Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, its second President. He is considered one of the fathers of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history, he graduated with a degree in public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po; the Pierre de Coubertin medal is an award given by the International Olympic Committee to athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in the Olympic Games. Pierre de Frédy was born in Paris on 1 January 1863, into an aristocratic family, he was the fourth child of Baron Charles Louis de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin and Marie–Marcelle Gigault de Crisenoy. Family tradition held that the Frédy name had first arrived in France in the early 15th century, the first recorded title of nobility granted to the family was given by Louis XI to an ancestor named Pierre de Frédy, in 1477.
But other branches of his family tree delved further into French history, the annals of both sides of his family included nobles of various stations, military leaders and associates of kings and princes of France. His father Charles was a staunch royalist and accomplished artist whose paintings were displayed and given prizes at the Parisian salon, at least in those years when he was not absent in protest of the rise to power of Louis Napoleon, his paintings centred on themes related to the Roman Catholic Church and nobility, which reflected those things he thought most important. In a semi-fictional autobiographical piece called Le Roman d'un rallié, Coubertin describes his relationship with both his mother and his father as having been somewhat strained during his childhood and adolescence, his memoirs elaborated further, describing as a pivotal moment his disappointment upon meeting Henri, Count of Chambord, whom the elder Coubertin believed to be the rightful king. Coubertin grew up in a time of profound change in France: France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the establishment of the French Third Republic, the Dreyfus affair.
But while these events were the setting of his childhood, his school experiences were just as formative. In October 1874, his parents enrolled him in a new Jesuit school called Externat de la rue de Vienne, still under construction for his first five years there. While many of the school's attendees were day students, Coubertin boarded at the school under the supervision of a Jesuit priest, which his parents hoped would instill him with a strong moral and religious education. There, he was among the top three students in his class, was an officer of the school's elite academy made up of its best and brightest; this suggests that despite his rebelliousness at home, Coubertin adapted well to the strict rigors of a Jesuit education. As an aristocrat, Coubertin had a number of career paths from which to choose, including prominent roles in the military or politics, but he chose instead to pursue a career as an intellectual and writing on a broad range of topics, including education, history and sociology.
The subject which he seems to have been most interested in was education, his study focused in particular on physical education and the role of sport in schooling. In 1883, he visited England for the first time, studied the program of physical education instituted by Thomas Arnold at the Rugby School. Coubertin credited these methods with leading to the expansion of British power during the 19th century and advocated their use in French institutions; the inclusion of physical education in the curriculum of French schools would become an ongoing pursuit and passion of Coubertin's. Coubertin is thought to have exaggerated the importance of sport to Thomas Arnold, whom he viewed as "one of the founders of athletic chivalry"; the character-reforming influence of sport with which Coubertin was so impressed is more to have originated in the novel Tom Brown's School Days rather than in the ideas of Arnold himself. Nonetheless, Coubertin was an enthusiast in need of a cause and he found it in England and in Thomas Arnold.
"Thomas Arnold, the leader and classic model of English educators," wrote Coubertin, "gave the precise formula for the role of athletics in education. The cause was won. Playing fields sprang up all over England". Intrigued by what he had read about English public schools, in 1883, at the age of twenty, Frédy went to Rugby and to other English schools to see for himself, he described the results in a book, L'Education en Angleterre, published in Paris in 1888. This hero of his book is Thomas Arnold, on his second visit in 1886, Coubertin reflected on Arnold's influence in the chapel at Rugby School. What Coubertin saw on the playing fields of Rugby and the other English schools he visited was how "organised sport can create moral and social strength". Not only did organised games help to set the mind and body in equilibrium, it prevented the time being wasted in other ways. First developed by the ancient Greeks, it was an approach to education that he felt the rest of the world had forgotten and to whose revival he was to dedicate the rest of his life.
As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticised ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he looked to the example set by the Athe
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology", his work influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses". Born in Paris, Charcot taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years, his reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, revered, Duchenne de Boulogne."He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children and Jean-Baptiste, who became a doctor and a famous polar explorer".
He was accused of being an atheist. Charcot's primary focus was neurology, he was the first to describe multiple sclerosis. Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclérose en plaques; the three signs of multiple sclerosis now known as Charcot's triad 1 are nystagmus, intention tremor, telegraphic speech, though these are not unique to MS. Charcot observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly", he was the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception. He researched the functions of different parts of the brain and the role of arteries in cerebral hemorrhage. Charcot was among the first to describe Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; the announcement was made with Pierre Marie of France and Howard Henry Tooth of England. The disease is sometimes called peroneal muscular atrophy.
Charcot's studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of Parkinson's disease. Among other advances he made the distinction between rigidity and bradykinesia, he led the disease named paralysis agitans to be renamed after James Parkinson. He noted apparent variations on PD, such as Parkinson's disease with hyperextension. Charcot received the first European professional chair of clinical diseases for the nervous system in 1882. Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime, he believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease. Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with "hystero-epilepsy".
He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism "developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in'animal magnetism' and'mesmerization'", revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis, his study of hysteria "attract both scientific and social notoriety". Bogousslavsky and Veyrunes write:Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria... For the members of the Salpêtrière School, susceptibility to hypnotism was synonymous with disease, i.e. hysteria, although they recognized... that grand hypnotisme should be differentiated from petit hypnotisme, which corresponded to the hypnosis of ordinary people. Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria, he taught that due to this prejudice these "cases went unrecognised by distinguished doctors" and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers.
Charcot's analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas. The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time. Bernheim argued that the hypnosis and hysteria phenomena that Charcot had famously demonstrated were in fact due to suggestion. However, Charcot himself had had longstanding concerns about the use of hypnosis in treatment and about its effect on patients, he was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism. Charcot thought of art as a crucial tool of the clinicoanatomic method, he used photos and drawings, many made in his classes and conferences. He drew outside the neurology domain, as a personal hobby.
Like Duchenne, he is considered a key figure in the incorporation of photography to the study
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to promote health by treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There is no set age at which patients may be under the care of a geriatrician, or geriatric physician, a physician who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather, this decision is determined by the individual patient's needs, the availability of a specialist, it is important to note the difference between geriatrics, the care of aged people, gerontology, the study of the aging process itself. The term geriatrics comes from the Greek γέρων geron meaning "old man", ιατρός iatros meaning "healer". However, geriatrics is sometimes called medical gerontology. Geriatrics differs from standard adult medicine because it focuses on the unique needs of the elderly person; the aged body is different physiologically from the younger adult body, during old age, the decline of various organ systems becomes manifest. Previous health issues and lifestyle choices produce a different constellation of diseases and symptoms in different people.
The appearance of symptoms depends on the remaining healthy reserves in the organs. Smokers, for example, consume their respiratory system reserve rapidly. Geriatricians distinguish between the effects of normal aging. For example, renal impairment may be a part of aging, but renal failure and urinary incontinence are not. Geriatricians aim to achieve healthy aging. Geriatricians focus on achieving the patient's highest priorities in the context of multiple chronic conditions, on preserving function; the decline in physiological reserve in organs makes the elderly develop some kinds of diseases and have more complications from mild problems. Multiple problems may compound: A mild fever in elderly persons may cause confusion, which may lead to a fall and to a fracture of the neck of the femur. Elderly people require specific attention to medications. Elderly people are subjected to polypharmacy; some elderly people have multiple medical disorders. This polypharmacy may increase the risk of adverse drug reactions.
In one study, it was found that prescription and nonprescription medications were used together among older adults, with nearly 1 in 25 individuals at risk for a major drug-drug interaction. Drugs metabolites are excreted by the kidneys or the liver, which may be impaired in the elderly, necessitating medication adjustment; the presentation of disease in elderly persons may be vague and non-specific, or it may include delirium or falls. Some elderly people may find it hard to describe their symptoms in words if the disease is causing confusion, or if they have cognitive impairment. Delirium in the elderly may be caused by a minor problem such as constipation or by something as serious and life-threatening as a heart attack. Many of these problems are treatable; the so-called geriatric giants are the major categories of impairment that appear in elderly people as they begin to fail. These include immobility, instability and impaired intellect/memory. Impaired vision and hearing loss are common chronic problems among older people.
Hearing problems can lead to social isolation and dependence as the person can no longer talk to other people, receive information over the telephone, or engage in simple transactions, such as talking to a person at a bank or store. Vision problems lead to falls from tripping over unseen objects, medicine being taken incorrectly because the written instructions could not be read, finances being mismanaged. Functional abilities and quality of life issues are of great concern to geriatricians and their patients. Elderly people want to live independently as long as possible, which requires them to be able to engage in self-care and other activities of daily living. A geriatrician may be able to provide information about elder care options, refers people to home care services, skilled nursing facilities, assisted living facilities, hospice as appropriate. Frail elderly people may choose to decline some kinds of medical care, because the risk-benefit ratio is different. For example, frail elderly women stop screening mammograms, because breast cancer is a growing disease that would cause them no pain, impairment, or loss of life before they would die of other causes.
Frail people are at significant risk of post-surgical complications and the need for extended care, an accurate prediction—based on validated measures, rather than how old the patient's face looks—can help older patients make informed choices about their options. Assessment of older patients before elective surgeries can predict the patients' recovery trajectories. One frailty scale uses five items: unintentional weight loss, muscle weakness, low physical activity, slowed walking speed. A healthy person scores 0. Compared to non-frail elderly people, people with intermediate frailty scores are twice as to have post-surgical complications, spend 50% more time in the hospital, are three times as to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility instead of to their own homes. Frail elderly patients who were living at home before the surgery have worse outcomes, with the
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, surgical treatment, rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to practice neurosurgery, there are varying methods through which they must be educated. In most countries, neurosurgeon training requires a minimum period of seven years after graduating from medical school. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, seven years of residency. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue additional training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident; these fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, neurovascular surgery, skull-base surgery, peripheral nerve and spine surgery.
In the U. S. neurosurgery is considered a competitive specialty composed of 0.6% of all practicing physicians. In the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification takes four to six years depending on the student's route; the newly qualified physician must complete foundation training lasting two years. Junior doctors apply to enter the neurosurgical pathway. Unlike most other surgical specialties, it has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years. Neurosurgery remains amongst the most competitive medical specialties in which to obtain entry. Neurosurgery, or the premeditated incision into the head for pain relief, has been around for thousands of years, but notable advancements in neurosurgery have only come within the last hundred years; the Incas appear to have practiced a procedure known as trepanation since the late Stone age. During the Middle Ages in Arabia from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache.
There was not much advancement in neurosurgery until late 19th early 20th century, when electrodes were placed on the brain and superficial tumors were removed. History of electrodes in the brain: In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animal's brain. In 1950 Dr. Jose Delgado invented the first electrode, implanted in an animal's brain, using it to make it run and change direction. In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface into a human subject. History of tumor removal: In 1879 after locating it via neurological signs alone, Scottish surgeon William Macewen performed the first successful brain tumor removal. On November 25, 1884 after English physician Alexander Hughes Bennett used Macewen's technique to locate it, English surgeon Rickman Godlee performed the first primary brain tumor removal, which differs from Macewen's operation in that Bennett operated on the exposed brain, whereas Macewen operated outside of the "brain proper" via trepanation.
On March 16, 1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to remove a pituitary tumor. The main advancements in neurosurgery came about as a result of crafted tools. Modern neurosurgical tools, or instruments, include chisels, dissectors, elevators, hooks, probes, suction tubes, power tools, robots. Most of these modern tools, like chisels, forcepts, hooks and probes, have been in medical practice for a long time; the main difference of these tools and post advancement in neurosurgery, were the precision in which they were crafted. These tools are crafted with edges. Other tools such as hand held power saws and robots have only been used inside of a neurological operating room; as an example, the University of Utah developed a device for computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing which uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path for a robotic cranial drill. General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage.
Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice. Specialized branches have developed to cater to difficult conditions; these specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice advanced specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of one to two years is expected from the neurosurgeon; some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: Vascular neurosurgery includes clipping of aneurysms and performing carotid endarterectomy. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and th
Jean François Paschal Grousset was a French politician, journalist and science fiction writer. Grousset published under the pseudonyms of André Laurie, Philippe Daryl, Tiburce Moray and Léopold Virey. Grousset was born in Corte and studied medicine before commencing a journalistic career. In 1869 he began working for the weekly newspaper La Marseillaise, writing pro-revolutionary articles; as a result of an attempt by Grousset to challenge Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte to a duel during 1870, Grousset's second, Victor Noir, was shot and killed by Bonaparte during a quarrel. The same year Grousset was sentenced to six months imprisonment, he was elected a member of the Paris Commune, becoming a member of its Executive Committee and Delegate for External Affairs. After the fall of the Commune, he was arrested and, in 1872, he was deported to New Caledonia, he escaped, lived in Sydney, San Francisco, New York City and London, making a living by teaching French. He returned to France after the 1880 amnesty, becoming involved in literature and physical culture, but returning to politics and, in 1893, becoming a Socialist Deputy for the 12th arrondissement of Paris.
Like Jules Verne, he was another discovery of publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel. He "collaborated" with Verne on Les Cinq Cent Millions de la Begum, L'Étoile du Sud and L'Épave du Cynthia; some scholars believe that these works were based on manuscripts written by Grousset and rewritten by Verne at Hetzel's request. One of Grousset's most interesting science fiction novels was Les Exilés de la Terre — Selene-Company Limited one of the most fanciful cosmic tales of all times. In it, a consortium which intends to exploit the Moon’s mineral resources decides that, since our satellite is too far to be reached, it must be brought closer to the Earth. A Sudanese mountain composed of pure iron ore becomes the headquarters of the newly established Selene Company. Solar reflectors are used to provide the energy required to convert the mountain into a huge electro-magnet, with miles of cables wrapped around it. A spaceship-cum-observatory is built on top of the mountain; when the experiment begins, the mountain is catapulted to the Moon.
There, the protagonists have various adventures and return to Earth by re-energizing the mountain. Other notable works by Grousset published under the Laurie pseudonym include De New York à Brest en Sept Heures, which predicted a transatlantic tunnel; the character of Spiridon, depicted as a non-human alien, gifted with great knowledge, an insatiable scientific curiosity but no human feelings or emotions, the victim of mankind’s petty jealousies and racial fears, is a striking departure from the Vernian influence that permeated the rest of Laurie’s works. As Paschal Grousset: 1869: Le Rêve d'un Irréconciliable, as Paschal GroussetAs Philippe Daryl: 1890: Le Yacht — histoire de la navigation maritime de plaisance https://archive.org/As André Laurie: 1879: Les Cinq Cent Millions de la Begum, written with Jules Verne, translated as The Begum's Fortune 1884: L'Étoile du Sud, written with Jules Verne, translated as The Vanished Diamond 1884: L'Héritier de Robinson 1885: L'Épave du "Cynthia", written with Jules Verne, translated as The Waife of the Cynthia in 1886 and as The Salvage of the Cynthia in 1958 1886: Le Capitaine Trafalgar 1887: Les Exilés de la Terre — Selene-Company Limited, translated as The Conquest Of The Moon: A Story of the Bayouda in 1889 1888: De New York à Brest en Sept Heures, translated as New York to Brest In Seven Hours in 1890 1890: Le Secret du Mage, translated as The Secret Of The Magian or The Mystery of Ecbatana in 1892 1891: Axel Eberson, translated as Axel Eberson, the Graduate of Upsala in 1892 1894: Le Rubis du Grand Lama 1895: Un Roman dans la Planète Mars 1895: Atlantis, translated as The Crystal City Under The Sea in 1896 1903: Le Géant de l'Azur 1903: Le Filon de Gérard 1903: L'Oncle de Chicago 1904: Le Tour du Globe d'un Bachelier 1905: Le Maître de l'Abîme 1907: Spiridon le Muet Works by André Laurie at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Paschal Grousset at Internet Archive Works by or about Philippe Daryl at Internet Archive A page on Laurie's work on www.julesverne.ca "Grousset, Paschal".
New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Albert Pitres was a French neurological physician. He was born in Bordeaux and received his training in Paris, where he was the student of Jean Martin Charcot and Louis-Antoine Ranvier, he served as dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Bordeaux. He began his medical studies in Bordeaux working as an interne to the hospitals of Paris. In 1877 he defended his doctoral thesis, during the following year received his agrégation with a dissertation titled "Les hypertrophies et les dilatations cardiaques indépendante des lésions valvulaires". In the late 1870s, with Charles-Émile François-Franck, he performed studies on the excitation of the cerebral cortex and the localization of brain function. Afterwards, he returned to Bordeaux, where from 1881 to 1919, he was maître to the chair of pathology. Pitres died in 1928 at the age of 79 after falling down stairs. Lessons that Pitres gave at the amphitheater in Bordeaux on the following subjects were compiled and published: hysteria and hypnotism, amnesic aphasia and physical signs associated with pleural effusions.
His studies of peripheral neuritis were published in Volume XXXVI of Gilbert and Carnot's "Nouveau traité de médeine et de thérapeutique". With Leo Testut, he was co-author of "Les nerfs en schémas, anatomie et physiopathologie", his name became associated with tabes dorsalis. The term "Pitres' sign" refers to hypoesthesia of the scrotum and testicles in tabes dorsalis. Les biographies de neurologues biography