Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg was the last of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg. He reigned from 1680 to 1736. From 1712 to 1736, he reigned the County of Hanau-Münzenberg. Johann Reinhard III was the son of Johann Reinhard II of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Anna Magdalena, Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, he was baptized on 1 August 1665. He was educated together with his older brother Philipp Reinhard in Strasbourg. In 1678, they moved to Babenhausen. In 1678, they started a Grand Tour to the Alsace and Geneva. In 1690, the travelled for a year in Savoy and Turin, in 1681 to Paris, in 1683 to the Netherlands and some French provinces. In early 1684, they were in Milan, from there they went to see the carnival in Venice, followed by a trip to Rome to Naples, Modena and Mantua. In 1686, they visited the imperial court in Vienna and on the way back, they traveled to Bohemia and visited the Electoral Saxon court in Dresden. Johann Reinhard III came to the throne of the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg on 24 May 1680 at the age of 15, after his family had deposed his uncle Friedrich Casimir, because his financial escapades had ruined the county.
As Johann Reinhard III was a minor, the county was ruled by his guardians: his mother and his uncle Christian II of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld. At the same time, Johann Reinhard III's older brother Philipp Reinhard came to the throne of Hanau-Münzenberg; when this division was implemented, the district of Babenhausen was awarded to Hanau-Münzenberg. In 1685, Johann Reinhard III was adopted by his deposed uncle Friedrich Casimir. In 1688, he took over the government. In 1691, duke Christian II filed his final report on the guardianship; the economic situation in the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg was bad, because the Upper Rhine valley, in which the county was situated, had been devastated during the War of the Palatinian Succession and the War of Spanish Succession and related military occupations. Johann Reinhard III tried to improve the situation; the political situation was problematic: his predecessor had been forced to acknowledge French supremacy over the parts of the county located in Alsace. He could only rule those areas because he received "Letters Patent" to that effect from the French king Louis XIV in 1701 and 1707.
Johann Reinhard III tried in vain to be raised to the rank of Imperial Prince. After it was clear that he would have no male heirs, he discontinued these efforts; when Philipp Reinhard died in 1712, Johann Reinhard III inherited Hanau-Münzenberg. Under his rule, the two sub-counties were united in one hand for the last time, he alternated his residence between the two part of the county. He succeeded his brother as director of the Wetterau Association of Imperial Counts. During the reign of Johann Reinhard II, the County of Hanau prospered culturally: he began building a grand castle in Bischofsheim am hohen Steg, never completed, in the Hanau-Lichtenberg of Buchsweiler, he created a park and expanded the castle. Between 1730 and 1736 he rebuilt the Hanauer Hof in Strasbourg, the city residence of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg since 1573; this building now serves as Strasbourg's city hall. After he took office in Hanau-Münzenberg 1712, he completed the construction of the Schloss Philippsruhe, just outside the Hanau city gate, the Philippsruhe Avenue, including the Heller bridge.
He created Chestnut Avenue and the Pheasant Park and completed construction of the stables of the city palace in Hanau, which Philipp Reinhard had started. Behind the city palace, the city wall was breached in order to obtain a direct access to the Turkish style gardens behind it. In 1727, he extended the St. John's Church in Hanau, he built Lutheran churches in Windecken, Steinau an der Straße, Nauheim and Rodheim and Lutheran schools in many towns in the county of Hanau-Münzenberg. The reason for this was that Hanau-Münzenberg has adopted Calvinism during the Reformation, but had been ruled since 1643 by the Lutheran counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg. By the early 18th century, the contrast between the two main Protestant variants had mitigated to the extent that this building policy was now acceptable for the Calvinist majority of the population. In his capital city of Hanau, street lighting was introduced; the Frankfurt Gate was torn down and rebuilt in a Baroque style, the same was done to the Hanau's city hall.
Count Johann Reinhard III lived rather modestly, which enabled him to finance his construction projects. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe reported, in his Dichtung und Wahrheit on a visit to Buchsweiler at the end of the 18th century: "Above all else, the name of the last Count, Reinhard of Hanau, was held in high esteem here and in the rest of this little country, his great intellect and ability in all his actions came to the fore, many beautiful monument remain of his existence. Such men have the advantage of being double benefactors, for the present, which they delight, for the future, whose sense and courage they nurture and sustain." Once it became clear that there would be no male heir in Hanau, a dispute about the inheritance erupted. There were two cand
The County of Hanau-Münzenberg was a territory within the Holy Roman Empire. It emerged when the County of Hanau was divided in 1458, the other part being the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Due to common heirs both counties were merged from 1642 to 1685 and from 1712 to 1736. In 1736 the last member of the House of Hanau died and the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel inherited the county; the county of Hanau-Münzenberg was positioned to the north of the river Main stretching from the West of Frankfurt am Main eastwards through the valley of the river Kinzig to Schlüchtern and into the Spessart mountains to Partenstein. Capital was the town of Hanau; the counts had castles in Windecken and Steinau an der Straße. For the following years population counts of Hanau-Münzenberg do exist: 1632: 5,140 families 1707: 6,706 families 1754: 48,000 inhabitants In 1452, after a reign of only one year, Count Reinhard III of Hanau died; the heir was Philip I, only four years old. For the sake of the continuity of the dynasty after years of political fighting, his relatives and other important decision-makers in the county agreed not to turn to the 1375 primogenitur statute of the family – one of the oldest in Germany – but to separate the administrative district of Babenhausen from the county of Hanau and let the heir's uncle and brother of the deceased, Philip I, have it in his own right as a county.
This arrangement of 1458 allowed him to have a befitting marriage and offspring entitled to inherit, so increased the chances of survival of the comital house. This created the Line of Hanau-Lichtenberg. On – to distinguish the "old" county from Hanau-Lichtenberg – the part of the county which stayed with Philip I was called Hanau-Münzenberg; the History of Hanau-Münzenberg is dominated by a large series of guardianships for counts still minor when inheriting the county from their fathers: Without interruption this happened during six accessions between 1512 and 1638. Always the counts died in their late 30th leaving behind a minor as successor. Most the reason was a heridary disease; the effect of this was that the politics of expansion which on the long term dominated the success of the Lordship of Hanau and the county of Hanau came to a halt when Philip I died in 1500. But early Hanau-Münzenberg participated in the Reformation, to be exact: its Lutheran version; the reformation was introduced during the reign of Philipp II: when church staff retired, their successor would be a Lutheran.
As early as 1523, the pastor Adolf Arborgast was included in the chapter of the St. Mary's church in Hanau, the central church of the county; when he was appointed, he explained that he wanted to spend little effort on vespers and the daily mass, but would instead concentrate on his sermons and putting forward the Gospel. The real reformer of Hanau was his successor Philipp Neunheller MA; the Catholic faith was never banned. The number of Catholic priests decreased, as they were not replaced when they retired. Under the reign of Philipp II started the project to replace the mediaeval fortifications of the town of Hanau by the latest in Renaissance-fortification available; this investment became necessary due to the introduction of modern artillery the mediaeval fortification could not withstand. The new walls were placed outside the mediaeval ones and included a settlement, "Vorstadt", which had developed outside the gates; when Philipp Ludwig I died in 1580 another guardianship had to be installed for the benefit of his successor, Philipp Ludwig II, still a minor.
Guardians became the Counts John VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Louis I, Count of Sayn-Wittgenstein and Philipp IV, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, replaced in 1585 by his son, Count Philipp V of Hanau-Lichtenberg. The dominating figure in this constallation became the Count of Nassau. Additionally Philipp Ludwig's widowed mother, Countess Magdalena of Waldeck, remarried on 9 December 1581 Count John VII, the Middle, of Nassau-Siegen, the son of Count John IV. In consequence Philipp Ludwig II and his younger brother, Count Albrecht, joined the Nassau-Dillenburg court, a centre of the Reformation movement in Germany and tied to the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Rhine; the new ideas he encountered here influenced his life and policies. By using his rights under the Cuius regio, eius religio rule, he changed the confession of his county to Calvinism in 1593, he succeeded with this nearly eveywhere in his sphere of influence, except in a few villages in the district Bornheimerberg, which surrounded Frankfurt and the condominiums shared with the Roman Catholic archbishop-elector of Mainz.
The villages in the vicinity of Frankfurt had strong ties to this Lutheran city and a majority of the villagers just went to Lutheran services in "foreign" Frankfurt territory. In the condominiums Philipp Ludwig II shared with Mainz he couldn't change anything — whether his subjects had become Lutheran during the reformation or had remained Roman Catholic. With his marriage in 1596 to Katharina Belgica, third daughter of William the Silent, he gained a personal connection to one of the leading personalities of Calvinism in Europe; the introduction of Calvinism and the location of the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, at only half a day's journey away from Frankfurt with its trade fairs, made Hanau an attractive place to settle for Calvinist refugees from France and from the Southern Netherlands. They were wealthy traders and were attractive subjects for a ruler in need of tax revenues. In 1597 and 1604, the co
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Hanau is a large town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, its station is a major railway junction and it has a port on the river Main, making it an important transport centre. The town is known for being Wilhelm Grimm and Franciscus Sylvius. Since the 16th century it was a centre of precious metal working with many goldsmiths, it is home to Heraeus, one of the largest family-owned companies in Germany. In 1963, the town hosted the third Hessentag state festival; until 2005, Hanau was the administrative centre of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis. The historic core of Hanau is situated within a semicircle of the river Kinzig which flows into the river Main just west of the town. Today, after a substantial expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries it extends to the river Main and after a restructuring of municipal borders within Hesse in the 1970s a couple of nearby villages and towns were incorporated.
After this change, Hanau for the first time extended to the south bank of the Main river. On the 0 °C isotherm, Hanau has a humid continental climate as Eastern Germany with warm summer, classified by Köppen as Dfb. In the -3 °C isotherm has oceanic climate with some interior characteristics. Using the first definition used is the city most west of the continent below 200 m at sea level with this category. Innenstadt Nordwest incl. Wilhelmsbad Südost Lamboy Steinheim Klein-Auheim Großauheim Wolfgang Kesselstadt Mittelbuchen The name is derived of "Hagenowe", a composition out of "Haag" and "Aue"; as a place of settlement Hanau was first mentioned in 1143. It was the site of a castle which used the waters of the river Kinzig as a defense; the castle belonged to a noble family. Starting from this castle a village developed and became a town in 1303; as a result of this history, the main church of Hanau stood outside its walls in the village of Kinzdorf. The villagers moved into the town, Kinzdorf became an abandoned village leaving only the church.
Only in the 15th century was the status of the Hanau parish church transferred to the church of Mary Magdalene within the town walls. Shortly after the first town walls were built at the beginning of the 14th century, the town outgrew this limit. Outside the wall, along the road to Frankfurt am Main a settlement developed, properly included in the fortifications of Hanau only when Hanau received new fortifications in Renaissance-style during the first half of the 16th century; these new fortifications enclosed three elements: The medieval castle, the medieval town of Hanau and the Vorstadt. At the end of the 16th century, Count Philipp Ludwig II attracted Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France to found their own settlement south of Hanau; this was of high economic interest for him because these Walloons brought high-class trade, their knowledge of jewellery and other production of luxury items and therefore taxes to his county. Out of this tradition, goldsmiths are still trained in Hanau.
Hanau was the site of the first workshop to produce Faience within Germany. These new citizens were granted privileges and they formed their own community and administration for the "new town of Hanau" wholly separate from the existing community, it took more than 200 years to amalgamate both. The new town – larger than the old one – was protected by a very modern fortification in Baroque-style which proved a big asset only a few years in the Thirty Years' War; the town survived a siege in 1637 with only minor damage. The new citizens formed the major economic and political power within the County of Hanau and in 1642 played a leading role in the succession of Count Fredrik Casimir of Hanau Lichtenberg into the County of Hanau-Münzenberg of which the town of Hanau was the capital. In 1736 Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg, the last of the Counts of Hanau, died; those parts of his county belonging to the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, which included Hanau, were inherited by the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.
Due to dynastic troubles within this family the County of Hesse-Hanau was created a separate state from the Landgraviate until 1786. So Hanau stayed capital for another 50 years. After that it became – after Kassel – the town second in importance within Hesse-Kassel. During the Napoleonic Wars the Emperor himself ordered the fortifications of Hanau to be destroyed; this created a chance for both parts of the town to expand across their traditional limits. In 1813, the Battle of Hanau took place near the city between French troops and Austro-Bavarian forces. During the 1820s the administrations of both towns of Hanau were merged; the first common Mayor, who became Lord Mayor was Bernhard Eberhard to become prime minister and minister of the interior of the Electorate of Hesse after the Revolution of 1848. With its pre-industrial workshops Hanau became a nucleus of a heavy industrialisation during the 19th century: From within the city as well as from outside; this was supported by its development as an important railway interchange of six railway lines, most of them main lines: 1848: Frankfurt-Hanau Railway 1854: Main–Spessart Railway 1867: Frankfurt–Bebra Railway, eastern direction 1873: Frankfurt–Bebra Railway, western direction 1879/1881: Friedberg–Hanau Railway 1882: Odenwald RailwayIn the 19th century, Hanau was a centre of the German democratic movement and contributed both in 1830 and in the Revolution of 1848.
As part of this movement the German Gymnastic League (Deutsche
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar.
Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River, their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel; the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni; these are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences. It has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1946 to 1992, Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor; the current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party of Italy. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC; the city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned; as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city.
"We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated, its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena