Beauvais is a city and commune in northern France. It serves in the Hauts-de-France region. Beauvais is located 75 kilometres from Paris; the residents of the city are called Beauvaisiens. The municipality of Beauvais has a population of 56,020 as of 2016, population estimate from the Insee, ranks as the most populous city in the Oise department, the third most-populous city in Picardy. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, the metropolitan area of Beauvais has a population of 128,020. Beauvais was known to the Romans by the Gallo-Roman name of Caesaromagus; the post-Renaissance Latin rendering is Bellovacum from the Belgic tribe the Bellovaci, whose capital it was. In the ninth century it became a countship, which about 1013 passed to the bishops of Beauvais, who became peers of France from the twelfth century. At the coronations of kings the Bishop of Beauvais wore the royal mantle and went, with the Bishop of Langres, to raise the king from his throne to present him to the people. De Bello Gallico II 13 reports that as Julius Caesar was approaching a fortified town called Bratuspantium in the land of the Bellovaci, its inhabitants surrendered to him when he was about 5 Roman miles away.
Its name is Gaulish for "place", from * bratu-spantion. Some say. Others theorize that it is Bailleul sur Thérain. From 1004 to 1037, the Count of Beauvais was Odo Count of Blois. In a charter dated 1056/1060, Eudo of Brittany granted land "in pago Belvacensi" to the Abbey of Angers Saint-Aubin. In 1346 the town had to defend itself against the English, who again besieged it in 1433; the siege which it endured in 1472 at the hands of the Duke of Burgundy, was rendered famous by the heroism of the town's women, under the leadership of Jeanne Hachette, whose memory is still celebrated by a procession on 27 June, during which women take precedence over men. An interesting hoard of coins from the High Middle Ages became known as the Beauvais Hoard, because some of the British and European coins found with the lot were from the French abbey located in Beauvais; the hoard, which contained a variety of rare and rare Anglo-Norman pennies and foreign coins, was reputed to have been found in or near Paris.
Beauvais was extensively damaged during World War I and again in World War II, during the German advance on Paris in June 1940. Much of the older part of the city was all but destroyed, the cathedral badly damaged before being liberated by British forces on 30 August 1944. Beauvais lies at the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the Thérain at its confluence with the Avelon, its ancient ramparts have been destroyed, it is now surrounded by boulevards, outside of which run branches of the Thérain. In addition, there are spacious promenades in the north-east of the town. Beauvais experiences a oceanic climate; the average annual temperature is the sunlight annual average of 1669 hours. Hills Bray are provided to the precipitation of Beauvais; the precipitation is 669 mm on average per year. However, the frequency of rainfall is high; the average number of days per year above the precipitation of a 1 mm is 116 days, or every third day. The fog is present, it is estimated at about 55 days a year.
The department is affected by 41 days of average wind year it comes from the west to the south. The city's cathedral, dedicated to Saint Peter, in some respects the most daring achievement of Gothic architecture, consists only of a transept and quire with apse and seven apse-chapels; the vaulting in the interior exceeds 150 feet in height. The cathedral underwent a major repair and restoration process in 2008; the small Romanesque church of the 10th century known as the Basse Oeuvre occupies the site destined for the nave. Begun in 1247, under Bishop William of Grès, an extra 5 metres were added to the height, to make it the tallest cathedral in Europe: the work was interrupted in 1284 by the collapse of the vaulting of the choir, a disaster that produced a temporary failure of nerve among the masons working in Gothic style; the transept was built from 1500 to 1548. In 1573 the fall of a too-ambitious central tower stopped work again, after which little addition was made, its façades that on the south, exhibit all the richness of the late Gothic style.
The carved wooden doors of both the north and the south portals are masterpieces of Gothic and Renaissance workmanship. The church possesses an elaborate astronomical clock and tapestries of the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. To him is due some of the stained glass in St. Etienne, the second church of the town, an interesting example of the transition stage between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. During the Middle Ages, on 14 January, the Feast of Asses was celebrated in the Beauvais Cathedral, in commemoration of the Flight into Egypt. In the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville and in the old streets near the cathedral there are several houses dating from the 12th to the 16th centuries; the Hôtel de ville, close to whic
Rabat is a town in the Northern Region of Malta, with a population of 11,497 as of March 2014. The name of the town is derived from the Arabic word for'suburb': الرباط, as it was the suburb of the old capital Mdina. Half of the present-day village core formed part of the Roman city of Melite, before the latter was resized during the medieval period; the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See to the Republic of Malta is seated in this village. The Local Council of Rabat is the administrator of Baħrija. Parts of the films Munich and Black Eagle were shot in Rabat. In December 1999, Mtarfa seceded from Rabat to form a separate Local Council by Act XXI, an amendment to the Local Council Act of 1993. Rabat is home of St. Agatha; these catacombs were used in Roman times to bury the dead as, according to Roman culture, it was unhygienic to bury the dead in the city Mdina and parts of Rabat were built on top of an ancient Roman city. The Maltese Catacombs were never meant to be hiding places during persecutions or as living quarters.
The Catacombs of St. Paul are now looked after by Heritage Malta. Part of St. Paul's Catacombs, the part accessible from the Parish tradition and as recorded in the Bible, St. Paul stayed for three months when he was shipwrecked on the island in 60 A. D. In the Catacombs of St Agatha's, there are over 500 graves of several types, the majority being for children. There are sections for Jews, as well as for Christians. There are unique Frescos. Another interesting feature in the Maltese Catacombs is the Agape Table. St. Paul, Conte Roger Band Club https://web.archive.org/web/20110128233216/http://countrogerband.com/ St. Joseph, L'Isle Adam Band Club A. D. 1860 http://www.bandalisleadam.com/ Festa Titulari tal-martirju ta’ San Pawl http://sanpawl.rabatmalta.com Festa Sekondarja ta' San Gużepp http://sanguzepp.rabatmalta.com Festa Prinċipali u Solenni ta' Corpus Domini Festa tal-Madonna taċ-Ċintura http://www.rabatmalta.com/amcsaa Festa ta' Santa Katarina tad-daħla Festa ta' San Anton Abbati Festa tal-Madonna tas-Saħħa Festa tal-Immakulata Kunċizzjoni Festa tat-Twelid ta-Marija - l-Imtaħleb Festa ta' San Martin - Baħrija Rabat has its own football club called Rabat Ajax F.
C.. Rabat won the Maltese Premier League twice, the Maltese Cup once in 1986. Rabat Local Council Rabat Community Portal Rabat Ajax Football Club Rabat Coat of Arms San Guzepp Rabat
Is-Suq tal-Belt known as the Covered Market, is a 19th-century market hall located in Valletta, Malta. It is notable for being the first building in Malta to be constructed of iron; the building was damaged in World War II, the rebuilding was insensitive to the original structure. Further alterations were made in decades, the market began to decline in the 1970s. An attempt to rebrand it as a shopping arcade known as Ixtri Malti in the 1980s was unsuccessful; the market continued to decline until it was renovated in 2016–17, reopened as a food market in January 2018. In the 16th century, the site now occupied by the market; the site was used as part of the gallows parade of a guilty person, humiliated and tortured around Valletta, before being hanged in Floriana. It was used as a marketplace, where crops and goods from the countryside were sold. At some point during the rule of the Order of St. John, the first market was built on site, it was a two-story-high Baroque building with a large central courtyard having a fountain.
Arcades ran with shops being spread over the two floors. In 1784, the building had two entrances, one leading to present-day Merchants Street and the other to St. Paul's Street; this building was demolished during the early British period due to sanitation problems. During the 2016–17 renovation, remains such as small rock-hewn cisterns and dividing walls from the original building were discovered, allowing archaeologists to make a 3D reconstruction of it. Plans to reconstruct a covered market in Valletta began in 1845, the Valletta Market was built between 1859 and 1861 on the site of the old prisons; the building was designed by the Superintendent of Public Works, Hector Zimelli, but was completed under the direction of Emanuele Luigi Galizia. Construction cost £3934, the market contained 153 stalls and 65 cellars. In 1938, the market was promoted by one of the fruit vendors at having the best supplies of fresh food for every strata of society; the building was bombed on 7 April 1942, during World War II, destroying one third of the building.
The damaged parts were repaired soon afterwards, but were not rebuilt to the original plan and the roof's symmetry was lost. By 1966, the market no longer met hygiene standards. In 1970, two new floors were built and a pair of escalators were installed; the market thrived for a few more years. In 1982, the food market was transferred to Floriana, a year the Valletta Market was re-branded as a shopping arcade called Ixtri Malti; this move was unsuccessful, the food market moved back to Valletta in 1989. Despite this, the market continued to decline; the Malta Environment and Planning Authority scheduled the building as a Grade 1 national monument on 28 March 2012. Plans for the restoration of the Valletta Market began following Valletta's nomination for European Capital of Culture 2018; the government deemed restoration of the structure as part of the Valletta regeneration master plan. In January 2016, the building was leased to the supermarket chain Arkadia Co. Ltd for 65 years; the restoration and renovation was estimated to cost around €7 million, but the overall investment amounted to €14 million.
During the renovation additions to the building were dismantled, while the original elements of the structure were preserved and restored. Parts of the building were converted into food markets and stalls, while the upper level is intended for cultural activities and events; the renovation works were inspired by the Market of San Miguel in Madrid and La Boqueria in Barcelona. The renovation of the Valletta Market began in May 2016 and the project was expected to be complete by May 2017. An unofficial deadline of October was repeatedly extended to mid-December, but these deadlines were missed. Works were complete by mid-2017, but continued until the end of the year, just in time for Valletta 2018; the market hall reopened to the public on 3 January 2018, the official opening by Prime Minister Joseph Muscat took place on 2 March 2018. Criticism for the redevelopment included concern from residents that the establishment would result in increased noise at night if more restaurants and bars are established in the area.
Is-Suq tal-Belt has a rectangular plan, the walls and arches making up its three floors are built of limestone like many other buildings in Malta. However, the roof is made of cast and wrought iron decked in timber, it is supported on cast iron columns and trusses; this use of iron makes it an unusual structure, it was the first building in Malta to be constructed of pre-fabricated iron. Iron had been used in earlier structures on the island, such as the Naval Bakery and the Corradino Prisons, but on a much smaller scale than the Valletta Market; the design of the Valletta Market was inspired by Halles Centrales. The design of the Valletta Market influenced similar projects elsewhere in the British Empire, including in Calcutta. Badger, George Percy. Historical Guide to Malta and Gozo. Calleja. Pp. 221–222. Mifsud, Christian. "The market before'is-Suq tal-Belt': rediscovering the Knights' Period market building in Valletta". Proceedings of History Week. Mifsud, Christian. "The Valletta Baroque Market".
YouTube. “The subject of this study is Valletta’s Baroque Market existing during the Knights’ Period. This study aims to investigate the built spaces of the first market building existing between 1643 and until its demolition in 18
Fort St. Angelo
Fort St. Angelo is a bastioned fort in Birgu, located at the centre of the Grand Harbour, it was built in the medieval period as a castle called the Castrum Maris. It was rebuilt by the Order of Saint John as a bastioned fort called Fort Saint Angelo between the 1530s and the 1560s, it is best known for its role as the Order's headquarters during the Great Siege of Malta of 1565. A major reconstruction to designs of Carlos de Grunenbergh took place in the 1690s, giving the fort its current appearance; the fort was garrisoned by the British from 1800 to 1979, at times being classified as a stone frigate known as HMS Egmont or HMS St Angelo. The fort suffered considerable damage during World War II, but it was restored. In 1998, the upper part of the fort was handed to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Fort St. Angelo has been on Malta's tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1998, as part of the Knights' Fortifications around the Harbours of Malta; the site was occupied since pre-history and a prominent place of worship in antiquity with the building of the temple of Astarte.
The date of its original construction is unknown. However, the prehistoric and classical remains on site, are indicative of a fortified place and a habitable zone. Large ashlar blocks and an Egyptian pink granite column at the top part of the fort still exists inside a chapel; the site was later developed by the Arabs c. 870 AD, but nothing is concrete. Al-Himyarī mentions that the Arabs dismantled a hisn, but there is no actual reference if this'fortress' was in Birgu. A rock-cut church close to the area had existed since Orthodox Christianity in Malta around 600 A. D. and was rebuilt with wood in around 800 A. D, its probable start as a fortification is the high/late medieval period. In fact, in 1220 Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II started to appoint his own Castellani for Malta who needed a place to live and secure the interests of the crown; the remains of a tower that may date back to the 12th century can be traced among the more recent works. The first mention of Castrum Maris is to be found in documents from the 1240s when Paulinus of Malta was the lord of the island and when Giliberto Abate made a census of the islands.
Another reference to the castle is that from the short Angevin rule where documents list it again as Castrum Maris and list a garrison of 150 men together with several weapons. It seems that by 1274, the castle had two chapels which are still there today. From the same year exists a detailed inventory of weapons and supplies in the castle. From 1283 the Maltese islands were under Aragonese rule and the fortification was used by Castellani who were there to safeguard the interests of the Aragonese crown. In fact the Castellans did not have any jurisdiction outside the ditch of the fort. By 1445 a Mariam confraternity, one of the eldest in Maltese history, had its convent located at the site; when the Order of Saint John arrived in Malta in 1530, they chose to settle in Birgu, when it was observed the site of Fort St Angelo was abandoned and in ruins. After renovation it became the seat of the Grand Master, which included the refurbishing of the Castellan's House and St. Anne's Chapel; the Knights made this their primary fortification and reinforced and remodelled it, including the cutting of the dry ditch to make it a moat and the D'Homedes Bastion built by 1536.
By 1547, a large cavalier designed by Antonio Ferramolino was built behind the D'Homedes Bastion, De Guirial Battery was built at the tip of the fort by sea level to protect the entrance to Dockyard Creek. These works transformed the fort into a gunpowder fortification. Fort St Angelo withstood the Turks during the Great Siege of Malta, during which it succeeded in tearing apart a sea attack by the Turks on Senglea on 15 August 1565. In the aftermath of that siege, the Knights built the fortified city of Valletta on Mount Sciberras on the other side of the Grand Harbour, the administrative centre for the knights moved there. In 1644, Giovanni de’ Medici proposed a new fort be constructed on Orsi Point, the name and garrison of Fort St. Angelo be transferred to the new fort, he drew up plans for the proposed fort. It was not until the 1690s. Today's layout of the fort is attributed to these works which were designed by Carlos de Grunenbergh, who paid for the construction of four gun batteries on the side of the fort facing the entrance to Grand Harbour.
As a result, one can still see his coat of arms above the main gate of the fort. By the arrival of the French in 1798, the fort became a powerful fortification including some 80 guns, 48 of which pointed towards the entrance of the port. During the short two-year period of French occupation, the Fort served as headquarters of the French Army. With the coming of the British to Malta the fort retained its importance as a military installation, first in use by the Army as a Wireless Station. In fact, in 1800, two battalions of the 35th Regiment were resident in the fort. However, at the start of the 20th century, the fort was taken over by the Navy and it was commissioned as a stone frigate in 1912 as HMS Egmont, when it became a base for the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean, but in 1933 renamed as HMS St Angelo; the British did not make any major modifications to the fort, although they converted No. 2 Battery into a c
Messina is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina. It is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, the 13th largest city in Italy, with a population of more than 238,000 inhabitants in the city proper and about 650,000 in the Metropolitan City, it is located near the northeast corner of Sicily, at the Strait of Messina, opposite Villa San Giovanni on the mainland, has close ties with Reggio Calabria. According to Eurostat the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina has, in 2014, 277,584 inhabitants; the city's main resources are its seaports, cruise tourism and agriculture. The city has been a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and Archimandrite seat since 1548 and is home to a locally important international fair; the city has the University of Messina, founded in 1548 by Ignatius of Loyola. Messina has a light rail system, Tranvia di Messina, opened on 3 April 2003; this line is 7.7 kilometres and links the city's central railway station with the city centre and harbour. The city is home to a significant Greek-speaking minority, rooted in its history and recognised.
Founded by Greek colonists in the 8th century BC, Messina was called Zancle, from the Greek ζάγκλον meaning "scythe" because of the shape of its natural harbour. A comune of its Metropolitan City, located at the southern entrance of the Strait of Messina, is to this day called'Scaletta Zanclea'. In the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium renamed it Messene in honour of the Greek city Messene; the city was sacked in 397 BC by the Carthaginians and reconquered by Dionysius I of Syracuse. In 288 BC the Mamertines seized the city by treachery, killing all the men and taking the women as their wives; the city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading to a conflict with the expanding regional empire of Syracuse. Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River and besieged Messina. Carthage assisted the Mamertines because of a long-standing conflict with Syracuse over dominance in Sicily; when Hiero attacked a second time in 264 BC, the Mamertines petitioned the Roman Republic for an alliance, hoping for more reliable protection.
Although reluctant to assist lest it encourage other mercenary groups to mutiny, Rome was unwilling to see Carthaginian power spread further over Sicily and encroach on Italy. Rome therefore entered into an alliance with the Mamertines. In 264 BC, Roman troops were deployed to Sicily, the first time a Roman army acted outside the Italian Peninsula. At the end of the First Punic War it was a free city. In Roman times Messina known as Messana, had an important pharos. Messana was the base of Sextus Pompeius, during his war against Octavian. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was successively ruled by Goths from 476 by the Byzantine Empire in 535, by the Arabs in 842, in 1061 by the Norman brothers Robert Guiscard and Roger Guiscard. In 1189 the English King Richard I stopped at Messina en route to the Holy Land for the Third Crusade and occupied the city after a dispute over the dowry of his sister, married to William the Good, King of Sicily. In 1345 Orlando d'Aragona, illegitimate son of Frederick II of Sicily was the strategos of Messina.
Messina may have been the harbour at which the Black Death entered Europe: the plague was brought by Genoese ships coming from Caffa in the Crimea. In 1548 St. Ignatius founded there the first Jesuit college in the world, which gave birth to the Studium Generale; the Christian ships that won the Battle of Lepanto left from Messina: the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, who took part in the battle, recovered for some time in the Grand Hospital. The city reached the peak of its splendour in the early 17th century, under Spanish domination: at the time it was one of the ten greatest cities in Europe. In 1674 the city rebelled against the foreign garrison, it managed to remain independent for some time, thanks to the help of the French king Louis XIV, but in 1678, with the Peace of Nijmegen, it was reconquered by the Spaniards and sacked: the university, the senate and all the privileges of autonomy it had enjoyed since the Roman times were abolished. A massive fortress was built by the occupants and Messina decayed steadily.
In 1743, 48,000 died of plague in the city. In 1783, an earthquake devastated much of the city, it took decades to rebuild and rekindle the cultural life of Messina. In 1847 it was one of the first cities in Italy. In 1848 it rebelled against the reigning Bourbons, but was suppressed again. Only in 1860, after the Battle of Milazzo, the Garibaldine troops occupied the city. One of the main figures of the unification of Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini, was elected deputy at Messina in the general elections of 1866. Another earthquake of less intensity damaged the city on 16 November 1894; the city was entirely destroyed by an earthquake and associated tsunami on the morning of 28 December 1908, killing about 100,000 people and destroying most of the ancient architecture. The city was rebuilt in the following year, it incurred further damage from the massive Allied air bombardments of 1943. The city was awarded a Gold Medal for Military Valour and one for Civil Valour in memory of the event and the subsequent effort
Siege of Rhodes (1522)
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The first siege in 1480 had been unsuccessful; the Knights of St. John, or Knights Hospitallers, had captured Rhodes in the early 14th century after the loss of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in Palestine in 1291. From Rhodes, they became an active part of the trade in the Aegean sea, at times harassed Turkish shipping in the Levant to secure control over the eastern Mediterranean. A first effort by the Ottomans to capture the island, in 1480, was repulsed by the Order, but the continuing presence of the knights just off the southern coast of Anatolia was a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion. Since the previous siege the fortress had received many upgrades from the new school of trace italienne, which made it much more formidable in resisting artillery. In the most exposed land-facing sectors, these included a thickening of the main wall, doubling of the width of the dry ditch, coupled with a transformation of the old counterscarp into massive outworks, the construction of bulwarks around most towers, caponiers enfilading the ditch.
Gates were reduced in number, the old battlement parapets were replaced with slanting ones suitable for artillery fights. A team of masons and slaves did the construction work, the Muslim slaves were charged with the hardest labor. In 1521, Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam was elected Grand Master of the Order. Expecting a new Ottoman attack on Rhodes, he continued to strengthen the city's fortifications, work that had begun after the Ottoman invasion of 1480 and the earthquake of 1481, called upon the Order's knights elsewhere in Europe to come to the island's defence; the rest of Europe ignored his request for assistance, but some Venetian troops from Crete joined the knights, Sir John Rawson, Prior of the Order's Irish House, came alone. The city was protected by two and, in some places three, rings of stone walls and several large bastions; the defence of the walls and bastions was assigned in sections to the different Langues into which the knights had been organized since 1301. The harbour entrance was blocked behind which the Order's fleet was anchored.
When the Turkish invasion force of 400 ships arrived on Rhodes on 26 June 1522, they were commanded by Çoban Mustafa Pasha. Sultan Suleiman himself arrived with the army of 100,000 men on 28 July to take personal charge; the Turks blockaded the harbour and bombarded the town with field artillery from the land side, followed by daily infantry attacks. They sought to undermine the fortifications through tunnels and mines; the artillery fire was slow in inflicting serious damage to the massive walls, but after five weeks, on 4 September, two large gunpowder mines exploded under the bastion of England, causing a 12 yards portion of the wall to fall and to fill the moat. The attackers assaulted this breach and soon gained control of it, but a counterattack by the English brothers under Fra' Nicholas Hussey and Grand Master Villiers de L'Isle-Adam succeeded in driving them back again. Twice more the Turks assaulted the breach that day, but each time the English brothers, aided by German brothers, held the gap.
On 24 September, Mustafa Pasha ordered a new massive assault, aimed at the bastions of Spain, England and Italy. After a day of furious fighting, during which the bastion of Spain changed hands twice, Suleiman called off the attack, he sentenced Mustafa Pasha, his brother-in-law, to death for his failure to take the city, but spared his life after other senior officials had pleaded with him for mercy. Mustafa's replacement, Ahmed Pasha, was an experienced siege engineer, the Turks now focused their efforts on undermining the ramparts and blowing them up with mines while maintaining their continuous artillery barrages; the regularity of the locations where the mines were detonated under the walls has led to the suggestion that the Turkish miners may have taken advantage of culverts under the Hellenistic city which lies beneath the medieval city of Rhodes. Another major assault at the end of November was repelled, but both sides were now exhausted—the Knights because they were reaching the end of their capacity to resist and no relief forces could be expected to arrive in time, the Turks because their troops were demoralized and depleted by combat fatalities and disease spreading through their camps.
Suleiman offered their lives and food if they surrendered. Pressed by the townspeople, Villiers de L'Isle-Adam agreed to negotiate. A truce was declared for 11–13 December to allow negotiations, but when the locals demanded further assurances for their safety, Suleiman was angered and ordered the bombardment and assaults to resume; the bastion of Spain fell on 17 December. With most of the walls now destroyed, it was a matter of time before the city would have to surrender, on 20 December, after several days of pressure from the town's people, the Grand Master asked for a fresh truce. On 22 December, the representatives of the city's Latin and Greek inhabitants accepted Suleiman's terms, which were generous; the knights were given twelve days to leave the island and would be allowed to take with them their weapons and any valuables or religious icons they desired. Islanders who wished to leave could do so at any time within a three-year period. No church would be turned into a mosque; those remaining on the island would be free of Ottoman taxation for five
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands. The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria; the personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets". Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, Trastámara of Spain.
As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, was elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor; as a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon in his own right, as a result he is referred to as the first king of Spain; the personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies.
His reign was dominated by war by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation. The French wars fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the Tercios; the struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him, he could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines.
While Charles did not concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three dangerous rebellions. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, they became important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of Central America; the resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58; the Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain.
The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700. Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile at the Prinsenhof in the Flemish city of Ghent, part of the Habsburg Netherlands; the culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ, by Adrian of Utrecht. Charles became a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece in his infancy and became its grand master. Founded by the Burgundian Philip the Good in 1430, the order emphasised the ideals of the medieval knights and the desire for Christian unity to fight the infidel, it played an important part in the development of Charles' beliefs and he is seen in portraits without its insignia prominently displayed. It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was f