Codrington College is an Anglican theological college in St. John, Barbados affiliated with the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, it is the oldest Anglican theological college in the Western Hemisphere. Codrington College was founded with the profits from the bequest of Christopher Codrington, who after his death in 1710 left portions of his sugar cane estates – the Codrington Plantations as well as land on Barbados and Barbuda to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to establish a religious college in Barbados; as the sugar cane estates were still operating, the Society and the College benefited directly from the forced labour of African slaves. Compared to his bequest to the Society, Codrington provided £10,000 and 12,000 books to his alma mater, All Souls College, Oxford University. In his will, Codrington wrote, reflecting the spelling of the time period: "Paragraph 8, Item: I give the bequeath my two plantations in Barbados to the Society for Propagation of the Christian Religion in Foreign parts and established by my late good master, King William the Third, my desire is to have the plantations continued Intire and three hundred negroes at least Kept thereon, A convenient number of Professors and Scholars maintained there, all of them to be under the vows of Poverty and Obedience, who shall be obliged to Studdy and Practice Physick and Chyrurgery as well as Divinity, that by the apparent usefulness of the former to all mankind, they may both ender themselves to the people and have better opportunitys of doeing good to mens souls wilst they are taking care of their Bodys.
But the Particulars of the Constitution I leave to the Soiety Comps'd of good and wise men." This bequest is unusual in that it was intended to benefit the non-white population of Barbados, rather than most colonial colleges which benefited the slave-owning class. However, Wilder suggests that Codrington directed that a portion of his charitable bequest be used to educate the enslaved population of Barbados or directly, but this was a gesture blocked by the objections of fellow planters. Moreover, the Society, having taken over the Codrington Plantations continued to use slave labour and branded the word "Society" on the chests of slaves. Slavery only ended when the Slavery Abolition Act was enacted in 1833. At that time, in accordance with the Slave Compensation Act 1837, the Society received funding as compensation for the loss of the slave labour, as was the case for all slave owners. Construction was started in 1714, the college was opened on 9 September 1745 with twelve or 16 male students.
Some of the delay in completing the structure is attributed to disputes regarding the properties and related debts. On 10 October 1780, a hurricane damaged the building. That, plus a downturn in the economic climate led to the school being closed between 1780 and 1797; the Reverend Mark Nicholson was appointed the head of Codrington in 1797 and stayed on until 1821, providing stability for the college and preparing it for the next stage of its development. History would repeat itself in 1831 when the site was completely destroyed by a hurricane but was rebuilt and yet again in 1926 when this time fire gutted the college; the college provided a general education at the grammar school level. Its curriculum was similar to that found in English public schools of that time; this was necessary as there were no schools in Barbados at the time, therefore there was a need to develop first a group of students with basic educational skills and knowledge who could benefit from a college level education. Thomas Moody, a member of a prominent British family of British imperialists, served as mathematics master, writing master, Assistant Headmaster of Codrington College from 1797 to 1805.
Beginning around 1824 and influenced by the first Bishop of the new See of Barbados and the Leeward Islands, Bishop William Hart Coleridge, Codrington made substantial steps towards teaching at the college level. While some advanced studies had been offered as early as 1748, these were taken up by sons of the local gentry before they went to an English university; the first graduate had been ordained in 1759. The grammar school was moved to the Chaplain's lodge so that the college could focus on higher studies and became known as The Lodge School. On 9 September 1830, Codrington College achieved university status, focussing on training students for ordination; this marked it as one of the first theological colleges of the Anglican Church. In 1875, Codrington entered a new stage by entering into an affiliation with Durham University in England. Thus, graduates of Codrington received a Durham degree in classics or theology. Codrington was the first overseas institution to have the right to grant a degree from a British university.
This affiliation in the classics lasted until 1958 by which 283 Codrington graduates had obtained Durham degrees. The terms of the affiliation read: 1. Students of Codrington College and Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone, may have their names placed on the Register of the University as Matriculated Students of the same, provided that the Principal of their College, or other person authorized to act in his behalf, shall have certified to the Warden that they have passed an examination similar to that required for the admission of student, in the se
The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops and deacons. More Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, vestry member, etc. All baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ. "...t might be useful if Anglicans dropped the word minister when referring to the clergy... In our tradition, ordained persons are either bishops, priests, or deacons, should be referred to as such." Each of the provinces of the Anglican Communion has a high degree of independence from the other provinces, each of them have different structures for ministry and governance. However, personal leadership is always vested in a member of the clergy (a bishop at provincial and diocesan levels, a priest and consensus derived by synodical government.
At different levels of the church's structure, laity and bishops meet together with prayer to deliberate over church governance. These gatherings are variously called conferences, general or church-wide conventions, councils and vestries; the effect of Henry VIII's Act in Restraint of Appeals and first Act of Supremacy was to establish royal authority in all matters spiritual and temporal assigning the power of ecclesiastical visitation over the Church in the English Realm. Queen Elizabeth I, while declining the title of Supreme Head, was declared to be "Supreme Governor of this realm... as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal". Thus, although the Church of England was regarded in the sixteenth century as a church of the Reformation, it nonetheless maintained the historic church structure including the maintenance of the threefold order of the ministry, with bishops, consecrated in apostolic succession, ordaining deacons and priests. Thus, Anglican ordained ministry resembles.
While the Puritan ascendency in England introduced a parallel presbyterian polity, Anglicanism worldwide is defined in part by the historic structure, although outside the British Isles it has no supreme governor. In recent years, due to increasing theological differences within the Anglican Communion, there have been a number of instances of "valid but irregular" ordinations performed by clergy acting outside the normal authority structures of the church. Under the Overseas and Other Clergy Measure 1967 the Church of England "recognizes and accepts" as valid the orders of two churches which, although Anglican in identity, are not members of the Anglican Communion: the Church of England in South Africa and the Free Church of England. In Anglican sacramental theology, certain ministerial functions can only be performed by individuals ordained into one or more of the three holy orders. There are two kinds of ministers in this sense; the ordinary minister of a sacrament has both the spiritual power to perform the sacrament and the legal authority to perform the sacrament.
An extraordinary minister has the spiritual power but may only perform the sacrament in certain special instances under canon law. If a person, neither an ordinary nor an extraordinary minister attempts to perform a sacrament, no preternatural effect happens. In the Anglican Communion, the following are ministers of the sacraments: Baptism: clergy. Confirmation: bishop. Eucharist: bishop or priest. Reconciliation of a penitent: bishop or priest. Healing: bishop or priest. Matrimony: the individuals to be married Holy Orders: at least one bishop ordains deacons and priests; the churches of the Anglican Communion maintain the historical episcopate, which ordains clergy into the three orders of deacon and bishop. Bishops provide the leadership for the Anglican Communion, in accordance with episcopal polity. All bishops, constituting a worldwide College of Bishops, are considered to be equal in orders. However, bishops have a variety of different responsibilities, in these some bishops are more senior than others.
All bishops, of diocesan rank and below, are styled the Right Reverend. Most bishops oversee a diocese, some are consecrated to assist diocesan bishops in large or busy dioceses, some are relieved of diocesan responsibilities so they can minister more widely. A few member churches of the Anglican Communion ordain women as bishops, many more have prepared the legislation for women to become bishops but have not yet ordained a woman to the episcopate. Anglican bishops are identified by the purple clergy shirt and cassock they are entitled to wear. However, bishops are permitted to wear other colours, a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, is seen wearing a black cassock. Bishops al
St. Andrew's Anglican Church (San Ignacio)
Founded in 1905, St. Andrew's Church is an active Anglican congregation located on Burns Avenue in San Ignacio, Belize. St. Andrew's Church, a part of the Anglican Diocese of Belize, has played an influential role in San Ignacio's rich history, its mission and ministry have always been located in the downtown area of San Ignacio, with its first house of worship founded on Far West Street. The first priest was the Rev'd C. G. MacArthur, serving from 1905 until 1907. In 1907 a vibrant young Belizean by the name of William Robert Hope took over leadership as deacon. Mr. Hope went on to become Canon William Hope, rector of San Ignacio, the first ordained Belizean priest in the Diocese of Belize, he faithfully served St. Andrew's parish from 1907 until 1918. With a land donation from Mr. John O. Waight, the church and congregation moved to its present location on Burns Avenue in 1918, Canon Hope was called to serve another church in Gales Point; the congregation of St. Andrew's worshipped in temporary quarters, until a beautiful wooden sanctuary was completed near year's end 1925 and consecrated by the bishop on Sunday, February 28, 1926.
The Rev'd Arnold Stackhouse was priest-in-charge at the time. This church became known as the second St. Andrew's Church. A rectory was soon built in front of the church, an existing school building would receive renovations. On Easter Monday, April 13, 1998, the second St. Andrew's Church was demolished, due to irreparable damage by termites. A new concrete sanctuary was built between April 27 and November 7, 1998; the enormous task of fundraising began in 1995 under the talented leadership of English priest, the Rev'd Ian Hutchinson Cervantes, it continued with another talented and devoted English priest, the Rev'd Mark Rogers from 1997. The beautiful sanctuary was constructed by Mr. Marcus Chen, it was dedicated to the glory of Almighty God on November 8, 1998, by the Right Rev'd Sylvester Romero Palma bishop of Belize. Throughout the church's physical changes the altar has remained as the original centerpiece for worship. Canon Hope was instrumental in procuring a donation from England of three beautifully carved panels for the altar.
The altar itself was constructed as a gift by Mr. James Massiah for the church's consecration in 1926; the three carved panels display both sheaves of wheat. St. Andrew's has a long list of distinguished service from priests. However, in most instances, a priest has not served longer than three to four years. Thus, while priests have come and gone, the congregation and its lay leadership have brought the church into the 21st century. St. Andrew's is served by the Right Rev'd Philip Wright, bishop of Belize, Rev'd David B. Alenskis, priest-in-charge and missionary in connexion with SAMS-USA. St. Andrew's Anglican Church on Facebook
Belize City is the largest city in Belize and was once the capital of the former British Honduras. According to the 2010 census, Belize City has a population of 57,169 people in 16,162 households, it is at the mouth of the Haulover Creek, a tributary of the Belize River. The Belize River empties into the Caribbean Sea five miles from Belize City on the Philip Goldson Highway on the coast of the Caribbean; the city is the country's principal port and its financial and industrial hub. Cruise ships drop anchor outside the port and are tendered by local citizens; the city was entirely destroyed in 1961 when Hurricane Hattie swept ashore on October 31. It was the capital of British Honduras until the government was moved to the new capital of Belmopan in 1970. Belize City was founded as "Belize Town" in 1638 by English lumber harvesters, it had been a small Maya city called Holzuz. Belize Town was ideal for the English as a central post because it was on the sea and a natural outlet for local rivers and creeks down which the British shipped logwood and mahogany.
Belize Town became the home of the thousands of African slaves brought in by the English to toil in the forest industry. It was the coordination site for the 1798 Battle of St. George's Caye, won by the British against would-be invaders, the home of the local courts and government officials up to the 1970s. For this reason, historians say that "the capital was the colony", because the center of British control was here; this sentiment remains true today. Though people like Antonio Soberanis, George Price and Evan X Hyde all lobbied to take their movements outside, other ethnic groups such as the Garifuna and Mestizos sprang up elsewhere in the country, people looked to Belize Town for guidance. Belize City has been directly struck by two hurricanes since 1900, the 1931 hurricane and 1961's Hurricane Hattie, at various times areas of the city have burnt down, the most recent being the 1999 Albert Street fire that burnt out Mikado's, a 2004 fire that destroyed the Paslow Building; the city was hit hard by Hurricane Richard in 2010 and by the 2016 Hurricane Earl.
Fires on Northside and Southside have burnt out great stretches of housing, but the fire department was able to quench most of these. The city is susceptible to flooding in the rainy season. Belize City spreads out Mile 6 on the Western Highway and Mile 5 on the Northern Highway, at the Haulover Bridge; the city proper is divided into two areas: Northside, bounded by Haulover Creek and ending in the east at the Fort George area, Southside, extending to the outskirts of the city and the port area including downtown. Politically, it is divided into ten constituencies. Freetown, the westernmost constituency on Northside, is home to the Belama, Coral Grove, Buttonwood Bay and Vista Del Mar suburbs. Within the city proper it extends up to around the former Belize Technical College area. Caribbean Shores includes Kings' Park, a small suburb north and west of Freetown Road, West Landivar, home to two of the University of Belize's three city campuses, residential University Heights. Pickstock inhabits the banks of the Haulover Creek extending to Barrack Road.
St. John's Cathedral stands on the southern end of Albert Street. St. John's is the oldest Anglican Church in Central America, one of the oldest buildings in Belize; the orange bricks came to Belize aboard British ships as ballast. Construction began in 1812, the church was completed in 1820. St. John's is the only Anglican cathedral in the world outside England where the crowning of kings took place. Fort George is the most colonial area in the city and contains Memorial Park, the Baron Bliss Grave and Baron Bliss Lighthouse and the Museum of Belize. On the Southside, Lake Independence and Port Loyola are home to some of the city's poorest residents. "London bridges", rickety wooden pallets linking dwellings, low-strung poles are not uncommon here. On the east side of Central American Boulevard are Mesopotamia, Queen's Square and Albert, which are better. Albert contains the downtown streets of Albert and Regent Streets; the divisions of the city are linked by four bridges: the Swing Bridge, at Market Square and North Front Street.
Numerous smaller bridges link individual streets. The three main canals running in Belize City, are Haulover Creek, Burdon Canal and Collet Canal. All of them run through Southside; the city is served by Philip S. W. Goldson International Airport, in Ladyville, northwest of Belize City, by Belize City Municipal Airport, within the city itself. Belize City features a tropical monsoon climate, with warm and humid conditions throughout the course of the year; the city has a lengthy wet season that runs from May through January and a short dry season covering the remaining three months. However, as is the characteristic of several cities with tropical monsoon climates, Belize City sees some precipitation during its dry season. March is Belize City's driest month with only 48 mm of precipitation observed, a somewhat unusual month for a city with this climate type; the driest month for a city with a tropical monsoon climate is the month after the winter solstice, which in Belize City would be January.
Average monthly temperatures remain constant throughout the course of the year, ranging from 23 °C to 28 °C. B