James Hoge Tyler
James Hoge Tyler was an American soldier and political figure. He served in the Virginia Senate and became the 16th Lieutenant Governor of Virginia and the 43rd Governor of Virginia, he compiled The Family of Hoge, published posthumously in 1927. James Tyler was born at Blenheim plantation in Caroline County, Virginia on August 11, 1846 to George Tyler and his second wife Eliza Hoge, his parents were both descended from the First Families of Virginia. His great-grandfather George Tyler, served as a lieutenant in the Caroline County militia during the American Revolutionary War and descended from Richard Tyler who settled in Essex County in the 17th century, his father George Tyler was the eldest son of Henry Tyler and his wife Lucy Coleman, Two hours after James was born, his mother died of complications from the birth. His maternal grandparents took the boy 300 miles by carriage to their home, subsequently known as Belle Hampton, in Pulaski County, Virginia. There he was raised by his maternal grandparents, General James F. Hoge and Eleanor Haven Howe, as well as his uncle William E. Hoge and his wife Jane with their daughter and two sons of similar ages.
James F. Hoge owned 17 enslaved persons in 1850, more in 1860. Private tutors and his grandfather educated James until General Hoge died in 1861; when James Tyler was ten, his grandmother died and his grandfather soon suffered a stroke. J. H. Tyler inherited a number of properties including Belle-Hampton; the teenager soon joined his father in Caroline County. Because Virginia's secession embroiled Caroline County, Tyler attended a school run by Franklin Minor in Albemarle County. On November 16, 1868, he married Sou Montgomery Hammet of Virginia; the children by that marriage were Edward Hammet Tyler, James Hoge Tyler Jr. Stockton Heth Tyler, Belle Norwood McConnell, Sue Hampton, Henry Clement Tyler and Eleanor. About 1862, when he reached the legal age of 16, J. H. Tyler enlisted in the Army of the Confederate States of America, he remained as a private until the war's end rather than accept a commission as an officer and be separated from his friends. After Virginia's surrender to Union forces, Tyler returned to Pulaski County and tried to resume farming.
He published articles urging manufacturing and mining development. Elected to the Virginia Senate in 1877, he urged state taxes be reduced from 50 to 40 cents and served on the commission to settle the state debt. Tyler was a member of the boards of public buildings at Blacksburg and Marion, became rector of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College. Active in the state Democratic party the statewide organization created by Senator Thomas Staples Martin, Tyler became the organization's candidate for Lieutenant Governor, helped settle the disputed border between Maryland and Virginia, he defeated fellow Confederate veteran James Taylor Ellyson before the party's primary to become its candidate for governor in the Virginia 1897 election. In the general election, voters elected Tyler Governor of Virginia, he won 64.59% of the vote, defeating Republican Patrick H. McCaull, as well as Prohibitionist L. A. Cutler, Socialist John J. Quantz, Independent James S. Cowden. During his term as governor, Tyler reduced the public debt by more than a million dollars, but increased the public school fund by $21,000 and the literary fund by $68,000, reduced the tax rate from 40 to 30 cents.
He settled the boundary dispute between Tennessee and Virginia. After his governorship, Tyler returned to Radford, where he resumed farming and lived with his son Hal Tyler, daughters Lily and Lucy. Tyler spent the last years of his life compiling The Family of Hoge, a genealogy of the descendents of William Hoge and Barbara Hume, his great-great-great-grandparents and the American progenitors of the Hoge Family. A devout Presbyterian, Tyler was thrice elected to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. In 1892 he was a delegate to the Pan Presbyterian Alliance in Toronto, in 1896 became a delegate to the convention in Glasgow, where he presided over one of the sessions, he served on the boards of trustees of Hampden–Sydney College, the Union Theological Seminary and the Synodical Orphans Home at Lynchburg. Governor J. H. Tyler died January 3, 1925 at Halwick, which he built in 1892, which his lawyer son Henry C. Tyler and widowed daughter Lily Wilson helped run, he was buried in Radford at West View cemetery.
The Library of Virginia holds his papers. Halwyck was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989, his childhood home, Blenheim exists, Caroline County officials believe it eligible for similar treatment, but its private owners have not yet chosen to apply for that status, which would entail development restrictions
William Mahone was an American civil engineer, railroad executive, Confederate States Army general, Virginia politician. As a young man, Mahone was prominent in the building of Virginia's railroads; as chief engineer of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, he built log-foundations under the routes in the Great Dismal Swamp in southeast tidewater Virginia that are still intact today. According to local tradition, several new railroad towns were named after the novels of Sir Walter Scott, a favorite British/Scottish author of Mahone's wife Otelia. In the American Civil War, Mahone was pro-secession and served as a general in the southern Confederate States Army, he was best known for regaining the initiative at the late war siege of Petersburg, Virginia while Southern troops were in shock after a huge mine/load of black powder kegs was exploded beneath them by tunnel digging former coal miner Union Army troops resulting in the Battle of the Crater in July 1864. After the war, he returned to railroad building, merging three lines to form the important Atlantic and Ohio Railroad, headquartered in Lynchburg.
He led the Readjuster Party, a temporary state political party with a coalition of freemen blacks and populist Democrats, was elected by the commonwealth General Assembly to the U. S. Senate in 1881, his willingness to caucus with Republicans cost him some support from the white electorate, as did his tolerant treatment of African-American freemen. William Mahone was born at Brown's Ferry near Courtland in Southampton County, Virginia, to Fielding Jordan Mahone and Martha Mahone. Beginning with the immigration of his Mahone ancestors from Ireland, he was the third individual to be called "William Mahone." He did not have a middle name as shown by records including his two Bibles, Virginia Military Institute Diploma, marriage license, Confederate Army commissions. The General and Otelia's first-born son was christened William Mahone; the suffix "Jr." was added to his name in his life, during a period of similar cultural naming transitions in Virginia. The little town of Monroe was on the banks of the Nottoway River about eight miles south of the county seat at Jerusalem, a town, renamed Courtland in 1888.
The river was an important transportation artery in the years before railroads and highways served the area. Fielding Mahone owned considerable farmland; the family narrowly escaped the massacre of local whites during Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831. The local shift of transportation in the area was from the river to the new technology emerging with railroads in the 1830s. In 1840, when William was 14 years old, the family moved to Jerusalem, where Fielding Mahone purchased and operated a tavern known as Mahone's Tavern; as recounted by his biographer, Nelson Blake, the freckled-faced youth of Irish-American heritage gained a reputation in the small town for both "gambling and a prolific use of tobacco and profanity." Young Billy Mahone gained his primary education from a country schoolmaster but with special instruction in mathematics from his father. As a teenager, for a short time, he transported the U. S. Mail by horseback from his hometown to Hicksford, a small town on the south bank of the Meherrin River in Greensville County which combined with the town of Belfield on the north bank to form the current independent city of Emporia.
He was awarded a spot as a state cadet at the opened Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia. Studying under VMI Commandant William Gilham, he graduated with a degree as a civil engineer in the Class of 1847. Mahone worked as a teacher at Rappahannock Academy in Caroline County, beginning in 1848, but was seeking an entry into civil engineering, he did some work helping locate the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, an 88-mile line between Gordonsville and the City of Alexandria. Having performed well with the new railroad, was hired to build a plank road between Fredericksburg and Gordonsville. On April 12, 1853, he was hired by Dr. Francis Mallory of Norfolk, as chief engineer to build the new Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. William Mahone, chief Engineer, advertised for contractors who would regrade the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad for 62 miles from the Warwick Swamp to Norfolk in 1853. Mahone's innovative 12 mile-long roadbed through the Great Dismal Swamp between South Norfolk and Suffolk employed a log foundation laid at right angles beneath the surface of the swamp.
Still in use over 160 years Mahone's corduroy design withstands the immense tonnages of modern coal trains. He was responsible for engineering and building the famous 52 mile-long tangent track between Suffolk and Petersburg. With no curves, it is a major artery of modern Norfolk Southern rail traffic. In 1854, Mahone surveyed and laid out with streets and lots of Ocean View City, a new resort town fronting on the Chesapeake Bay in Norfolk County. With the advent of electric streetcars in the late 19th century, an amusement park was developed there and a boardwalk was built along the adjacent beach area. Most of Mahone's street plan is still in use in the 21st century as Ocean View, now a section of the City of Norfolk, is redeveloped. Mahome was a surveyor for the Norfolk and South Air Line Railroad, on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. On February 8, 1855, Mahone married Otelia Butler, the daughter of the late Dr. Robert Butler from Smithfield, State Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Virginia from 1846 until his death in 1853.
Her mother was Butler's second wife, Otelia Voinard Butler from Petersburg
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Charles Triplett O'Ferrall
Charles Triplett "Trip" O'Ferrall was a Virginian politician who served as a U. S. Representative from 1883 to 1894 and as the 42nd Governor of Virginia from 1894 to 1898. Charles O'Ferrall was born in Virginia to John and Jane Laurens Green O'Ferrall, his father was an innkeeper and former member of the Virginia General Assembly, elected Clerk of Court of Morgan County in 1851. O'Ferrell was educated in the local schools. While recovering from a wound during the Battle of Upperville in the American Civil War in Enterprise, Mississippi, O'Ferrall met Annie Hand, whom he married on February 8, 1865 before returning to active duty, they had two children. After her death, in 1881 he married Jennie Wickliff Knight, with whom he had four more children, who survived him; when John O'Ferrall died in 1855, the local judge thought enough of Charles O'Ferrall to appoint the fifteen-year-old to hold the clerk's post until an election could be held. Charles O'Ferrall was sufficiently respected to win election, at seventeen, to a full six-year term as Clerk of Court.
However, he only served less than half the term. Although Morgan County and what became West Virginia was predominantly pro-Union area, O'Ferrall felt his true allegiance to be to Virginia. Thus, he joined the Confederate side of the war. Enlisting as a private in the 12th Virginia cavalry, O'Ferrall was offered the position of sergeant, he subsequently distinguished himself in several battles, leading to promotion to the rank of major and was allowed to form his own cavalry battalion, the 23rd Virginia Cavalry. By war's end, O'Ferrall was a colonel in command of all cavalry in the Shenandoah Valley, his regiment engaged in the last fight of the war on Virginia soil. O'Ferrall was wounded eight times in battle, including once so that he was left for dead. After the war, O'Ferrall returned to run the family's inn, though he found this both and financially unfulfilling, he decided to pursue a law degree at Washington College. He starting a law practice in Harrisonburg. After restoration of civil rights for former Confederates, O'Ferrall returned to politics, ran for the Virginia House of Delegates in 1871.
However, the next year, he lost his attempt for a seat in the U. S. Congress. In 1874, fellow legislators elected O'Ferrall as judge for Rockingham County. However, he found the job tedious, returned to his private legal practice when his six-year term ended. After several years of practicing law and assisting various Conservative Democratic candidates, O'Ferrall challenged the one-term incumbent John Paul for Virginia's 7th congressional district in 1883; the initial election vote count showed O'Ferrall down by 200 votes, but he contested the result and won the seat. O'Ferrall subsequently won reelection five times. O'Ferrall's congressional career was unremarkable, though he did gain a reputation as a staunch advocate for Virginia and of Democratic President Grover Cleveland. After two failed attempts to gain the Democratic nomination for Virginia's governor, O'Ferrall determined to make a strong push in 1893. With the support of the statewide Democratic organization formed by Virginia's U. S.
Senator Thomas Staples Martin, O'Ferrall won the nomination. The Republicans decided not to contest the election, so O'Ferrall's only opponent was Populist Party candidate Edmund Cocke whom he defeated with 59.71% of the vote. O'Ferrall benefited from fears of populism and negro supremacy to win election with the largest majority that any Virginia governor had received; the first half of O'Ferrall's term as governor was highlighted by his willingness to use strong measures to preserve law and order. He dispatched armed forces to protect nonstriking miners and maintain peace during a miners' strike and to drive Coxey's "army" of protest marchers out of the state. Despite his public stance as a white supremacist, O'Ferrall was quick to send troops to break up mob violence and prevent lynchings, his actions thus defused several high-profile situations, he remained a popular governor through the end of 1895. In 1896, the politics of the Democratic party were dominated by the issue of bimetallism and "Free Silver", alienating O'Ferrall who had always been a staunch advocate of the gold standard.
The silver issue culminated in the selection of William Jennings Bryan as the Democratic 1896 presidential candidate. As a result, O'Ferrall became one of a small group of Virginia Democrats who supported the gold standard and opposed Bryan's candidacy; this stand undermined O'Ferrall's popularity and political support, ensured that he would be a lame duck with no significant political accomplishments for the remainder of his term as governor. 1884. S. House of Representatives with 56.37% of the vote, defeating Republican Dr. Joseph B. Webb. 1886. 1888. Rivercombe. 1890. M. Underwood. 1892. O'Ferrall's opposition to the silver issue not only undermined the last years of his governorship
Sir Francis Wyatt was an English nobleman, knight and government official. He was the first English royal governor of Virginia, he sailed for America on August 1621 on board the George. He became governor shortly after his arrival in October, taking with him the first written constitution for an English colony. Sailing with him on this voyage was his second cousin Henry Fleete Sr. who helped found colonies in both Virginia and Maryland. In 1622 he rallied the defense of Jamestown, attacked by Native Americans, during which the lives of some 400 settlers were lost and he oversaw the contraction of the colony from scattered outposts into a defensive core. Francis was the son of his wife Jane Finch, he was born at Boxley Manor in Kent, attended St Mary Hall and Grey's Inn. He was knighted July 1618 at Windsor. Wyatt was governor of Virginia from November 1621. Virginia became a royal colony in 1624, but Sir Francis, at the request of the crown, remained on as governor until September 18, 1625, when Sir George Yeardley, whom he had succeeded, resumed the office.
In 1624, Wyatt resided in Jamestown with his wife, his brother Haute, seventeen servants. In 1625, he received a black servant girl after a court settlement from her previous employer. After leaving office, he left Virginia for England to settle his father's estate, he was appointed governor again in 1639. He served from November 1639 until February 1641 and was succeeded by Sir William Berkeley, he arranged the purchase of the home of the previous governor to use as the first designated "state house" of the colony, the government having met in the church. Wyatt died in Boxley, he was buried there on August 24, 1644. Sir Francis Wyatt organized the General Assembly, called in 1619; this was the first legislative body in America. Sir Francis caused its privileges to be embodied in a written constitution, the first of its kind in the New World. Francis Wyatt's grandfather was Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger, who had led the Kent faction of Wyatt's rebellion to the Spanish marriage of Queen Mary in support of Lady Elizabeth, was executed for treason as a result.
His great-grandfather Thomas Wyatt the elder, the poet, was imprisoned in the Tower of London for an alleged relationship with Anne Boleyn. Sir Francis's wife Margaret was the daughter of Sir Samuel Sandys and the niece of George Sandys, the treasurer of Jamestown. Francis and Margaret's children included Henry, whose daughter Frances held Boxley. Boxley remained with the earls of Romney for more than two hundred years. Sir Francis left no direct descendants in what would become the United States of America. Sir Francis had a daughter Elizabeth Wyatt who married Christopher Garlington who immigrated to America between 1637 and 1638, he was born in England. He returned to England to marry Elizabeth Wyatt abt. 1644, sister of Sir Dudley Wyatt, Cavalier who came to Virginia. He had served in the army of Charles I, King of England, was one of the grantees of the northern Neck, all the tract of land between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, from Charles I, dated at the St. Germains in France, September 18, 1650.
Virginia was the only place that these faithful soldiers of King Charles I had to go to seek new fortunes. "Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume I, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1800", by Nell Marion Nugent and published in 1934, on Page 186. We see that Christopher Garlington, from a prominent and titled family in England, paid his way to Virginia and purchased land, in Virginia, on or before 1638. Christopher found Virginia to be a safe haven for worshiping and in an attempt to recreate the Garlington fortune; the first record found for Christopher is recorded in:York County, Orders, Etc. Book 2, p. 58: "…Christopher Carlington his heirs executors administrators or asignes to their owne use forever one hundred acres of land sett lying & being at the heed of the New Pocosin River being bounded by the sd river on the North & running South unto the Maine woods & by the Gleabe land on the East side & on the West by the s'd Thomas Curtice …"Christopher Garlington is mentioned in Nell Marion Nugent's Book, "Cavaliers & Pioneers, Volume I, abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1800, Page 371, page 383, Page 467, Page 556, many more.
From these land records it would seem that Christopher Garlington moved from York County to Northumberland County by the year 1658. Christopher Garlington became a substantial tobacco plantation owner. Christopher Garlington III, grandson of Christopher Garlington I, married Elizabeth Conway in Lancaster County, Virginia on May 5, 1724. Miss Conway was born in 1705/1705 to his wife Ann Ball. Ann Ball, daughter of Col. Joseph Ball and Elizabeth Romney Ball, half sister to Mary Ball, the mother of George Washington. Rita Carpenter Jenrette is a direct descendant of Christopher Garlington, his younger brother, the Reverend Hawte Wyatt, the rector of Maidstone, traveled to Virginia with Francis in 1621 and returned with him to England in 1624, after their father died. Rev. Wyatt's many descendants in America include the late Duchess of Windsor, wife of
Farmville is a town in Prince Edward and Cumberland counties in the U. S. state of Virginia. The population was 8,216 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Prince Edward County. The Appomattox River traverses Farmville, along with the High Bridge Trail State Park, a more than 30-mile-long rail trail park. At the intersection of US 15, VA 45 and US 460, Farmville is the home of Longwood University and is the town nearest to Hampden–Sydney College. Near the headwaters of the Appomattox River, the town of Farmville was formed in 1798 and incorporated in 1912. Farmville was the end of the line for the Upper Appomattox Canal Navigation System between 1795 and 1890. African Americans built the canal system. Tobacco and farm produce could be loaded into a James River bateau in Farmville and sent to Petersburg, Virginia; the canals were used. Many of the boatmen who worked in the Upper Appomattox Navigation, near Farmville were free people of color, who lived in the Israel Hill community. Israel Hill was home to free African American laborers and farmers freed around 1810, White people.
People of African and European descent worked for the same wages. John Flournoy was the first to mine coal near Farmville, he started in 1833 working on a seam, two feet thick. In 1837 the General Assembly granted a charter to “The Prince Edward Coal Mining Company” to mine and sell coal; this company was still in operation into the 1880s. Another coal pit in the 1880s was worked on the W. W. Jackson property; the coal from this small pit was used to fuel his blacksmith shop on the same property." Farmville has coal deposits because it sits on the Farmville Basin, one of the Eastern North America Rift Basins west of modern day, Virginia State Route 45. In the 1850s, the Southside Railroad from Petersburg to Lynchburg was built through Farmville; the route, subsidized by a contribution from Farmville, required an expensive crossing of the Appomattox River downstream, which became known as the High Bridge. This became the Atlantic and Ohio Railroad in 1870 and a line in the Norfolk and Western Railway and now the Norfolk Southern Railway.
The bridge and the rail line from Burkville to Pamplin City was converted by Virginia Department of Parks and Recreation into High Bridge Trail State Park. The Virginia General Assembly chartered the Piedmont Coal Company for John Dalby in 1860; the mine was near Buckingham Plank Road, Virginia State Route 600 in Cumberland, a mile and a half west of Raines Tavern, Virginia. Without rail transportation close to Raines Tavern, the transportation cost of getting the coal to Farmville and by rail to Richmond was too high to sell it at a competitive price; the coal was sold locally to people in the area for heating their homes. During the American Civil War, the mines continued to operate but production fell off. Coal was still there, though and Bannon documented seven or eight coal seams and anthracite in 1866. Confederate General Robert E. Lee retreated through Farmville as he escaped the Union Army in the Civil War. Farmville was the object of the Confederate Army's desperate push to get rations to feed its soldiers near the end of the American Civil War.
The rations had been destined for Danville, but an alert quartermaster ordered the train back to Farmville. Despite an advance of the cavalry commanded by Fitzhugh Lee, the Confederate Army was checked by the arrival of Union cavalry commanded by Gen. Philip Sheridan and two divisions of infantry. General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia found, he surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. The Prince Edward county seat was moved from Worsham to Farmville in 1871. There was a brick making industry, in Farmville, using the clay of the Farmville Basin. In 1874, M. R. Murkland built a kiln for his hand-formed bricks, he made around 600,000 bricks each year. The Triassic Clay of the Farmville Basin was mixable and plastic enough and would not shrink too much which made it suitable for bricks. Rail Transport from Cumberland County helped Cumberland farmers sell fruits and timber to Farmville markets. From 1884 to 1917, the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad named the Tidewater and Western Railroad, was important to Cumberland County residents for markets and transportation and the telegraph.
The owners hoped that the line could ship products all the way to the end of the line in Chester and docks in the Tidewater region to make the railroad profitable. The line had trouble competing with the Standard gauge Southside Railroad, it was rumored that the coal near Farmville would draw the Orange & Keysville Railway, chartered and the right of way was purchased, between Farmville and Hampden Sydney. However, the rails were never laid down; the coal field was idle until 1891 when the Farmville Coal and Iron Company began leasing land, selling stock and reopened the Piedmont mines. The company built a one and a half mile spur rail line from the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad to the mine; this railroad provided transport from the mine to the docks at Bermuda Hundred in the Tidewater region. On Jan. 24, 1891, an editor of “The Financial Mining Record” suggested that the Farmville Coal & Iron Company, did not have enough coal production to justify a fraction of its stock price. The Norfolk and Western Railway, since 1883, had been bringing in coal from a new coal mine.
The Pocahontas Coalfield which could provide coal more cheaply and ship the coal on a larger standard gauge, class one railroad. This decreased to the economic viability of mining coal in the Farmville Basins; the Farmville Coal and Iron Company went bankru
Thomas Gates (governor)
Sir Thomas Gates, was the governor of Jamestown, in the English colony of Virginia. His predecessor, George Percy, through inept leadership, was responsible for the lives lost during the period called the Starving Time; the English-born Gates arrived to find a few surviving starving colonists commanded by Percy, assumed command. Gates ruled with deputy governor Sir Thomas Dale, their controlled, strict methods helped. Sir Thomas was knighted in 1596 by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex for gallantry at the Capture of Cadiz, his knighthood was royally confirmed by Queen Elizabeth I. Gates was appointed by the Virginia Company of London, which had established the Jamestown settlement under a Royal Charter for the colonisation of Virginia, he had sailed for Jamestown in 1609, aboard the Sea Venture, the new flagship of the Virginia Company. The Sea Venture was part of the Third Supply, a fleet of seven ships, towing two pinnacles, intended to deliver new settlers and needed supplies. At sea, the ships of the Third Supply were separated by a three-day storm now thought to have been a large hurricane.
The Admiral of the Virginia Company, Sir George Somers, had taken the helm to fight the storm, deliberately drove the ship onto rocks to prevent its foundering. The rocks proved to be the reef line to the east of the uninhabited archipelago now known as Bermuda; the other ships went on to Jamestown. The 150 survivors spent the next ten months in Bermuda building two new ships on which to complete the journey to Jamestown. Two factions developed, due to a dispute between Gates and Somers over, now the superior; as an appointed officer for Jamestown, Gates felt. Somers felt that he retained authority until the settlers, including Gates, were landed at Jamestown; the two new ships, the Deliverance and the Patience were completed and sailed for Virginia in 1610. They left two men to maintain their claim of Bermuda for England; the Charter of the Virginia Company would be extended to include Bermuda in 1612. Since, Bermuda has been known as The Somers Isles. Sir Thomas Gates left his own name on a part of the colony, Gate's Bay, where the survivors of the Sea Venture landed.
The oldest surviving fort in Bermuda, built between 1612 and 1615, is known as Gate's Fort. Many scholars believe. Sir Thomas Gates had a cross erected before leaving Bermuda, on, a copper tablet inscribed in Latin and English: In Memory of our deliverance both from the Storme and the Great leake wee have erected this cross to the honour of God, it is the Spoyle of an English Shippe of 300 tonnes called SEA VENTURE bound with seven others to Virginia or NOVA BRITANIA in America. In it were two Knights, Sir Thomas Gates, Knight Governor of the English Forces and Colonie there: and Sir George Somers, Knight Admiral of the Seas, her Captain was Christopher Newport. Passengers and mariners she fiftie. Wee were forced to runne her ashore under a point that bore South East from the Northerne Point of the Island which wee discovered first on the eighth and twentieth of July 1609. On reaching Jamestown, only 60 of the 500 settlers landed there were found alive through the winter of 1609–1610 which became known as the "Starving Time".
The condition of the settlement was so poor that it was decided to abandon it and return everyone to England. However, the timely arrival of another relief fleet under Lord De La Warr gave the colony a reprieve. Gates' actions as governor were recorded by his secretary William Strachey, were published as the book "A True Reportory of the wracke, redemption of Sir THOMAS GATES, Knight." After Samuel Argall kidnapped Pocahontas in April 1613, Gates was fearful of reprisal from Chief Powhatan, turned the Algonquian princess over to Dale in Henricus. She met John Rolfe during her captivity three months later. Reverend Alexander Whitaker converted Pocahontas to Christianity, she adopted the name "Rebecca". Gates would go on to establish at least three new forts along the James River, as well as blockhouses, a wharf, a governors house. Gates would lead an armed force against the Powhatans, defeating them, was governor when Sir Thomas Dale established the first permanent English colony outside of Jamestown, called Henricus.
Gates' actions caused him to be considered a national hero upon his return to England, something the Virginia Company badly needed due to their previous dip in investors. Gates was outspoken in support of future expeditions to the New World, warned his superiors that the colonies would fail without proper supplies. In November 1619, the Virginia Company's new treasurer, Sir Edwin Sandys, praised Gates' "Wisdom and valour, accompanied with exceeding paines and patience, in the midst of many difficulties." Gates died in the Netherlands sometime before September 7, 1622. Sir Dudley Carleton was quoted, saying that Gates was "an ancient honest gentleman of this nation." Gates had five children at his death, Anthony, Margaret and Elizabeth. Gates Bay in Bermuda is named in his honor, is purportedly the bay where the Sea Venture landed. Gates Fort named in his honor, is a point of interest in St. George, Bermuda. Source used: America: Past and Present. Genealogy Magazine Bermuda’s Immigrants to the Colonies.
Bermuda Online Bermudian Forts. Experience