Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of Canada, the British Empire, early Islam, China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature; the extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question. The research interests of historians change over time, there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic and political history toward newer approaches social and cultural studies. From 1975 to 1995 the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.
In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 identified themselves with social history and 1,425 identified themselves with political history. In the early modern period, the term historiography meant "the writing of history", historiographer meant "historian". In that sense certain official historians were given the title "Historiographer Royal" in Sweden and Scotland; the Scottish post is still in existence. Historiography was more defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians." Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question; the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity, in about the 5th century BCE. One of the Confucian Five Classics, the Shang Shu 尚書, has conventionally been given the English title Classic of History; this terminology is misleading as the book is a collection of speeches and anecdotes about ancient worthies, which while arranged in rough chronological order lacks any attempt to integrate them into a coherent narrative or indicate how much time has passed between two incidents. The purpose of the book is more about imparting moral lessons; the first true history of China is therefore the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 to 481 BCE. It is among the earliest surviving historical texts to be arranged on annalistic principles in the world, was traditionally attributed to Confucius.
A "commentary" on the Spring and Autumn, the Zuo Zhuan attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is considered the earliest work of narrative history in the world, covering the period from 722 to 468 BCE. It is many times longer and much more detailed and vivid than the laconic text it is purportedly commenting on, so that it is regarded as a work of history in its own right. Just as the Spring and Autumn annals has lent their name to the Spring and Autumn period they cover, the following Warring States period is named after the book Intrigues of the Warring States, compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Unlike the Annals, the Intrigues lack any chronological apparatus and is more of a return to the editorial style of the Classic of History; the purpose of the work is to teach the reader useful diplomatic and strategic skills rather than provide a coherent narrative of the period. The Han dynasty eunuch Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing.
His written work was a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Its scope extends as far back as the 16th century BCE, it includes many treatises on specific subjects and individual biographies of prominent people, explores the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras, his work pioneered the "Annals-biography" format, which would become the standard for prestige history writing in China. In this genre a history opens with a chronological outline of court affairs, continues with detailed biographies of prominent people who lived during the period in question. Whereas Sima's had been a universal history from the beginning of time down to the time of writing, his successor Ban Gu wrote an annals-biography history limiting its coverage to only the Western Han dynasty, the Book of Han; this established the notion of using dynastic boundaries as start- and end-points, most Chinese histories would focus on a single dynasty or group of dynasties. The Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han were joined by the Book of the Later Han and the Records of the Three Kingdom
Pierre Nora is a French historian elected to the Académie française on 7 June 2001. He is known for his work on French memory, his name is associated with the study of new history. He is the brother of former French officer. Nora occupies a particular position that he himself qualifies as on "the side" of the French historical sphere. In the 1950s he took hypokhâgne and khâgne at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand but, contrary to a persistent legend, he was not accepted at the École Normale Supérieure. Thereafter, he obtained a licence de lettres degree in philosophy, he passed the agrégation d'histoire in 1958. He was a teacher at the Lycée Lamoricière d'Oran in Algeria until 1960, he wrote book about it, published under the title Les Français d'Algérie. From 1961 to 1963, he was a resident at the Thiers Foundation. From 1965 to 1977 he was first assistant and lecturer at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris. Since 1977 he has been the director of studies at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales. in 2014 Nora received the Dan David Prize Award.
Concurrently, Nora had managed an important career in publishing. He joined Éditions Julliard in 1964. In 1965 he joined Éditions Gallimard: the publishing house, which had a good marketshare in literature, wanted to develop its social sciences sector, it was Pierre Nora who achieved this mission by creating two important collections, the Library of social sciences in 1966 and the Library of histories in 1970, as well as the Témoins collection in 1967. At Éditions Gallimard, Nora published in these collections that he was directing, important works which constitute indispensable references in their fields of research, in particular: In the Library of social sciences, Raymond Aron, Georges Dumézil, Marcel Gauchet, Claude Lefort, Henri Mendras, Michel Foucault. In the Library of histories, François Furet, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Michel de Certeau, Georges Duby, Jacques Le Goff, Jean-Pierre Vernant, Maurice Agulhon, Michel Foucault. Foreign researchers whom he introduced in France, like Ernst Kantorowicz, Thomas Nipperdey, Karl Polanyi.
This important role gave to Nora a certain power in French publishing and he was the object of criticism. To begin, he refused in 1997 to translate Eric Hobsbawm's work, The Age of Extremes, because of that author's "attachment to the revolutionary cause." Nora explained that context of hostility towards Communism in France was not appropriate to that type of publication, that all the editors, "like it or not, had an obligation to take account of the intellectual and ideological situation in which they had written their works". In May 1980, Nora founded at Gallimard the review Le Débat with philosopher Marcel Gauchet, he had participated at the Saint-Simon Foundation, created in 1982 by François Furet and Pierre Rosanvallon and dissolved in 1999. He opposed himself to the law of 23 February 2005 "supporting national recognition and national taxation in favour of French repatriations" and cosigned a petition in the daily Libération entitled "Liberté pour l'histoire"; this law, at line 2 of article 4, was abrogated on 15 February 2006, establishing that research programmes must be accorded more importance in lieu of French overseas presence and that the programmes of study came to recognize the positive role.
Nora is well known for having directed Les Lieux de Mémoire, three volumes which gave as their point the work of enumerating the places and the objects in which are the incarnate national memory of the French. Nora's book Les Français d'Algérie has received scholarly criticism for its bias against French Algerians – a prejudice held by many French intellectuals of the time. Nora posited, his opinions were developed from his two years as a high school teacher in Algiers. "The French of Algeria" is described as synthesizing "a self-righteous anti-pied noir discourse". "The French of Algiers" is held out as a scholarly work, but as David Prochaska, American historian of French Algeria points out, it is in fact "not based on original research and is devoid of the usual scholarly apparatus". Nora is Jewish, he was married to curator Francoise Cachin. Since 2012, he has lived with French journalist Anne Sinclair, ex-wife of journalist Ivan Levai and of former politician Dominique Strauss-Kahn. 1961: Les Français d'Algérie, prefaced by Ch
Michel Winock is a French historian, specializing in the history of the French Republic, intellectual movements, antisemitism and the far right movements of France. He is a professeur des universités in contemporary history at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris and member of L'Histoire magazine's editing board. Winock has worked as a reporter for Le Monde. Winock is the author of Siècle des intellectuels, for which he received the Prix Médicis in 1997 in the essay category, he wrote Voix de la liberté, acknowledged by the Académie française, directed the Dictionnaire des intellectuels français with Jacques Juillard. He won the 2010 Prix Goncourt de la Biographie for Madame de Stael. Winock became doctor of letters achieving his agrégation d'histoire in 1961, he started his career in secondary school teaching at the lycée in Montpellier at the Lycée Hoche in Versailles and the lycée Lakanal in Sceaux. The creation of the University of Vincennes following the Faure reform of 1968 opened the doors of higher education to him.
Winock led a career as an editor. He was member of the Esprit magazine from 1964, became an adviser literary director to Éditions du Seuil. In 1978, a year after leaving Esprit, he founded L'Histoire magazine with the aim of making the best historical research accessible to the public. Author of about 40 works, Winock is today one of the most esteemed French historians. Winock was one of the initiators of the Liberté pour l'histoire petition. Winock participated in the administrative council of the association with the same name. Madame de Stael, 2010 La Gauche en France, 2006 La Mêlée présidentielle, 2007 Clémenceau, 2007 1958. La naissance de la Ve République. "Découvertes Gallimard", 2008 L'Élection présidentielle en France, 2008 Le XXe siècle idéologique et politique, 2009 L'Agonie de la IVème République", 2006 Pierre Mendès France, 2005 Histoire de la France politique, 2004 La France et les juifs, de 1789 à nos jours, 2004. La Belle Epoque: la France de 1900 à 1914, 2003 La France politique: XIXe-XXe siècle, 2003 Dictionnaire des intellectuels français: les personnes, les lieux, les moments, 2002 Les voix de la liberté: les écrivains engagés au XIXe siècle, 2001 Le siècle des intellectuels, 1997 La droite depuis 1789: les hommes, les idées, les réseaux, 1995 Histoire de l'Extrême droite en France, 1993 Le Socialisme en France et en Europe, 1992 Les frontières vives, journal de l'année 1991, 1992 L'échec au roi: 1791-1792, 1991 Nationalisme, antisémitisme en France, 1990 1789, l'année sans pareille, 1989 Chronique des années soixante, 1987 La fièvre hexagonale: les grandes crises politiques de 1871 à 1968, 1986 Édouard Drumont et Cie, antisémitisme et fascisme en France, 1982 La gauche en France depuis 1900, 1981 La république se meurt: 1956-1958, 1978 Histoire politique de la revue Esprit", 1975 La IIIe République: 1870-1940, 1970 Les Communards, 1964
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Richard J. Evans
Sir Richard John Evans, is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany. He is the author of eighteen books, including his three-volume The Third Reich Trilogy, hailed as "brilliant" and "magisterial." Evans was Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge from 2008 until his retirement in 2014, President of Cambridge's Wolfson College from 2010 to 2017. He has been Provost of Gresham College in London since 2014. Evans was appointed Knight Bachelor for services to scholarship in the 2012 Birthday Honours. Evans was born at Woodford, Essex, of Welsh parentage and was educated at Forest School, Jesus College, St Antony's College, Oxford. In a 2004 interview, he stated that frequent visits to Wales during his childhood inspired both an interest in history and a sense of "otherness", he said that one reason that he was drawn to the study modern German history in the late 1960s was his identification of parallels between the Vietnam War and German imperialism.
He admired the work of Fritz Fischer, whom he credits with inspiring him to study modern German history. Evans first established his academic reputation with his publications on the German Empire. In the early 1970s, Evans travelled to Germany to research his dissertation, a study of the feminist movement in Germany in the first half of the 20th century, it was published as The Feminist Movement In Germany, 1894–1933 in 1976. Evans followed his study of German feminism by another book, The Feminists, which traced the history of the feminist movement in North America and Europe from 1840 to 1920. A theme of both books was the weakness of German middle-class culture and its susceptibility to the appeal of nationalism. Evans argued that both liberalism and feminism failed in Germany for those reasons despite flourishing elsewhere in the Western world. Evans' main interest is social history, he is much influenced by the Annales school, he agrees with Fischer that 19th-century German social development paved the way for the rise of Nazi Germany, but Evans takes pains to point out that many other possibilities could have happened.
For Evans, the values of the 19th-century German middle class contained the germinating seeds of National Socialism. Evans studied under Fischer in Hamburg in 1970 and 1971 but came to disagree with the "Bielefeld School" of historians, who argued for the Sonderweg thesis that saw the roots of Germany’s political development in the first half of the 20th century in a "failed bourgeois revolution" in 1848. Following a contemporary trend that opposed the previous "great man" theory of history, Evans was a member of a group of young British historians who in the 1970s sought to examine German history during the German Empire "from below"; these scholars highlighted "the importance of the grass-roots of politics and the everyday life and experience of ordinary people". "History is about people, their relationships. It’s about the perennial question of ‘how much free will do people have in building their own lives, making a future," Evans has said, he says he supported the creation of a "new school of people's history", a result of a trend that "has taken place across a whole range of historical subjects, political opinions, methodological approaches and has been expressed in many different ways".
In 1978, as editor of a collection of essays by young British historians entitled Society And Politics In Wilhelmine Germany, he launched a critique of the ‘top-down’ approach of the Bielefeld School associated with Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Jürgen Kocka in regards to the Wilhelmine Germany. With the historians Geoff Eley and David Blackbourn, Evans instead emphasized the "self-mobilization from below" of key sociopolitical groups, as well as the modernity of National Socialism. In the 1980s, Evans organized ten international workshops on modern German social history at the University of East Anglia that did a good deal to refine these ideas, to pioneer research in this new historical field and, in six collections of papers, present it to an Anglophone readership. Among Evans' major research works are Death in Hamburg, a study of class conflict and liberal government in 19th-century Germany using the example of Hamburg’s cholera epidemics and applying statistical methods to the exploration of social inequality in an industrializing society, Rituals of Retribution, a study of capital punishment in German history applying structural anthropological concepts to the rituals of public execution up to the mid-19th century and exploring the politics of the death penalty until its abolition by East Germany in 1987.
In Death in Hamburg, Evans studied the cholera outbreak in Hamburg in 1892, which he concluded was caused by a failure in the medical system to safeguard against such an event. Another study in German social history was Tales from the German Underworld, where Evans traced the life stories of four German criminals in the late 19th century, namely a homeless woman, a forger, a prostitute and a conman. In Rituals of Retribution, Evans traced the history of capital punishment in Germany, using the ideas of Michel Foucault, Philippe Ariès and Norbert Elias as his guide argued that opposition to the death penalty was strongest when liberalism was in the ascendancy, support for capital punishment coincided when the right was in the ascendancy. Thus, in Evans' view, capital punishment in Germany was never a mere matter of law being disinterestedly applied but was rather a form of state power being exercised. In addition, Evans examined such subjects as belief in witchcraft, the last words of the executed, the psychology of mobs, varying forms of execution from the Thirty Years War to the 198
Marc Ferro is a French historian. He has worked on early twentieth-century European history, specialising in the history of Russia and the USSR, as well as the history of cinema, his Ukrainian-Jewish mother died during the Holocaust. He is Director of Studies in Social Sciences at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales, he is a co-director of the French review Annales and co-editor of the Journal of Contemporary History. He has directed and presented television documentaries on the rise of the Nazis and the Russian revolution and on the representation of history in cinema. La Révolution de 1917, Aubier, 1967 La Grande Guerre, 1914-1918, Gallimard, 1968 Cinéma et Histoire, Denoël, 1976 L'Occident devant la révolution soviétique, Complexe, 1980 Suez, Complexe, 1981 Comment on raconte l'histoire aux enfants à travers le monde, Payot, 1983 L'Histoire sous surveillance: science et conscience de l'histoire, Calmann-Lévy, 1985 Pétain, Fayard, 1987 Les Origines de la Perestroïka, Ramsay, 1990 Nicolas II, Paris, 1991 Questions sur la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, Casterman, 1993 Histoire des colonisations, des conquêtes aux indépendances, Paris, Le Seuil, 1994 L'internationale, Noesis, 1996 Les sociétés malades du progrès, Plon, 1999 Que transmettre à nos enfants, Paris, Le Seuil, 2000 Les Tabous de l'histoire, Nil, 2002 Le Livre noir du colonialisme, Robert Laffont, 2003.
Histoire de France, France Loisirs, 2002 Le choc de l'Islam, Odile Jacob, 2003 Le Cinéma, une vision de l'histoire, Paris, Le Chêne, 2003 Les Tabous de L'Histoire, Pocket vol. 11949, NiL Éditions, Paris, 2004 Les individus face aux crises du XXe siècle-L'Histoire anonyme, Odile Jacob, 2005 Le ressentiment dans l' histoire. Odile Jacob, 2007. English: Resentment in History, ISBN 978-0745646879
Georges Duby was a French historian who specialised in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages. He ranks among the most influential medieval historians of the twentieth century and was one of France's most prominent public intellectuals from the 1970s to his death. Born to a family of Provençal craftsmen living in Paris, Duby was educated in the field of historical geography before he moved into history, he earned an undergraduate degree at Lyon in 1942 and completed his graduate thesis at the Sorbonne under Charles-Edmond Perrin in 1952. He taught first at Besançon and at the University of Aix-en-Provence before he was appointed in 1970 to the Chair of the History of Medieval Society in the Collège de France, he remained attached to the Collège until his retirement in 1991. He was elected to the Académie française in 1987. Although Duby authored dozens of books and reviews during his prolific career—for academic as well as popular audiences—his reputation and legacy as a scholar will always be attached to his first monograph, a published version of his 1952 doctoral thesis entitled La société aux XIe et XIIe siècles dans la région mâconnaise.
La société exerted a profound influence on medieval scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century, placing the study of medieval feudal society on an new footing. Working from the extensive documentary sources surviving from the Burgundian monastery of Cluny, as well as the dioceses of Mâcon and Dijon, Duby excavated the complex social and economic relationships among the individuals and institutions of the Mâconnais region, charting a profound shift in the social structures of medieval society around the year 1000. Duby argued that in early eleventh century, governing institutions—particularly comital courts established under the Carolingian monarchy—that had represented public justice and order in Burgundy during the ninth and tenth centuries receded and gave way to a new feudal order wherein independent aristocratic knights wielded power over peasant communities through strong-arm tactics and threats of violence; the emergence of this new, decentralized society of dynastic lords could explain such eleventh-century phenomena as the Peace of God, the Gregorian reform movement and the Crusades.
Following upon this, Duby formulated a famous theory about the Crusades: that the tremendous response to the idea of holy war against the Muslims can be traced to the desire of disinherited second and third sons of this French parvenue aristocracy to make their fortunes by venturing abroad and settling in the Levant. While Duby's theory had long-lasting influence scholars such as Jonathan Riley-Smith have done much to discredit it, arguing that there was no large-scale shortage of land in Western Europe at the time, that knights lost money going on crusade, that lay religious sentiment was their primary motivation. Duby's intensive and rigorous examination of a local society based on archival sources and a broad understanding of the social and economic bases of daily life became a standard model for medieval historical research in France for decades after the appearance of La société. Throughout the 1970s and 80's, French doctoral students investigated their own corners of medieval France and Spain in a similar way, hoping to compare and contrast their own results with those of Duby's Mâconnais and its thesis about the transformation of European society at the end of the first millennium.
Although he was never formally a student in the circle of scholars around Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre that came to be known as the Annales School, Duby was in many ways the most visible exponent of the Annaliste tradition, emphasizing the need to place people and their daily lives at the center of historical inquiry. Duby was a pioneer in what he and other Annaliste historians in the 1970s and 80's came to call the "history of mentalities", or the study of not just what people did, but their value systems and how they imagined their world. In books like The Three Orders: Feudal Society Imagined and The Age of Cathedrals, Duby showed how ideals and social reality existed in dynamic relationship to one another, his distilled biographical essay on William Marshal set the knight's career in the context of feudal loyalties and the chivalric frame of mind. Duby's interest in the idea of historical "mentalities" extended to thinking about the position of contemporary society vis-a-vis its past. In Le Dimanche de Bouvines on the pivotal 1214 battle of Bouvines, Duby chose not to analyze the battle itself, but the ways it had been represented and remembered over time and the role its memory had played in the formation of French ideas about its medieval past.
The book remains a classic of Annales-style historiography, eschewing the "great man" and event-oriented theories of political history in favor of asking questions about the evolution of historical perceptions and ideas over the long term, the longue durée. Duby wrote in newspapers and popular journals and was a regular guest on radio and television programs promoting historical awareness and support for the arts and social sciences in France, he served as the first director of Société d'édition de programmes de télévision, a French broadcast network dedicated to educational programming. His last book, is an intellectual autobiography. In it, Duby stresses the importance of the historian as a public figure who can make the past relevant and exciting to those in the present. Commandeur of the Legion of Honour. Grand officier of the National Order of Merit. Commandeur of the Ordre des Palmes