Pope Eugene III
Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope, in response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade. The crusade failed to recapture Edessa, which was the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade and he was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity. Little is known about his origins and family except that he was son of a certain Godius, in 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter in Pisa and from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa, between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained into the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa. Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138, a year he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia.
In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome, Bernardo was elected pope in February 1145 and took the pontifical name of Eugene III. The choice did not have the approval of Bernard, but after the choice was made, he took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to virtually rule in his name. During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome, but as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, and at Siena, at a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and many of his nobles were incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard. Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris, Rheims and he considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In June 1148, Eugene III returned to Italy and took up his residence at Viterbo and he fled to Prince Ptolemys fortress in Tusculum on 8 April 1149 and remained there, where he met the returning Crusader king Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine.
He stayed there until 7 November, at the end of November 1149, through the aid of the King of Sicily, he was again able to enter Rome, but the jealousy of the republicans soon compelled him to retire. The Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had promised to aid him against his revolted subjects, though the citizens of Rome were jealous of the efforts of Eugene III to assert his temporal authority, they were always ready to recognize him as their spiritual lord. Besides that, they deeply reverenced his personal character, accordingly, he was buried in the Vatican with every mark of respect, and his tomb soon acquired an extraordinary fame for miraculous cures. The people of Rome were quick to recognize Eugene III as a figure who was meek. His tomb acquired considerable fame due to the miracle purported to have occurred there, Pope Pius IX beatified him in 1872. Knights Templar Original text from the 9th edition of an unnamed encyclopedia, Original referred to him as Eugene – modified to match spelling on Popes list
Henry of France, Archbishop of Reims
Henry of France, Bishop of Beauvais, Archbishop of Reims, was the third son of Louis the Fat, King of France and his second wife Adélaide de Maurienne. As the third son of the King Henry was destined for a place in the church from an age, tonsured at the age of thirteen. He advanced by stages through the hierarchy, probably with a view to preparing him for a position of the highest rank. In 1146, however, he was converted from his life as a wealthy secular cleric by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Pope Eugenius III, himself a former Cistercian monk, speaks of Henry in 1147 as humbly washing dishes at Clairvaux, in 1149, on the death of Bishop Odo III of Beauvais, the cathedral chapter, persuaded by Bernard of Clairvaux, elected Henry as their bishop. Henry was ill-prepared for the political responsibilities of his new office, King Louis backed the town, while Henry was supported by his younger brother Robert, Count of Dreux. The conflict was settled by Pope Eugenius III in 1151. In 1161 Henry became Archbishop of Reims, succeeded at Beauvais by Bartholomew of Montcornet, Henry organised an important church council at Reims in 1164.
He again found himself in conflict with the populace of his city, the revolt was suppressed and Archbishop Henry devoted himself to beautifying and fortifying Reims, which included building the castles of Septsaulx and Cormicy. “Henri de France, ” in Alfred Baudrillart, et al. eds, dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, XXIII, cols. Henri de France, archevêque de Reims, “Henri de France et Louis VII. L’Évêque cistercien et son frère le roi, ” [in Les Serviteurs de l’État au Moyen Âge, actes du XXIXe Congrès de la Société des historiens médiévistes de l’enseignement supérieur public. Ludwig Falkenstein, “Alexandre III et Henri de France, Conformités et conflits, ” in, Rolf Grosse, dietrich Lohrmann, “Autour d’un acte d’Henri, évêque de Beauvais, concernant trois granges de Froidmont, ” in Michel Parisse, ed. A Propos des actes d’évêques, Hommage à Lucie Fossier, Presses Universitaires de Nancy,1991, pp. 161–167
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as a title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning father or abba, in the Septuagint, it was written as abbas. At first it was employed as a title for any monk. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests. An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, the English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under him, by the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot any exception, for the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church. This rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, the change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD448,23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century. The Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight, in the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.
It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Albans, next after the abbot of St Albans ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, the power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, however, by the canon law. One of the goals of monasticism was the purgation of self and selfishness
Hubris describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is hubristic, Hubris is usually perceived as a characteristic of an individual rather than a group, although the group the offender belongs to may unintentionally suffer consequences from the wrongful act. Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of ones own competence, Hubris is generally considered a sin in world religions. In ancient Greek, hubris referred to actions that shamed and humiliated the victim for the pleasure or gratification of the abuser, the term had a strong sexual connotation, and the shame reflected on the perpetrator as well. Violations of the law against hubris included what might today be termed assault and battery, sexual crimes, two well-known cases are found in the speeches of Demosthenes, a prominent statesman and orator in ancient Greece. These two examples occurred when first Midias punched Demosthenes in the face in the theatre, and second when a defendant allegedly assaulted a man, aeschines brought this suit against Timarchus to bar him from the rights of political office and his case succeeded.
In Ancient Athens, hubris was defined as the use of violence to shame the victim, Hubris is not the requital of past injuries, this is revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this, crucial to this definition are the ancient Greek concepts of honour and shame. The concept of honour included not only the exaltation of the one receiving honour and this concept of honour is akin to a zero-sum game. Rush Rehm simplifies this definition of hubris to the concept of insolence, contempt. In its modern usage, hubris denotes overconfident pride combined with arrogance, Hubris is often associated with a lack of humility. The proverb pride goeth before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall is thought to sum up the use of hubris. Hubris is referred to as pride that blinds, as it causes a committer of hubris to act in foolish ways that belie common sense. In other words, the definition may be thought of as. Victor in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein manifests hubris in his attempt to become a great scientist by creating life through technological means, but eventually regrets this previous desire.
Chinua Achebes novel Things Fall Apart has been called a modern Greek tragedy, the characters Pride and Father in the popular manga Fullmetal Alchemist were inspired by the sin of hubris. One notable example is the Battle of Little Big Horn, as General George Armstrong Custer was apocryphally reputed to have there, Where did all those damned Indians come from. In business word many cases of social scandals were explained by managerial hubris, more recently, in his two-volume biography of Adolf Hitler, historian Ian Kershaw uses both hubris and nemesis as titles
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, hence his nickname, immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she conveyed Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England in 1154, as Henry II, Henrys efforts to preserve and expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VIIs reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and he died in 1180 and was succeeded by his son Philip II. Louis was born in 1120 in Paris, the son of Louis VI of France. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career, in October 1131, his father had him anointed and crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. He spent much of his youth in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger, an advisor to his father who served Louis well during his early years as king.
Following the death of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Louis VI moved quickly to have Prince Louis married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of the late duke, on 25 July 1137. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, on 1 August 1137, shortly after the marriage, Louis VI died, and Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure, she once declared that she had thought to marry a king. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters and Alix, in the first part of his reign, Louis VII was vigorous and zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by no other than uprisings by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers. He soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, the pope thus imposed an interdict upon the king. As a result, Champagne decided to side with the pope in the dispute over Bourges, the war lasted two years and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François, more than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.
Overcome with guilt and humiliated by ecclesiastical reproach, Louis admitted defeat, removed his armies from Champagne and he accepted Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges and shunned Raoul and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he declared his intention of mounting a crusade on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges, bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay on Easter 1146. In the meantime, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy in 1144, in exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region vital to Norman security — to Louis
Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV was pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159. As of 2017, Adrian IV is the only Englishman to have occupied the papal throne and it is believed that he was born in Bedmond in the parish of Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and received his early education at the Abbey School, St Albans. Nicholas father was Robert, who became a monk at St Albans. Nicholas went to Paris and became a regular of the cloister of St Rufus monastery near Arles. He rose to be prior and was soon unanimously elected abbot. This election has been dated to 1137, but evidence from the abbeys chronicles suggests that it happened about 1145. From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as papal legate, establishing an independent archepiscopal see for Norway at Trondheim and this led him to create the Diocese at Hamar, according to tradition, to form cathedral schools in Norways bishopric cities. These schools were to have an effect on education and Catholic spirituality in Norway. Nicholas made arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Gamla Uppsala as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164, as compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden.
Nicholas was accompanied to Scandinavia by another English-born priest, Bishop of Finland, on his return to Rome, Nicolas was received with great honour by Pope Anastasius IV. On the death of Anastasius, Nicholas was chosen as pope on 3 December 1154 and he at once endeavoured to bring down Arnold of Brescia, the leader of the anti-papal faction in Rome. Disorder within the city led to the murder of a cardinal, prompting Adrian, shortly before Palm Sunday 1155 and this act greatly diminished the seasonal influx of pilgrims, thus damaging the local economy. Without Easter services the pilgrims would not visit, the Senate exiled Arnold, in 1155, Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus reconquered southern Italy, landing his forces in the region of Apulia. Making contact with local rebels who were hostile to the Sicilian crown, Greek forces quickly overran the coastlands, Pope Adrian IV watched these developments with some satisfaction. The Papacy was never on good terms with the Normans of Sicily, for Adrian, having the Eastern Roman Empire on its southern border was preferable to having to deal constantly with the troublesome Normans.
Therefore, negotiations were carried out, and an alliance was formed between Adrian and Manuel. Adrian undertook to raise a body of troops from Campania. Meanwhile, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire, this was, negotiations for union of the eastern and western churches, which had been in a state of schism since 1054, soon got under way
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum. Its suffragan dioceses, created in 1966 and encompassing the region, are in Créteil, Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes, Nanterre, Saint-Denis. Its liturgical centre is at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, the archbishop resides on rue Barbet de Jouy in the 6th arrondissement, but there are diocesan offices in rue de la Ville-Eveque, rue St. Bernard and in other areas of the city. The archbishop is ordinary for Eastern Catholics in France, the title of Duc de Saint-Cloud was created in 1674 for the archbishops. Prior to 1790 the diocese was divided into three archdeaconries, Hurepoix, until the creation of new dioceses in 1966 there were two archdeaconries, Madeleine and St. Séverin. The churches of the current diocese can be divided into several categories and these are grouped into deaneries and subject to vicars-general who often coincide with auxiliary bishops.
Ii) Churches belonging to religious communities, iii) Chapels for various foreign communities using various languages. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series, VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi, IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi, X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. Fastes épiscopaux de lancienne Gaule, II, le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusquà nos jours. Histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France, les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusquà1801.
Lépiscopat français depuis le Concordat jusquà la Séparation, List of religious buildings in Paris List of Roman Catholic archdioceses Official website Herbermann, Charles, ed. Paris
Louis VI of France
Louis VI, called the Fat, was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him roi de Saint-Denis, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power considerably and became one of the first strong kings of France since the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843. Louis was a king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was increasingly difficult for him to lead in the field. Louis was born on 1 December 1081 in Paris, the son of Philip I and his first wife, and. How valiant he was in youth, and with what energy he repelled the king of the English, William Rufus, when he attacked Louis inherited kingdom. Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, a French crown princess, in 1104, on 3 August 1115 Louis married Adelaide of Maurienne, daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II. Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens and her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. During her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king, suger became Louiss adviser before he became king and he succeeded his father at the age of 26 on 29 July 1108.
Louiss half-brother prevented him from reaching Rheims, and so Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens, ralph the Green, Archbishop of Rheims, sent envoys to challenge the validity of the coronation and anointing, but to no avail. When Louis ascended the throne the Kingdom of France was a collection of feudal principalities, beyond the Isle de France the French Kings had little authority over the great Dukes and Counts of the realm but slowly Louis began to change this and assert Capetian rights. This process would take two centuries to complete but began in the reign of Louis VI, the second great challenge facing Louis was to counter the rising power of the Anglo-Normans under their capable new King, Henry I of England. From early in his reign Louis faced the problem of the barons who resisted the Kings authority and engaged in brigandry. In 1108, soon after he ascended the throne, Louis engaged in war with Hugh of Crecy, who was plaguing the countryside and had captured Eudes, Count of Corbeil, Louis besieged that fortress to free Eudes.
In early 1109, Louis besieged his half-brother, the son of Bertrade de Montfort, philips plots included the lords of Montfort-lAmaury. Amaury III of Montfort held many castles which, when linked together, in 1108-1109 a seigneur named Aymon Vaire-Vache seized the lordship of Bourbon from his nephew, Archambaud, a minor. Louis demanded the boy be restored to his rights but Aymon refused the summons, Louis raised his army and besieged Aymon at his castle at Germigny-sur-lAubois, forcing its surrender and enforcing the rights of Archambaud. In 1122, Bishop of Clermont, appealed to Louis after William VI, Count of Auvergne, had driven him from his episcopal town. When William refused Louis summons, Louis raised an army at Bourges, and marched into Auvergne, supported by some of his vassals, such as the Counts of Anjou, Brittany. Louis seized the fortress of Pont-du-Chateau on the Allier, attacked Clermont, four years William rebelled again and Louis, though his increasing weight made campaigning difficult, marched again