Patria del Friuli
The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs; the former Duchy of Friuli in the Italian Kingdom of the Lombards had been conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and incorporated as a march of the Carolingian Empire. When in 952 King Otto I of Germany invaded Italy, he added the Friulian territory to the March of Verona, ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria, from 976 by the Dukes of Carinthia. During the Investiture Controversy of 1077, King Henry IV of Germany deposed the Veronese margrave Duke Berthold II of Carinthia, as he had sided with antiking Rudolf of Rheinfelden. On 3 April 1077 at Pavia Henry, on his way back from the Walk to Canossa, vested Patriarch Sieghard of Beilstein with immediate comital rights in the Friulian lands of Verona, raising him to the status of a Prince-Bishop.
The remaining margraviate passed with the Carinthian duchy to Henry's liensman Liutold of Eppenstein. Sieghard in turn safely conducted the king across the Alps. Back in Germany, King Henry in addition nominally assigned the suzerainty over the marches of Carniola and Istria to the patriarchs as ecclesiastical Princes of the Holy Roman Empire; the act, traditionally regarded as the birth of the ecclesiastical state of Aquileia, led to a long-running conflict with the rivaling margraves from the Carinthian House of Sponheim and the Andechs dukes of Merania. The Patriarchate subsequently extended its political control in the area: regions under Aquileian control in the following centuries included the Friulian lands up to Cadore, the city of Trieste and the central parts of the Istrian peninsula. At its maximum height, the Patriarchate of Aquileia was one of the largest states in Italy. Noblemen from the Patriarchate were participants in the Crusades. In 1186 Patriarch Gottfried crowned Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI, as King of Italy: in retaliation, Pope Urban III deposed him.
From 1127 the vogts at Gorizia from the Meinhardiner dynasty emerged from Aquileia, calling themselves Counts of Görz. Their autonomy was strengthened, when they inherited the Imperial County of Tyrol in 1253 and were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Charles IV in 1365. In the early 13th century under Volchero and Bertrand, the Patriarchate had a flourishing economy and cultural life, supported by a good road network. Damaged by earthquakes and other calamities, reduced to a few hundred inhabitants, Aquileia was nearly abandoned in the 14th century; the capital of the state was moved first to Cividale and from 1238, to Udine in central Friuli, a favourite residence of the patriarch since the 13th century and soon became a large city. The patriarchs had regained the rule of the Istrian march from the Dukes of Merania in 1209. However, they had to cope with the rising naval power of the Republic of Venice, which in the late 13th century had occupied the western Istrian coast from Capodistra down to Rovinj.
In 1291 a peace was made in Treviso, whereupon the western coast of the peninsula fell to Venice. In the late century the patriarchate had to face the increasing rivalry with Venice, as well as the inner strifes between its vassals, became entangled in the endless wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines. In 1331 Venice incorporated Pola in the south. A certain recovery occurred during the rule of Bertrand, a successful administrator and military leader, he was killed in 1350 at the age of ninety. The Counts of Görz had retained some interior Istrian lands around Pazin, which they bequeathed to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1374. In view of the Venetian threat, the city of Trieste submitted to the Habsburgs in 1382. Since the transfer of the patriarchal residence to Udine, the Venetians had never lived in peace with the Patriarchate, of whose Imperial favour and tendencies they were jealous. From about 1400, Venice under the Doge Michele Steno and his successor Tommaso Mocenigo began to enlarge its dogado by occupying the Aquileia hinterlands.
At the same time, the Patriarchate suffered internal conflict between the citizens of Cividale and Udine. In 1411 this turned into a war, to mark the end of the Patriarchate, Cividale having received support from most of the Friulian communes, the Carraresi of Padua, King Sigismund of Germany King of Hungary, while Udine was backed by the Venetians. In the December of that year an Imperial army captured Udine and, in the following January, Louis of Teck was implemented as patriarch in the city's cathedral. On July 23, 1419 the Venetians conquered prepared to do the same with Udine; the city fell on June 1420 after a long siege. Soon afterwards Gemona, San Daniele and Tolmezzo followed; the temporal authority of the patriarch was lost on 7 July 1420 when its territories were secularised by Venice. Doge Francesco Foscari in 1433 signed an agreement with Emperor Sigismund, whereby the Empire ceded the Domini di Terraferma, stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Alps, to the Republic officially as an Imperial fief.
The territory around Gorizia and Aquileia proper was retained by the Counts of Görz. The former Görz territories were incorporated into the Inner Austrian possessions of the Habsburgs. In 1445, after Patriarch Ludovico Trevisan at the Council of Florence had acquiesced in the loss of his ancient temporal estate in return for an annual salary of 5,000 duc
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269. With Ottokar's rule, the Přemyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire, his expectations of the imperial crown, were never fulfilled. Ottokar was the second son of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. Through his mother, daughter of Philip of Swabia, he was related to the Holy Roman Emperors of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, which became extinct in the male line upon the execution of King Conradin of Sicily in 1268. Named after his grandfather King Přemysl Ottokar I, he was educated for the role of an ecclesiastical administrator, while his elder brother Vladislaus was designated heir of the Bohemian kingdom, he was educated by the Bohemian chancellor Philip of Spanheim, who would become a rival for the rule of the Duchy of Carinthia.
When his brother Vladislaus died in 1247, Ottokar became the heir to the Bohemian throne. According to popular oral tradition, he was profoundly shocked by his brother's death and did not involve himself in politics, becoming focused on hunting and drinking, his father appointed the new heir as Margrave of Moravia, Ottokar took up residence in Brno, where he was occupied with the reconstruction of the Moravian lands devastated by Mongol raids of 1242. In 1248 some discontented nobles enticed him into leading a rebellion against his father King Wenceslaus. During this rebellion he was elected "the younger King" on 31 July 1248 and temporarily expelled his father from Prague Castle. Přemysl Ottokar II held the title of King of Bohemia until November 1249. However, Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Ottokar, whereafter Wenceslaus managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son at Přimda Castle. Father and son reconciled to assist the king's aim of acquiring the neighbouring Duchy of Austria, where the last Babenberg duke, Frederick II had been killed in the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River.
King Wenceslaus had attempted to acquire Austria by marrying his heir, Vladislaus, to the last duke's niece Gertrude of Babenberg. That marriage came to an end after half a year with Vladislaus's death in January 1247, in 1248 Gertrude married the Zähringen margrave Herman VI of Baden. Herman, rejected by the Austrian nobility, could not establish his rule. Wenceslaus used this as pretext to invade Austria when Herman died in 1250 — according to some sources, the estates called upon him to restore order. Wenceslaus released Přemysl Ottokar soon and in 1251 again made him Margrave of Moravia and installed him, with the approval of the Austrian nobles, as governor of Austria; the same year Ottokar entered Austria. To legitimize his position, Přemysl Ottokar married the late Duke Frederick II's sister Margaret of Babenberg, his senior by 30 years and the widow of the Hohenstaufen king Henry of Germany, their marriage took place on 11 February 1252 at Hainburg. In 1253 King Wenceslaus died and Přemysl Ottokar succeeded his father as King of Bohemia.
After the death of the German King Konrad IV in 1254 while his son Conradin was still a minor, Ottokar hoped to obtain the Imperial dignity - as King of the Romans - for himself. However, his election bid was unsuccessful and Count William II of Holland, the German anti-king since 1247, was recognised. Feeling threatened by Ottokar's growing regional power beyond the Leitha River, his cousin King Béla IV of Hungary challenged the young king. Béla formed a loose alliance with the Wittelsbach duke Otto II of Bavaria and tried to install his own son Stephen as Duke of Styria, which since 1192 had been ruled in personal union with Austria under the terms of the Georgenberg Pact of 1186. Papal mediation settled the conflict: the parties agreed that Ottokar would yield large parts of Styria to Béla in exchange for recognition of his right to the remainder of Austria. Subsequently King Ottokar II led the two crusade expeditions against the pagan Old Prussians. Königsberg, founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Order, was named in his honour and became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia.
After a few years of peace the conflict with Hungary resumed: Ottokar defeated the Hungarians in July 1260 at the Battle of Kressenbrunn, ending years of disputes over Styria with Béla IV. Béla now ceded Styria back to Ottokar, his claim to those territories was formally recognized by Richard of Cornwall king of Germany and nominal ruler of all the German lands; this peace agreement was sealed by a royal marriage. Ottokar ended his marriage to Margaret and married Béla's young granddaughter Kunigunda of Halych, who became the mother of his children; the youngest of them became his only legitimate son, Wenceslaus II. During the Imperial Imperial interregnum of 1250 to 1273, Ottokar could increase his personal influence while Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile jostled to attain the Imperial dignity. In 1266 he occupied the Egerland in north-west Bohemia, in 1268 he signed an inheritance treaty with the Sponheim duke Ulrich III of Carinthia, succeeding him in Carinthia and the Windic March the next year.
In 1272 he acquired Friuli. His rule was once again contested by the Hungarians on the field of battle. After another victory, Ottokar became the most powerful king within the Empire. After Richard of Cornwall died in April 1272 and Pope Gregory X rejected the claims raised by Alfonso of Ca
Bernhard von Spanheim
Bernhard von Spanheim, a member of the noble House of Sponheim, was Duke of Carinthia for 54 years from 1202 until his death. A patron of chivalry and minnesang, Bernhard's reign marked the emergence of the Carinthian duchy as an effective territorial principality. In 1122 Bernhard's ancestor Count Henry of Sponheim, descending from Rhenish Franconia, had inherited the Imperial estate of Carinthia. Upon his death in the following year, he was succeeded by his younger brother Engelbert, Bernhard's great-grandfather, his father was Duke Herman of Carinthia, who had reigned from 1161 until 1181. He was at first succeeded by Bernhard's elder brother Duke Ulrich II, who reigned for two decades but died childless on 10 August 1202, whereafter Bernhard succeeded him, his mother was Agnes of a member of the House of Babenberg. Bernhard had been regent over the Carinthian duchy since his elder brother Duke Ulrich II had fallen ill with leprosy, after he had joined the Crusade of 1197. In the conflict between the rivaling House of Hohenstaufen and the Welfs around the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI, he continued his brother's support for their Hohenstaufen relative Philip of Swabia but turned to the Welf Otto IV after Philipp's assassination in 1208 and attended his coronation in Rome.
Bernhard again switched sides to Philip's nephew Frederick II, elected King of the Romans in 1212 and prevailed. Bernhard remained a loyal supporter of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, he backed the efforts by Grand Master Hermann von Salza to reach a reconciliation between Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX and sealed a 1230 peace agreement in the church of San Germano. He also intermediated in the conflict between the emperor and his rebellious son King Henry VII. However, in his years, having established marital relationships with the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty and the Counts of Andechs, he turned away from straitened Frederick II towards the ultramontane party. In 1247 he achieved the election of his younger son Philip as Archbishop of Salzburg. A territorial prince at his own judgement, Bernhard concentrated on regional politics and aimed at extending his estates against rivalling territorial princes like Patriarch Berthold of Aquileia or the Bishops of Bamberg controlling the city of Villach and important trade routes to Italy, albeit without much success.
Moreover, the Salzburg archbishops were able to strengthen their position by establishing the suffragan dioceses of Seckau and Lavant in 1218 and 1225 while the duke picked a long-time quarrel with Count Meinhard III of Gorizia around the small Greifenburg estates. In turn, Bernhard entrenched a ducal centre of force comprising the city triangle of Sankt Veit, where he established a mint in 1205, Völkermarkt, Klagenfurt, the Carinthian capital that he had transferred to its present location in 1246. Bernhard's court in Sankt Veit was the site of festive chivalrous tournaments and a venue of minnesingers like Walther von der Vogelweide. In his Frauendienst poem, Ulrich von Liechtenstein renders his arrival in Carinthia in the guise of a Venus in 1227, when Duke Bernhard received him with the Slovene salutation Buge vas primi, gralva Venus. Bernhard's hopes to extend his influence after the extinction of the Austrian Babenberg dynasty in 1246 were disappointed, he gained control over the strategically important Loibl Pass and Seeberg Saddle, leading through the Karawanks mountain range to the adjacent March of Carniola in the south, where his son Ulrich III in 1248 became margrave upon his marriage with Agnes of Andechs, daughter of Duke Otto I of Merania.
He is credited as founding the Kostanjevica Cistercian Abbey in Lower Carniola about 1234. Bernhard is buried at St. Paul's Abbey in the Lavanttal. Duke Bernhard's exalted rank corresponds to his wedding with Judith, daughter of the Přemyslid King Ottokar I of Bohemia and the Árpád princess Constance of Hungary, in 1213. Four known children result from the marriage: Ulrich III, Duke of Carinthia 1256-1269, Margrave of Carniola since 1248 Bernhard of Carinthia Margaret of Carinthia Philip of Spanheim, Archbishop of Salzburg from 1247 to 1256 and Patriarch of Aquileia from 1269 to 1273; the relationship with the Přemyslid dynasty became crucial, when Bernhard's son Duke Ulrich III died without heirs in 1269. His younger brother Philip was claimant to the estates of Carinthia and Carniola, he could not prevail against his first cousin King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who in 1268 had signed an inheritance treaty with late Duke Ulrich. Though Philip reached his enfeoffment by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany in 1275, he could not assume the rule after King Ottokar II was killed at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld.
Loud, Graham A.. The Origins of the German Principalities, 1100-1350: Essays by German Historians. Taylor & Francis
Duchy of Styria
The Duchy of Styria was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary until its dissolution in 1918, it was created by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1180 when he raised the March of Styria to a duchy of equal rank with neighbouring Carinthia and Bavaria, after the fall of the Bavarian duke Henry the Lion earlier that year. Margrave Ottokar IV thereby became the first Duke of Styria and the last of the ancient Otakar dynasty; as Ottokar had no issue, he in 1186 signed the Georgenberg Pact with the mighty House of Babenberg, rulers of Austria since 976, after which both duchies should in perpetuity be ruled in personal union. Upon his death in 1192, Styria as stipulated fell to the Babenberg duke Leopold V of Austria; the Austrian Babenbergs became extinct in 1246, when Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome was killed in battle against King Béla IV of Hungary.
Styria a ceased Imperial fief, due to the lack of a central authority after the deposition of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen evolved into a matter of dispute among the neighbouring estates. It passed through the hands of Hungary in 1254, until the Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl conquered it, being victorious at the 1260 Battle of Kressenbrunn; as King Ottokar II had married the last duke's sister Margaret of Babenberg he laid claim to both Austria and Styria, which however met with strong opposition by the elected German king Rudolph of Habsburg, who now recalled the duchies as reverted fiefs. Rudolph defeated Ottokar at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, seized Austria and Styria and granted them to his sons Albert I and Rudolf II; the House of Habsburg provided Styria with dukes of their lineage since. It however was separated from Austria by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, after which Styria and Carniola formed the Inner Austrian territory ruled by the descendants of Leopold III of Habsburg of the Leopoldian line, who took their residence at Graz.
In 1456 they could enlarge the Styrian territory by acquisition and re-acquisition of the comital Celje estates in Lower Styria. Both duchies were again ruled in personal union, when Leopold's grandson Frederick V inherited Austria in 1457. In 1496 Frederick's son Maximilian I signed an order expelling all Jews from Styria, who were not allowed to return to Graz until 1856. In 1512 the duchy joined the Empire's Austrian Circle. A second Inner Austrian cadet branch of the Habsburgs ruled over Styria from 1564. Under Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, Graz became a centre of the Counter-Reformation, expedited by the Jesuits at the University of Graz established in 1585 and continued under Charles' son Archduke Ferdinand II of Habsburg, who became sole rule of all Habsburg hereditary lands and Holy Roman Emperor in 1619; the Protestant population was expelled, including the astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1600. Meanwhile, at the time of the Ottoman invasions in the 16th and 17th centuries after the 1526 Battle of Mohács, the land suffered and was depopulated.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly twenty times. Styria remained a part from 1804 belonged to the Austrian Empire; the development of the duchy was decisively promoted by Archduke John of Austria, younger brother of Emperor Francis I of Habsburg, who in 1811 founded the Joanneum, predecessor of the Graz University of Technology, the University of Leoben in 1840. He forwarded the construction of the Semmering railway to Mürzzuschlag and the Austrian Southern Railway line from Vienna to Trieste completed in 1857, which boosted the Styrian economy. In the course of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the duchy was assigned as a crown land for the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, while along with the rise of nationalism the conflict between the German and Slovene population intensified. On the collapse of Austria-Hungary in the aftermath of World War I, the rump state of German Austria claimed all Cisleithanian Austria with a significant German-speaking population including large parts of the Styrian duchy, while the Slovene Lower Styrian part joined the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
Armed conflicts arose around the multilingual town of Maribor, until by the 1919 Treaty of St Germain the former duchy was partitioned broadly along ethnic lines, with two thirds of its territory including the ducal capital of Graz remaining with Austria, the southern third of Lower Styria with Maribor passing to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes becoming part of modern Slovenia. In 1910, population of Styria included: 983,000 speakers of German 409,000 speakers of Slovene Otakars Ottokar IV House of Babenberg Leopold V of Austria Leopold VI of Austria, son Frederick II of Austria, killed in battlePřemyslids Ottokar II of Bohemia, againstÁrpád dynasty Béla IV of Hungary and his son Stephen V of Hungary, claimants Rudolph I King of the Romans 1273–1291 Albert I, son King of the Romans from 1298, jointly with his brother Rudolph II and his son Rudolph III Frederick the Fair, son of Albert I, jointly with his brother Leopold I Albert II, son of Albert I, jointly with his brother Otto the Merry Rudolph IV, son of Albert II Albert III, son of
Ladislaus of Salzburg
Władysław of Salzburg known as Władysław of Wrocław or Władysław of Silesia, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was co-ruler in the Duchy of Wroclaw since 1248. He served as chancellor of King Ottokar II of Bohemia from 1255 and was elected Bishop of Bamberg in 1257 and Bishop of Passau in 1265. Władysław became Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in the same year, from 1268 served as administrator of the Wrocław diocese. Władysław was the fifth and youngest son of the Silesian duke Henry II the Pious, by his wife Anna, daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia; the Silesian Piasts, elder line of the Polish ruling Piast dynasty, had been restored into their Silesian heritage by the aid of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1163. Władysław's grandfather, Duke Henry the Bearded regained the Seniorate Province and the Polish Crown as High Duke in 1232. Duke Henry II became co-ruler of his father in 1226 and was able to succeed him as Silesian duke and High Duke of Poland in 1238; when he was killed during the Mongol invasion in the Battle of Legnica on 9 April 1241, Władysław's eldest brother Bolesław II the Bald assumed the rule over the Lower Silesian lands and the guardianship of his minor siblings.
Stuck in internal conflicts with his brothers Henry III the White and Mieszko, he was not able to secure the Polish throne, which he had to cede to his Piast cousin Konrad of Masovia. With the approval of their mother Anna of Bohemia and with the purpose to not further divide the paternal lands, the younger sons of late Henry II, Władysław and Konrad I, were sent to study at the Italian university of Padua, with the idea that both prepare for an ecclesiastical career. In 1248, their rivalling elder brothers Henry III and Bolesław II came to terms: Henry assumed the government over the Lower Silesian lands around Wrocław, after he made a land division with Bolesław II, he chose Władysław as co-ruler, while Konrad I became co-ruler in the newly established Duchy of Legnica under Bolesław. However, the Duke of Legnica refused to share the power with anybody. Konrad fled to Greater Poland and, backed by his brother-in-law Duke Przemysł I obtained the Duchy of Głogów as his own share in 1251. In the case of Henry III and Władysław, the cooperation between the brothers was a mutual agreement with few opportunities to frictions, as Władysław stayed in the Bohemian capital Prague at the court of his maternal cousin King Ottokar II.
His role in the undivided Duchy of Wrocław was limited to receive his rents. Władysław too issued numerous deeds and in 1261 he and his brother jointly vested the Wrocław citizens with Magdeburg rights. With the support of the Bohemian king, Władysław continued his spiritual career: about 1255 he became a provost at the cathedral chapter of the St Peter and Paul collegiate church in Vyšehrad and thus was appointed Bohemian Royal Chancellor, a post reserved for the Vyšehrad provosts; the close alliance between the Silesian Piasts and the Přemyslid dynasty strengthened the ties between the lands of Silesia and Bohemia. Władysław joined the cathedral chapter in Bamberg in 1256 and was elected bishop in the following year, however, he had to resign, as he received no dispensation by Pope Alexander IV due to his young age. Backed by King Ottokar II, he became a member of the Wrocław chapter and in April 1265 he was elected Bishop of Passau. In October he was elected Archbishop of Salzburg. Władysław arrived in Salzburg in Spring 1266.
He had to return to Silesia upon the death of his brother Duke Henry III the White on 3 December 1266. In his will, he left Władysław the guardianship of his infant son Henry IV Probus and with this, the regency of the whole Silesian duchy of Wrocław. Henry III's government had not been too beneficial to the church; the bishop-regent was an advocate, with his late brother Henry III, for the canonization of their paternal grandmother, Duchess Hedwig of Silesia. The process was completed, when Saint Hedwig was canonized by Pope Clement on 26 March 1267; this was Władysław's great personal success and gave much prestige to the whole family. The final chord of his great church's career was his nomination in 1268 to the Bishopric of Wrocław. Władysław had no intention to sacrifice the Archbishopric of Salzburg, but thanks to his influence in Prague and Rome he was appointed an apostolic administrator with all the rights of a bishop. Władysław fulfilled all his duties a quite uncommon attitude among the medieval princes.
When he was Archbishop of Salzburg and shortly afterwards received the title of an administrator in the Diocese of Wroclaw, he was able to combine the two positions so that no one can say that these features overwhelm them. The last four years of life he was in constant travels between Wrocław. Władysław was buried in Salzburg Cathedral. In his will, he left his rights over the half of the Duchy of Wroclaw to his nephew Henry IV Probus. There were some rumours that the cause of death of the young bishop, with not more than thirty-three years, was poisoning. Guilty of this crime have to be among the nobility, who four years earlier killed Duke Henry III the White, twenty years his nephew Henry IV shared the same fate; the mere fact of mentioning the same source stated that the subsequent death of
Krems an der Donau
Krems an der Donau is a town of 23,992 inhabitants in Austria, in the federal state of Lower Austria. It is the fifth-largest city of Lower Austria and is 70 kilometres west of Vienna. Krems is a city with its own statute, therefore it is both a municipality and a district. Krems is located at the confluence of the Krems and Danube Rivers at the eastern end of Wachau valley, in the southern Waldviertel. Krems borders the following municipalities: Stratzing, Rohrendorf bei Krems, Traismauer, Nußdorf ob der Traisen, Furth bei Göttweig, Mautern an der Donau, Dürnstein, Senftenberg. Krems was first mentioned in 995 in a certificate of Otto III, but settlement was apparent before then. For example, a child's grave, over 27,000 years old, was found here; this is the oldest grave found in Austria. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Chremis, as it was called, was as large as Vienna. Krems is the primary producer of an apricot brandy. Krems is the hometown of Martin Johann Schmidt, called "Kremserschmidt", the leading painter and etcher of the Austrian late Baroque.
Innenstadt Weinzierl Mitterau Stein Egelsee Rehberg Am Steindl Gneixendorf Lerchenfeld Krems-Süd The population in the agglomeration was about 50,000 at the end of 2010. Bürgerspitalkirche Dominikanerkirche Dreifaltigkeitssäule Göglhaus Gozzoburg Großes Sgraffitohaus Pfarrkirche St. Veit Piaristenkirche Pulverturm Rathaus Simandlbrunnen Steiner Tor: The gate, erected in 1480, is the second remaining medieval gate Frauenbergkirche Göttweigerhofkapelle Großer Passauerhof Karikaturmuseum Krems Kloster Und Kremser Tor Kunsthalle Krems Forum Frohner Landesgalerie Niederösterreich Linzer Tor Mauthaus Minoritenkirche Pfarrkirche Hl. Nikolaus Salzstadl University Krems The city's main railway station is a junction of the Franz-Josefs Railway to Vienna, the Kremser Railway to St. Pölten, the Donauufer Railway to Spitz and the regional railway to Horn, it is at the intersection of the Stockerauer Speedway S5 and the Kremser Speedway S33, is traversed by the Danube Road B3, the Retzer Road B35, the Kremser Road B37 and the Langenloiser Road B218.
Krems is a junction of the Wieselbus bus lines, which provides radial connections between Sankt Pölten and the different regions of Lower Austria. Main Roads Stockerauer Schnellstraße from Krems to Vienna Kremser Schnellstraße from Krems to St. Pölten Donau Straße from Krems to Linz Aggsteiner Straße from Krems to Melk Aggsteiner Straße from Krems to Mautern an der Donau Retzer Straße from Krems to Retz Kremser Straße from Krems to Rastenfeld Kremser Straße from Krems to Traismauer Langenloiser Straße from Krems to LangenloisRailroad Franz-Josefs-Bahn from Krems to Vienna Kremser Bahn from Krems to St. Pölten Donauuferbahn from Krems to Spitz Kamptalbahn from Krems to SigmundsherbergAir traffic Gneixendorf airfield is a small general aviation airport. A network of four bus lines operates at regular intervals within the city; every summer, a tourist train connects the ancient parts of the city with museums, the central railway station and the passenger ship terminal of Krems. The municipal council consists of 40 members and since the municipal elections in 2017 it consists of the following parties: 19 Social Democratic Party of Austria – the mayor and the first vice mayor 8 Austrian People's Party – the second vice mayor 5 Freedom Party of Austria 2 KLS 1 Austrian Green Party 1 PROKSMunicipal elections in Krems were held, as the same time as the Austrian legislative election, 2017 on 15th October 2017.
The city's senate consists of 10 members: SPÖ: 5 members ÖVP: 4 members FPÖ: 1 members BHAK/BHAS Krems Bundesgymnasium Piaristen Bundesgymnasium Rechte Kremszeile Bundesreal- and Bundesoberstufenrealgymnasium Krems Heinemannstraße Bundesrealgymnasium Krems Ringstraße Danube Private University Danube University Krems Folk high school HLA/HLW Krems HLF Krems HTBL Krems IMC Fachhochschule Krems Karl Landsteiner Privatuniversität für Gesundheitswissenschaften Oberstufenrealgymnasium Englische Fräulein School of education Justizanstalt Stein is a prison housing some of Austria's worst offenders. Swimming is outdoor. Football Club – Kremser SC Ice Hockey – KEV Eagles Miniature golf Rugby Club Krems Skatepark Team handball – Union Handballklub Krems Union Badminton Krems Matthias Abele, town clerk and writer of the 17th century. Josef Bayer, director of Natural History Museum in Vienna, one of the discoverers of the Venus of Willendorf Josef Maria Eder and pioneer of Picture Julius Ernest Wilhelm Fučík composer and conductor.
Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia-Tyrol
Meinhard I, a member of the House of Gorizia, was Count of Gorizia from 1231 and Count of Tyrol from 1253 until his death. He was the son of Count Engelbert III of Gorizia and his wife Matilda, a sister of the Andechs duke Berthold IV of Merania, his father died in 1220 he did not come in control over all his family's possessions around Lienz and Gorizia upon the death of his uncle Count Meinhard the Elder. About 1237 he married Adelaide, one of the two daughters of Count Albert IV of Tyrol, attended with reasonable succession prospects in the Tyrolean lands. Meinhard supported the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in his fierce conflict with Pope Innocent IV and in return was appointed Imperial governor of the Duchy of Styria and the March of Carniola after the last Babenberg duke Frederick the Warlike had died without heirs in 1246. From 1250 onwards governor in the princeless Duchy of Austria, Meinhard facing the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty did not prevail: his rule in Carniola was challenged by the Carinthian ducal House of Sponheim, in Austria and Styria he was expelled by the Bohemian prince Ottokar II Přemysl in 1251.
During the turmoil after the death of Emperor Frederick II, Count Meinhard, backed by his father-in-law Albert IV of Tyrol, tried to gain control over the Duchy of Carinthia but failed in an unsuccessful campaign against Duke Bernhard von Spanheim and his son Philip, the elected Archbishop of Salzburg. On 8 September 1252, he was defeated and arrested at Greifenburg. According to the Peace of Lieserhofen, concluded on 27 December 1252, he had to give his sons Meinhard IV and Albert to Archbishop Philip as hostages. Both were imprisoned at Hohenwerfen Castle in Salzburg and not released until 1258. Meinhard and Albert IV of Tyrol had to pay a compensation and to renounce certain possessions including Mittersill, Virgen and Oberdrauburg. Upon the death of Count Albert IV of Tyrol in 1253, Meinhard and his brother-in-law, Count Gebhard of Hirschberg, split Tyrol, of which Meinhard took the southern part with Meran, in constant quarrels with the Trento bishops, his son Meinhard II also acquired the Hirschberg lands from Gebhard's heirs in 1284 and two years even received Carinthia from the hands of the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany.
Meinhard I is buried at Tirol Castle. About 1237, Meinhhard married daughter of Albert IV, Count of Tyrol, they had four known children: Adelheid, married Count Frederick I of Ortenburg Meinhard II, Count of Gorizia and Tyrol, Duke of Carinthia Albert I, Count of Gorizia Bertha, married Conrad, Count of Wullenstetten Medieval genealogy