Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. Trinity Hall was known for teaching Law. Notable alumni include theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Nobel Prize winner David Thouless, Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, Canadian Governor General David Johnston, philosopher Marshall McLuhan, Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham; the devastation caused by the Black Death plague of the 1340s included the loss of nearly half of the English population. The site that Bateman chose was the original site of Gonville Hall, founded three years earlier, but was financially struggling. Bateman's clerical aim for the Hall is reflected in the foundation of 1350, when he stated that the college's aim was "the promotion of divine worship and of canon and civil science and direction of the commonwealth and of our church and diocese of Norwich." This led the college to be strong in legal studies, a tradition that has continued over the centuries.
At first all colleges in Cambridge were known as'Halls' or'Houses' and later changed their names from'Hall' to'College'. However, when Henry VIII founded Trinity College, Cambridge next door, it became clear that Trinity Hall would continue being known as a Hall; the new foundation's name may have been a punishment for the college's master, Stephen Gardiner, who had opposed the king's remarriage and had endured much of the college's land being removed. It is incorrect to call it Trinity Hall College, although Trinity Hall college is speaking, accurate. A similar situation had existed once before when Henry VI founded King's College despite the existence of King's Hall. King's Hall was incorporated in the foundation of Trinity College in 1546. Trinity Hall, in addition to having a chapel had joint usage of the Church of St John Zacharias with Clare Hall, until the church was demolished to enable the construction of King's in the 15th century. After this, the college was granted usage of the nearby Church of St Edward and Martyr on Peas Hill, a connection which remains to this day.
The college site on the River Cam was obtained from Bateman's purchase of a house from John de Crauden, Prior of Ely, to house the monks during their study, with Front Court being built within the college's first few decades. The chapel was licensed in 1352 and was built by August 1366, when Pope Urban V granted the Master and Fellows permission to celebrate Mass in the college. In 1729-1730, Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, the college master, redecorated the chapel in what, despite subsequent enlargements, remains an intimate style, forming the smallest of the University's chapels. Lloyd removed some of the more prominent graves to the ante-chapel, while digging a vault for his own burial, decorated the interior walls with wainscoting and the ceiling with stucco representations of past masters' crests; the chapel was extended to the east by a few feet in 1864, during which the medieval piscina was rediscovered and rendered accessible by a small door in the wainscoting. The current chapel painting is Maso da San Friano's Salutation, depicting Mary's visit to Elizabeth, from the opening of the Gospel of Luke, which replaced an earlier painting by Giacomo Stella in 1957.
Like the chapel, the college's dining hall was rebuilt by Sir Nathaniel Lloyd along similar lines, with the panelling replaced throughout and the medieval beams replaced by fine baroque carvings. Although the hall was enlarged in the 19th century, it is still one of the smallest and most intimate dining halls in the University; the college library was built in the late 16th century, with the permission of Elizabeth I and during the mastership of Thomas Preston, is now principally used for the storage of the college's manuscripts and rare books. The new Jerwood Library overlooking the river was opened by Lord Howe in 1999, stores the college's modern book collection; the college owns properties in the centre of Cambridge, on Bateman Street and Thompson's Lane, on its Wychfield site next to Fitzwilliam College, where most of the college's sporting activity takes place. Trinity Hall has active Junior and Senior Combination Rooms for undergraduate and senior members of the college community respectively.
The Middle Combination Room is located in Front Court, while the Junior Combination Room is adjacent to the college bar in North Court. Both the MCR and JCR have active committees and organize popular socials for their members across the term. Trinity Hall's oldest and largest society, the Boat Club was founded in 1827, has had a long and distinguished history; the college won all but one of the events in the 1887 Henley Royal Regatta, making it the most successful Cambridge college in Henley's history. The current boathouse, built in 1905 in memory of Henry Latham, is on the River Cam, a short walk from the college; the current Master is the Revd. Jeremy Morris, he took up the role on 1 October 2014. The current Dean is the Revd. Dr. Stephen Plant; the ro
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu referred to as Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, political philosopher. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, implemented in many constitutions throughout the world, he is known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word "despotism" in the political lexicon. His anonymously published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748, received well in both Great Britain and the American colonies, influenced the Founding Fathers in drafting the United States Constitution. Montesquieu was born at the Château de la Brède in southwest France, 25 kilometres south of Bordeaux, his father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier with a long noble ancestry. His mother, Marie Françoise de Pesnel, who died when Charles was seven, was an heiress who brought the title of Barony of La Brède to the Secondat family. After the death of his mother he was sent to the Catholic College of Juilly, a prominent school for the children of French nobility, where he remained from 1700 to 1711.
His father died in 1713 and he became a ward of his uncle, the Baron de Montesquieu. He became a counselor of the Bordeaux Parliament in 1714; the next year, he married the Protestant Jeanne de Lartigue, who bore him three children. The Baron died in 1716, leaving him his fortune as well as his title, the office of président à mortier in the Bordeaux Parliament. Montesquieu's early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of its Glorious Revolution, had joined with Scotland in the Union of 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In France, the long-reigning Louis XIV died in 1715 and was succeeded by the five-year-old Louis XV; these national transformations had a great impact on Montesquieu. Montesquieu withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to writing, he achieved literary success with the publication of his 1721 Persian Letters, a satire representing society as seen through the eyes of two imaginary Persian visitors to Paris and Europe, cleverly criticizing the absurdities of contemporary French society.
He next published Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, considered by some scholars, among his three best known books, as a transition from The Persian Letters to his master work. The Spirit of the Laws was published anonymously in 1748; the book rose to influence political thought profoundly in Europe and America. In France, the book met with an unfriendly reception from both supporters and opponents of the regime; the Catholic Church banned The Spirit – along with many of Montesquieu's other works – in 1751 and included it on the Index of Prohibited Books. It received the highest praise from the rest of Europe Britain. Montesquieu was highly regarded in the British colonies in North America as a champion of liberty. According to one political scientist, he was the most quoted authority on government and politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America, cited more by the American founders than any source except for the Bible. Following the American Revolution, Montesquieu's work remained a powerful influence on many of the American founders, most notably James Madison of Virginia, the "Father of the Constitution".
Montesquieu's philosophy that "government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another" reminded Madison and others that a free and stable foundation for their new national government required a defined and balanced separation of powers. Besides composing additional works on society and politics, Montesquieu traveled for a number of years through Europe including Austria and Hungary, spending a year in Italy and 18 months in England, where he became a freemason, admitted to the Horn Tavern Lodge in Westminster, before resettling in France, he was troubled by poor eyesight, was blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. He was buried in the Église Paris. Montesquieu's philosophy of history minimized the role of individual events, he expounded the view in Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence that each historical event was driven by a principal movement: It is not chance that rules the world. Ask the Romans, who had a continuous sequence of successes when they were guided by a certain plan, an uninterrupted sequence of reverses when they followed another.
There are general causes and physical, which act in every monarchy, elevating it, maintaining it, or hurling it to the ground. All accidents are controlled by these causes, and if the chance of one battle—that is, a particular cause—has brought a state to ruin, some general cause made it necessary for that state to perish from a single battle. In a word, the main trend draws with it all particular accidents. In discussing the transition from the Republic to the Empire, he suggested that if Caesar and Pompey had not worked to usurp the government of the Republic, other men would have risen in their place; the cause was not the ambition of man. Montesquieu is credited as being among the progenitors, which include Herodotus and Tacitus, of anthropology, as being among the first to extend comparative methods of classification to the political forms in human societies. Indeed, the French political anthropologist Georges Balandier considered Montesquieu to be "the initiator of a scientific enterprise that for a time performed the role of cultural and social anthrop
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. The term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales and Pythagoras, covering a large area of the globe; the word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek: philosophia "the love of wisdom". The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, the writings of the ancient philosophers, were all intellectual endeavors; this included the problems of philosophy. In the pre-Socratic period, ancient philosophers first articulated questions about the "arche" of the universe. Western philosophy is said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor with Thales of Miletus, active c. 585 BC and was responsible for the opaque dictum, "all is water." His most noted students were Anaximander and Anaximenes of Miletus Pythagoras, from the island of Samos off the coast of Ionia lived in Croton in southern Italy. Pythagoreans hold that "all is number," giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians.
They believe in metempsychosis, the transmigration of souls, or reincarnation. A key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates. Socrates studied under several Sophists but transformed Greek philosophy into a branch of philosophy, still pursued today, it is said that following a visit to the Oracle of Delphi he spent much of his life questioning anyone in Athens who would engage him, in order to disprove the oracular prophecy that there would be no man wiser than Socrates. Socrates used a critical approach called the "elenchus" or Socratic method to examine people's views, he aimed to study human things: the good life, justice and virtue. Although Socrates wrote nothing himself, some of his many disciples wrote down his conversations, he was tried for corrupting the impiety by the Greek democracy. He was sentenced to death. Although his friends offered to help him escape from prison, he chose to remain in Athens and abide by his principles, his execution consisted of drinking the poison hemlock and he died in 399 BC.
Plato was a student of Socrates. Plato founded the Academy of Athens and wrote a number of dialogues, which applied the Socratic method of inquiry to examine philosophical problems; some central ideas of Plato's dialogues are the immortality of the soul, the benefits of being just, that evil is ignorance, the Theory of Forms. Forms are universal properties that constitute true reality and contrast with the changeable material things he called "becoming". Aristotle was a pupil of Plato. Aristotle was the first systematic philosopher and scientist, he wrote about physics, zoology, aesthetics, theater, rhetoric and logic. Aristotelian logic was the first type of logic to attempt to categorize every valid syllogism. Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great, who in turn conquered much of the ancient world at a rapid pace. Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophers, including Hellenistic, Byzantine, Western medieval and Islamic thinkers.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages extending from the Christianization of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance. Medieval philosophy is defined by the rediscovery and further development of classical Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, by the need to address theological problems and to integrate the widespread sacred doctrines of Abrahamic religion with secular learning. Early medieval philosophy was influenced by the likes of Stoicism, but, above all, the philosophy of Plato himself; some problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and unity of God, the object of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, of individuation. The prominent figure of this period was Augustine of Hippo who adopted Plato's thought and Christianized it in the 4th century and whose influence dominated medieval philosophy up to end of the era but was checked with the arrival of Aristotle's texts.
Augustinianism was the preferred starting point for most philosophers up until the 13th century. The Carolingian Renaissance of the 8th/9th century was fed by Church missionaries travelling from Ireland, most notably John Scotus Eriugena, a Neoplatonic philosopher; the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from Catholic Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages. Thomas Aquinas, an academic philosopher and the father of Thomism, was immensely influential in Catholic Europe. Philosophers from the Middle Ages include the Christian philosophers Augustine of Hippo, Anselm, Gilbert de la Porrée, Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, Thomas Aq
Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the early 20th century with the increasing professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy. The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy. However, the phrase is confused with modern philosophy, postmodern philosophy, with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work. Professionalization is the social process by which any trade or occupation establishes the group norms of conduct, acceptable qualifications for membership of the profession, a professional body or association to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs; the transformation into a profession brings about many subtle changes to a field of inquiry, but one more identifiable component of professionalization is the increasing irrelevance of "the book" to the field: "research communiqués will begin to change in ways whose modern end products are obvious to all and oppressive to many.
No longer will researches be embodied in books addressed to anyone who might be interested in the subject matter of the field. Instead they will appear as brief articles addressed only to professional colleagues, the men whose knowledge of a shared paradigm can be assumed and who prove to be the only one able to read the papers addressed to them." Philosophy underwent this process toward the end of the 19th century, it is one of the key distinguishing features of the contemporary philosophy era in Western philosophy. Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy. At the end of 1817, Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia. In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system based on the German model. James Campbell describes the professionalisation of philosophy in America as follows: The list of specific changes is brief, but the resultant shift is total.
No longer could the professor function as a defender of the faith or an expounder of Truth. The new philosopher had to be a publicizer of results; this shift was made obvious when certified philosophy Ph. D.'s replaced theology graduates and ministers in the philosophy classroom. The period between the time when no one had a Ph. D. to when everyone did was brief. The doctorate, was more than a license to teach: it was a certificate that the prospective philosophy instructor was well, if narrowly and ready to undertake independent work in the now specializing and restricted field of academic philosophy; these new philosophers functioned in independent departments of philosophy They were making real gains in their research, creating a body of philosophic work that remains central to our study now. These new philosophers set their own standards for success, publishing in the recognized organs of philosophy that were being founded at the time: The Monist, The International Journal of Ethics, The Philosophical Review, The Journal of Philosophy and Scientific Methods.
And, of course, these philosophers were banding together into societies – the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association – to consolidate their academic positions and advance their philosophic work. Professionalization in England was tied to developments in higher-education. In his work on T. H. Green, Denys Leighton discusses these changes in British philosophy and Green's claim to the title of Britain's first professional academic philosopher: Henry Sidgwick, in a generous gesture, identified Green as Britain's first professional academic philosopher. Sidgwick's opinion can be questioned: William Hamilton, J. F. Ferrier and Sidgwick himself are among the contenders for that honour, yet there can be no doubt that between the death of Mill and the publication of G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica, the British philosophical profession was transformed, that Green was responsible for the transformation. Bentham, the Mills, Coleridge, Spencer, as well as many other serious philosophical thinkers of the nineteenth century were men of letters, active politicians, clergy with livings, but not academics.
Green helped separate the study of philosophical from that of historical texts. When Green began his academic career much of the serious writing on philosophical topic was published in journals of opinion devoted to a broad range of, he helped professionalize philosophical writing by encouraging specialized periodicals, such as'Academy' and'Mind', which were to serve as venues for the results of scholarly research. The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in technical, peer-reviewed journals. While
Nasserism is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President. Spanning the domestic and international spheres, it combines elements of Arab socialism, nationalism, anti-imperialism, developing world solidarity and international non-alignment. In the 1950s and 1960s, Nasserism was amongst the most potent political ideologies in the Arab world; this was true following the Suez Crisis of 1956, the political outcome of, seen as a validation of Nasserism and a tremendous defeat for Western imperial powers. During the Cold War, its influence was felt in other parts of Africa and the developing world with regard to anti-imperialism and non-alignment; the scale of the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967 damaged the standing of Nasser and the ideology associated with him. Though it survived Nasser's death in 1970, certain important tenets of Nasserism were revised or abandoned by his successor Anwar Sadat during what he termed the Corrective Revolution and his Infitah economic policies.
Under the three decade rule of Sadat's successor Hosni Mubarak, most of the remaining socialist infrastructure of Egypt was replaced by neoliberal policies at odds with Nasserist principles. In the international arena, Mubarak departed entirely from traditional Egyptian policy, becoming a steadfast ally of both the United States government and Israel, the latter still viewed by most Egyptians with enmity and distrust, derived from the five wars that Egypt fought against Israel between 1948 and 1973. During Nasser's lifetime, Nasserist groups were encouraged and supported financially by Egypt to the extent that many became seen as willing agents of the Egyptian government in its efforts to spread revolutionary nationalism in the Arab world. In the 1970s, as a younger generation of Arab revolutionaries came to the fore Nasserism outside Egypt metamorphosed into other Arab nationalist and pan-Arabist movements, including component groups of the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War.
The main Nasserite movements that continued to be active until today on the Lebanese scene are represented by the organization in Sidon of populist Nasserist partisans that are led by Oussama Saad and in Beirut as represented by the Al-Mourabitoun movement. Both groups have been active since the early 1950s among Sunni Muslims and they are associated politically with the March 8 coalitions in Lebanese politics. Nasserism continues to have significant resonance throughout the Arab world to this day and informs much of the public dialogue on politics in Egypt and the wider region. Prominent Nasserist Hamdeen Sabahi competed in the first round of the 2012 Egyptian Presidential election and only narrowly avoided securing a position in the run-off against eventual winner Mohamed Morsi. "Nasserism", the broad term used in literature to describe the aspects of Nasser's rule and his legacy, can be interpreted in many ways. Granted that there is a multitude of ways in which the term is read and used, P. J. Vatikiotis in his book Nasser and his Generation argues that Nasserism had the limited political connotation of a phenomenon of "personal charismatic leadership, not to a movement or ideology".
Vatikiotis elaborates upon Nasser's use of speech as a political tool to sway his constituents despite their deprivation of any participation in their leader's policies. To this end, Nasser addressed masses on both radio and television as well as in huge rallies, with a "repeated hypnotic incantation of "imperialism" and "agents of imperialism", "reactionaries", "revenge", "dignity and self-respect", "Zionism" and "Arabism". Crowds were galvanized to hysteria as Nasser excited them with hopes and aspirations of strong leadership and Arab unity. In Rethinking Nasserism and Winckler discuss another interpretation of Nasserism. According to them, "Western social scientists in the 1950s and 1960s, perceived Nasserism as a modernization movement and Nasser as a modernizing leader…Egypt was seen as a typical Third World country undergoing a process of decolonization and, under new revolutionary leadership, aspiring to national prosperity through modernization. Thus, Nasserism was perceived as an attempt to transform Egyptian traditional society through the modernization of its economy and society".
Yet another insight into Nasserism is provided in Political Trends in the Fertile Crescent by Walid Khalidi, who discusses it as not an ideological movement, rather an "attitude of mind", "eclectic, empirical and yet conservative". According to Walidi, Nasserism was able to attract support in the Arab world because it "transferred, if only to the Arab world itself, the center of decisions concerning the future of that world". Khalidi asserts that this change inspired self-confidence in the Arab community, welcome after the recent shock over the loss of Palestine. Nasserism is an Arab nationalist and pan-Arabist ideology, combined with a vaguely defined socialism distinguished from Eastern Bloc or Western socialist thought by the label "Arab socialism". Though opposed ideologically to Western capitalism, Arab socialism developed as a rejection of communism, seen as incompatible with Arab traditions and the religious underpinnings of Arab society; as a consequence, Nasserists from the 1950s to the 1980s sought to prevent the rise of communism in the Arab world and advocated harsh penalties for individuals and organizations identified as attempting
Laurance Spelman Rockefeller was an American businessman, financier and major conservationist. He was a prominent third-generation member of the Rockefeller family, being the fourth child of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. His siblings were Abby, John III, Nelson and David. Rockefeller was born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University and attended Harvard Law School for two years, until he decided he did not want to be a lawyer. On August 22, 1934, in Woodstock, Laurance married childhood friend Mary French, whose mother, Mary Montague Billings French, was a friend of Laurance's mother; when brother Nelson attended Dartmouth College, he shared a room with Mary's brother. Mary was granddaughter of a president of Northern Pacific Railway. Laurance and Mary had a son, they are Laura Rockefeller Chasin, Marion Rockefeller Weber, Dr. Lucy R. Waletzky, Larry Rockefeller, he had 12 great-grandchildren. In 1937, he inherited his grandfather's seat on the New York Stock Exchange.
He served as founding trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund for forty-two years, from its inception in 1940 to 1982. He was a founding trustee of the Rockefeller Family Fund from 1967 to 1977, he was a leading figure in the pioneering field of venture capital, which began as a joint partnership with all five brothers and their only sister, Babs, in 1946. In 1969 this became the successful Venrock Associates, which provided important early funding for Intel and Apple Computer, amongst many other start-up technology companies, including many other firms involved in healthcare. Over the years his investment interests ranged into the fields of aerospace, high temperature physics, composite materials, lasers, data processing, thermionics and nuclear power. Venrock was a limited partnership investment company financed by members of the Rockefeller family and a number of the institutions with which the family had longstanding philanthropic ties, among them the Museum of Modern Art, Rockefeller University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Rockefeller's major interest was in aviation. Rockefeller had learned to fly, found Rickenbacker's vivid accounts of an approaching boom in commercial air travel to be persuasive. Within a decade after Rockefeller's considerable investment, Eastern Airlines had become the most profitable airline to emerge after World War II, he became its largest shareholder. He funded the pivotal post-WWII military contractor McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rockefeller was a longtime friend and associate of DeWitt Wallace, who with his wife in 1922 co-founded Reader's Digest. Wallace, a major funder of the family's Colonial Williamsburg, appointed Laurance as an outside director in the company, he wanted to ensure that it preserved its patriotic mission of informing and educating the public, along with support for national parks, one of Rockefeller's primary interests. Through his resort management company, Inc. Rockefeller opened environmentally focused hotels at Caneel Bay on Saint John, United States Virgin Islands, some property of, turned over to the Virgin Islands National Park.
The last of these, the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, was established in 1965 on the Kohala Coast of the island of Hawaii. Its most noted general manager was Adi Kohler, who wrote the story of the construction of the famous hotel in his book "Mr. Mauna Kea" published by McKenna Publishing Group. While sailing past Virgin Gorda, Rockefeller spotted an idyllic half-mile crescent bay with what he dubbed "wilderness beach". In 1958 planning and land acquisition began for; the resort opened in 1964 and on January 18, 2014 Little Dix Bay celebrated its 50th anniversary. In 1993, the resort became part of Rosewood Hotels & Resorts but remains true to Rockefeller's vision of natural harmony and balance while offering an escape from the ordinary. Rockefeller funded the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at a critical juncture of its early development, he funded William Irwin Thompson's Lindisfarne Association, a think tank and retreat. He had a major involvement in the New York Zoological Society, along with support from other family members and philanthropies.
In 1983, Laurance Rockefeller donated the primary funds to create The Mirror Theater Ltd, a New York-based theater company founded by Sabra Jones. The Mirror Theater Ltd is known for producing the 1983 Broadway play Alice in Wonderland at the Virginia Theatre and for the many plays performed by its Mirror Repertory Company. Rockefeller funded controversial research of the PEAR lab, dealing with consciousness-based physical phenomena. In life, Rockefeller became interested in UFOs. In 1993, along with his niece, Anne Bartley, the stepdaughter of Winthrop Rockefeller and the then-president of the Rockefeller Family Fund, he established the UFO Disclosure Initiative to the Clinton White House, they asked for all UFO information held by the government, including from the CIA and the US Air Force, to be declassified and released to the public. The first and most important test case where declassification had to ap