former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd, governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949, allocating $2 million for initial campus construction. Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at UCLA, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Initially conceived of as a college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students
The Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasps whose wingless females resemble large, hairy ants. Their common name velvet ant refers to their pile of hair, which most often is bright scarlet or orange. Black and white specimens are known as panda ants due to their hair coloration resembling that of the giant panda. Their bright colors serve as aposematic signals and they are known for their extremely painful stings, hence the common name cow killer or cow ant. Unlike real ants, they do not have drones, however, velvet ants do exhibit haplodiploid sex determination similar to other members of the Hymenoptera, including the Vespoidea. The exoskeleton of all velvet ants is unusually tough and this characteristic allows them to successfully invade the nests of their prey and helps them retain moisture. Like related families in the Vespoidea, males have wings, in a few species, the male carries the smaller female aloft while mating, which is seen in the related family Thynnidae.
In both sexes, a called a stridulitrum on the metasoma is used to produce a squeaking or chirping sound when alarmed. Both sexes of mutillids bear hair-lined grooves on the side of the metasoma called felt lines, only two other vespoid families, have felt lines, but the females of these families have a distinct pronotum. Members of the family Myrmosidae, formerly classified as a subfamily of mutillids, have a distinct pronotum in females, although some species are strictly nocturnal, females are often active during the day. Females of Tricholabiodes thisbe are sometimes active up to two hours before sunset, guido Nonveiller hypothesized the Mutillidae are generally stenothermic and thermophilic, they may not avoid light, but rather are active during temperatures that usually occur only after sunset. Male mutillids fly in search of females, after mating, the female enters an insect nest, typically a bee or wasp burrow. The mutillid larvae develop as idiobiont ectoparasitoids, eventually killing their immobile larval/pupal hosts within a week or two, Mutillidae can be found worldwide with approximately 230 genera or subgenera and around 8,000 species worldwide.
Over 400 species occur in the North American southwest, a. S. Lelej Catalogue of the Mutillidae of the Palaearctic Region J. H. Hunt. Trait mapping and salience in the evolution of eusocial vespid wasps, evolution 53, 225-237 Lorus J. Milne, National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders Knopf. Nonveiller, G. Catalogue of the Mutillidae and Bradynobaenidae of the Neotropical Region including Mexico, SPB Academic Publishing bv, the Netherlands, pp. 1–150
California Academy of Sciences
The California Academy of Sciences is a natural history museum in San Francisco, that is among the largest museums of natural history in the world, housing over 26 million specimens. Completely rebuilt in 2008, the building covers 400,000 square feet and is among the newest natural history museums in the United States, the primary building in Golden Gate Park reopened on September 27,2008. The Academy Fellows are, in turn, ominated by their colleagues, underlying these operations is a staff of hundreds of employees who operate the day-to-day functions without which the Academy could not offer its programs. The operations branch of the Academy is divided into three departments, Building Operations, Guest Operations, and IT Services, in fact, unbeknownst to most patrons and administrative facilities occupy nearly 50% of the Academys physical structure. Prior to being replaced, the old Academy building attracted approximately half a million each year. As has been the case from the start, the main thrust of the exhibits is natural history, Morrison Planetarium - features the worlds largest completely digital planetarium dome measuring in at 27.
There is an emphasis on environmental concerns, with all the various departments collaborating closely to focus on systematic biology. Academy researchers study life around the world, a 2011 expedition to the Philippines discovered an estimated 300 species new to science, the Academy publishes the peer-reviewed journal Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, as well as Occasional Papers and Special Publications. The California Academy of Natural Sciences was founded in 1853, only three years after California joined the United States, becoming the first society of its kind in the Western US. Its stated aim was to undertake a systematic survey of every portion of the State. It was renamed as the more inclusive California Academy of Sciences in 1868, in 1892, Alice Eastwood, a botanist, was hired by the Academy and worked there until she retired in 1949. Fortunately, the 1905-1906 scientific collecting expedition to the Galápagos Islands already was underway, in 1916, the Academy moved to the North American Hall of Birds and Mammals in Golden Gate Park, the first building on the site that was to become its permanent home.
In 1923, the Steinhart Aquarium was added, followed in 1934 by the Simson African Hall, the post-war years saw a flurry of new construction on the site, the Science Hall was added in 1951, followed by the Morrison Planetarium in 1952. The Morrison Planetarium was the seventh major planetarium to open in the United States and featured a one-of-a-kind star projector, the Academy Projector produced a remarkably natural-looking star field. It projected irregularly shaped stars, rather than the circular stars projected by many optical star projectors, the irregular shapes were created by placing variously sized grains of silicon carbide onto the glass star plates by hand, aluminizing the plates, and brushing away the silicon carbide grains. In 1959, the Malliard Library, Eastwood Hall of Botany, in 1969, another new building, Cowell Hall, was added to the site. In 1976, several new galleries were opened, and the year, in 1977. Prior to the old building being torn down in 2005, there was a Life through Time gallery, housing a display on evolution
University of California, Davis
The University of California, Davis, is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. It is located in Davis, just west of Sacramento, the university has been labeled one of the Public Ivies, a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. The Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a doctoral research university with a medical program. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and has ranked first in the nation for two consecutive years,2015 and 2016. The UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level, primarily in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference, in its first year of full Division I status,11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition. In 1905, the California legislature passed the University Farm Bill, the commission took a year to select a site for the campus, a tiny town known as Davisville.
UC Davis opened its doors as the University Farm to 40 degree students from UC Berkeley in January 1909, the Farm was established largely the result of the vision and perseverance of Peter J. Shields, secretary of the State Agricultural Society. The Peter J. Shields Library at UC Davis was named in his honor, Shields began to champion the cause of a University Farm to teach agriculture after learning that California students were going to out-of-state universities to pursue such education. After two failed bills, a law authorizing the creation of a University Farm was passed on March 18,1905, Yolo County, home to some of Californias prime farmland, was chosen as the site. A committee appointed by the Regents purchased land near Davisville in 1906, the Regents officially took control of the property in September 1906 and constructed four buildings in 1907. Short courses were first offered in 1908 and a three-year non-degree program set up in 1909, in 1911, the first class graduated from the University Farm.
The Farm accepted its first female students in 1914 from Berkeley, the three-year non-degree program continued until 1923. At that time, a two-year non-degree program began, continuing until 1958, in 1922, a four-year undergraduate general academic program was established, with the first class graduating in 1926. Renamed in 1922 as the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture, by 1951 it had expanded to a size of 3,000 acres. In 1959, the campus was declared by the Regents of the University of California as the general campus in the University of California system. Davis Graduate Division was established in 1961 followed by the College of Engineering in 1962, the Law School opened for classes in Fall 1966, and the School of Medicine began instruction in Fall 1968. In a period of increasing activism, a Native American studies program was started in 1969, one of the first at a major university, it was developed as a full department within the university. The incident drew attention and led to further demonstrations, a formal investigation
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda. They are an animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Nematodes are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are found in part of the earths lithosphere, even at great depths below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa. They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor, the many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes, trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. In 1758, Linnaeus described some nematode genera, included in Vermes, the name of the group Nematoda, informally called nematodes, came from Nematoidea, originally defined by Karl Rudolphi, from Ancient Greek νῆμα and -eiδἠς.
It was treated as family Nematodes by Burmeister, at its origin, the Nematoidea erroneously included Nematodes and Nematomorpha, attributed by von Siebold. Along with Acanthocephala and Cestoidea, it formed the obsolete group Entozoa and they were classed along with Acanthocephala in the obsolete phylum Nemathelminthes by Gegenbaur. In 1861, K. M. Diesing treated the group as order Nematoda, in 1877, the taxon Nematoidea, including the family Gordiidae, was promoted to the rank of phylum by Ray Lankester. In 1919, Nathan Cobb proposed that nematodes should be recognized alone as a phylum and he argued they should be called nema in English rather than nematodes and defined the taxon Nemates, listing Nematoidea sensu restricto as a synonym. Since Cobb was the first to all but nematodes from the group, some sources consider the valid taxon name to be Nemates or Nemata. The phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close relatives among the protostomian Metazoa are unresolved, they were held to be a lineage of their own but in the 1990s, they were proposed to form the group Ecdysozoa together with moulting animals, such as arthropods.
The identity of the closest living relatives of the Nematoda has always considered to be well resolved. Morphological characters and molecular phylogenies agree with placement of the roundworms as a taxon to the parasitic Nematomorpha. Together with the Scalidophora, the Nematoida form the clade Cycloneuralia, the Cycloneuralia or the Introverta—depending on the validity of the former—are often ranked as a superphylum. Due to the lack of knowledge regarding many nematodes, their systematics is contentious, an earliest and influential classification was proposed by Chitwood and Chitwood—later revised by Chitwood—who divided the phylum into two—the Aphasmidia and the Phasmidia. These were renamed Adenophorea and Secernentea, the Secernentea share several characteristics, including the presence of phasmids, a pair of sensory organs located in the lateral posterior region, and this was used as the basis for this division
Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
Living Desert Zoo and Gardens, formerly the Living Desert Museum, is a desert botanical garden and a zoo located in Palm Desert, Riverside County, United States. They are in the Sonoran Desert of the Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains foothills near Palm Springs, the Living Desert Zoo and Gardens has been a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since 1983, and is a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. It has participated in species reintroduction programs including the peninsular bighorn sheep to the local mountains, the gardens of the Low Desert – Colorado Desert were established in 1970 as a 360-acre wilderness preserve by several trustees of the Palm Springs Desert Museum. By 1974 the gardens housed a kit fox, lizards, in 1974–75 the Mojave Garden was built, a replica of the High Desert – Mojave Desert. Additional facilities have gradually been constructed, including greenhouses, model trains, new animal introductions include, rhim gazelles, mountain lions and badgers, meerkats and warthogs, striped hyenas and ostriches.
The Amphibians on the Edge exhibit shows a variety of different species of frogs, the Endangered Species Carousel was constructed in fall 2009, and the Peninsular Pronghorn Exhibit was constructed in fall 2010. The Living Desert features an attraction called Camel Rides which allows visitors to ride camels, the exhibit, Monarch of the Desert, was constructed on the North America Trail. Lion Ridge, the habitat for lions, is still incomplete, the Living Desert is one of six accredited private zoos in the United States and operates as a non-profit. The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens is a zoo and botanic garden combination dedicated solely to the deserts of the world. The North American desert gardens include re-creations of a variety of plant community ecosystems, Mojave Desert – Joshua tree habitat. Chihuahuan Desert – Rio Grande-Big Bend and northern Mexican Plateau habitats, Sonoran Desert – Sonora, Mexico Madrean foothills habitat, Yuma Desert-southwest Arizona habitat and Vizcaíno Desert-Baja California Desert habitat gardens.
The Palo Verde Garden Center started when garden staff started propagating plants from the collection for sale to members. Many of the plants sold here may not be anywhere else. The Zoo and Gardens features one of the worlds largest LGB model railroad layouts, the worlds longest wooden G-scale model trestle lets trains travel between the upper and lower portions of the wash in which it was built – an almost 2-foot drop. The trains started as part of the annual WildLights holiday program, in 2001 the trains started running throughout the year and during the day. The trains and track belong to the gardens. S, geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Living Desert Reserve Organizational Profile – National Center for Charitable Statistics
Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa, commonly referred to as buckhorn cholla, is a cholla native to the Mojave and Colorado Deserts of North America. Along with Cylindropuntia bigelovii, it is the most common found in these deserts. There are a number of recognized varieties include, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. acanthocarpa Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. coloradensis — L. D, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. ganderi — L. D. Benson Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. major — Engelm, & J. M. Bigelow Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. ramosa — Peebles Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa var. thornberi — L. D. Early spring was called ko’oak macat by the Tohono O’odham because of food supplies. During this season, they turned to cacti for food and pit-roasted thousands of calcium-rich cholla flower buds, today’s O’odham people still pit-roast or boil the cholla buds, which taste like asparagus tips. Missouri Botanical Gardens VAST nomenclatural database USDA Plants Profile, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa F. M, knuth Calflora Database, Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa USDA Plants Profile for Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa