Marie, Countess of Ponthieu
Marie of Ponthieu was suo jure Countess of Ponthieu and Countess of Montreuil, ruling from 1221 to 1250. Marie was the daughter of William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin, granddaughter of King Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile; as her father's only surviving child, Marie succeeded him, ruling as Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil from 1221 to 1250. She married Simon of Dammartin before September 1208, he was the son of Alberic II of Dammartin and Maud de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Simon and Marie had four daughters but only two are recorded, their elder daughter was Joan of second wife of Ferdinand III of Castile. Their younger daughter was Philippe of Dammartin who married firstly Raoul II d' Issoudun, secondly Raoul II de Coucy, thirdly Otto II, Count Geldern. Marie married secondly sometime between September 1240 and 15 December 1241, Mathieu de Montmorency, Seigneur d'Attichy, killed in battle at Mansurrah on 8 February 1250 during the Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France.
Baldwin, John W.. Aristocratic Life in Medieval France; the Johns Hopkins University Press. Shadis, Miriam. Berenguela of Castile and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan
Ferdinand III of Castile
Ferdinand III, 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint, was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231. He was the son of Alfonso IX of Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet. By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. Ferdinand was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. Places such as San Fernando, San Fernando, La Union, Patron Saint of the Diocese of Ilagan,Province of Isabela - San Fernando de Ilagan and the San Fernando de Dilao Church in Paco, Manila in the Philippines, in California, San Fernando City and the San Fernando Valley, were named for him and placed under his patronage.
The exact date of Ferdinand's birth is unclear. It has been proposed to have been as early as 1199 or 1198, although more recent researchers date Ferdinand's birth in the summer of 1201. Ferdinand was born at the Monastery of Valparaíso; as the son of Alfonso IX of León and his second wife Berengaria of Castile, Ferdinand is a descendant of Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile on both sides, as his paternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Leon and maternal great grandfather Sancho III of Castile were the sons and successors of Alfonso VII. Ferdinand has other royal ancestors from his paternal grandmother Urraca of Portugal and his maternal grandmother Eleanor of England a daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. From his birth to 1204 Ferdinand was designated heir to his father's kingdom of Leon with the support of his mother and the kingdom of Castile despite the fact that he was Alfonso IX's second son. Alfonso IX had a son and two daughters from his first marriage to Teresa of Portugal but at the time he never acknowledged his first son as his heir.
However, the Castilians saw the elder Ferdinand as threat to Berengaria's son. The marriage of Ferdinand's parents was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berengaria took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father, King Alfonso VIII of Castile. In 1217, her younger brother, Henry I, died and she succeeded him on the Castilian throne with Ferdinand as her heir, but she surrendered it to her son; when Ferdinand's father, Alfonso IX of León, died in 1230, his will delivered the kingdom to his older daughters Sancha and Dulce, from his first marriage to Teresa of Portugal. But Ferdinand contested the will, claimed the inheritance for himself. At length, an agreement was reached, negotiated between their mothers and Teresa, signed at Benavente on 11 December 1230, by which Ferdinand would receive the Kingdom of León, in return for a substantial compensation in cash and lands for his half-sisters and Dulce. Ferdinand thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms since the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.
Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara. Since the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 halted the advance of the Almohads in Spain, a series of truces had kept Castile and the Almohad dominions of al-Andalus more-or-less at peace. However, a crisis of succession in the Almohad Caliphate after the death of Yusuf II in 1224 opened to Ferdinand III an opportunity for intervention; the Andalusian-based claimant, Abdallah al-Adil, began to ship the bulk of Almohad arms and men across the straits to Morocco to contest the succession with his rival there, leaving al-Andalus undefended. Al-Adil's rebellious cousin, Abdallah al-Bayyasi, appealed to Ferdinand III for military assistance against the usurper. In 1225, a Castilian army accompanied al-Bayyasi in a campaign, ravaging the regions of Jaén, vega de Granada and, before the end of the year, had installed al-Bayyasi in Córdoba. In payment, al-Bayyasi gave Ferdinand the strategic frontier strongholds of Baños de la Encina and Capilla.
When al-Bayyasi was rejected and killed by a popular uprising in Cordoba shortly after, the Castilians remained in occupation of al-Bayyasi's holdings in Andújar and Martos. The crisis in the Almohad Caliphate, remained unresolved. In 1228, a new Almohad pretender, Abd al-Ala Idris I'al-Ma'mun', decided to abandon Spain, left with the last remnant of the Almohad forces for Morocco. Al-Andalus was left fragmented in the hands of local strongmen, only loosely led by Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami. Seeing the opportunity, the Christian kings of the north - Ferdinand III of Castile, Alfonso IX of León, James I of Aragon and Sancho II of Portugal - launched a series of raids on al-Andalus, renewed every year. There were no great battle encounters - Ibn Hud's makeshift Andalusian army was destroyed early on, while attempting to stop the Leonese at Alange in 1230; the Christian armies romped through the south unopposed in the field. Individual Andalusian cities were left to resist or negotiate their capitulation by themselves, with little or no prospect of rescue from Morocco or anywhere else.
The twenty years from 1228
Otto II, Count of Guelders
Otto II, Count of Guelders was a nobleman from the 13th century. He was Count of Guelders and Margaretha of Brabant. After Count William II was slain in 1256 by Frisians his two-year-old son Floris V, Count of Holland inherited Holland, his uncle, his aunt fought over custody of Holland with other nobles. At the battle of Reimerswaal on 22 January 1263, Count Otto II defeated Aleidis and was chosen regent by the nobles who opposed Aleidis. Otto II served as Floris V's guardian until he was twelve years old and considered capable of administering Holland himself. Otto II, Count of Guelders was Count of Guelders and Margaretha of Brabant. Otto first married Margaret of Cleves in 1240, they had two children: Elizabeth of Guelders, married Adolf VIII of no issue. Otto married as his second wife Philippe of Dammartin in 1253, they had four children: Reginald I, Count of Guelders Phillipa of Guelders, married Waleran II, Lord of Valkenburg. Margaret of Guelders, married Dietrich VII, Count of Cleves. Maria of Guelders Arnhem
Dietrich VII, Count of Cleves
Dietrich VII was Count of Cleves from 1275 through 1305. He was Count of Cleves and his wife Aleidis von Heinsberg; the County of Cleves was a comital polity of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany and the Netherlands. Its rulers, called counts, had a privileged standing in the Empire; the County of Cleves was first mentioned in the 11th century. In 1417, the county became its rulers were raised to the status of Dukes, its history is related to that of its neighbours: the Duchies of Jülich and Guelders and the County of Mark. In 1368, Cleves and Mark were united. In 1521 Jülich, Berg and Mark formed the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg; the territory was situated on both sides of the river Rhine, around its capital Cleves and covering today's districts of Cleves and the city of Duisburg. In 1260, Dietrich married daughter of Otto II, Count of Guelders, they had three children: Otto, Count of Cleves Catharine, nun at Gräfenthal Adelheid, married Henry IV, Count of Waldeck His second marriage was to Margaret of Habsburg, daughter of Everhard I of Kiburg-Laufenburg.
Their children were: Count of Cleves Johann, Count of Cleves. Margaret, married Henry of Lodi, son of Guy, Count of Flanders Irmgard, married Gerhard I of Horn, Count of Altena Agnes, married in 1312 Count Adolf IX of Berg Maria, nun in Bedburg Eberhard Anna, married Godfrey IV of Cuyck-Arnsberg
Eleanor of Castile
Eleanor of Castile was an English queen consort, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony. The marriage was known to be close, Eleanor travelled extensively with her husband, she was with him on the Ninth Crusade, when he was wounded at Acre, but the popular story of her saving his life by sucking out the poison has long been discredited. When she died, at Harby near Lincoln, her grieving husband famously ordered a stone cross to be erected at each stopping-place on the journey to London, ending at Charing Cross. Eleanor was better educated than most medieval queens and exerted a strong cultural influence on the nation, she was a keen patron of literature, encouraged the use of tapestries and tableware in the Spanish style, as well as innovative garden designs. She was a successful businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu. Eleanor was born in daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile and Joan, Countess of Ponthieu.
Her Castilian name, became Alienor or Alianor in England, Eleanor in modern English. She was named after Eleanor of England. Eleanor was the second of five children born to Joan, her elder brother Ferdinand was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43. For the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanor's death, 49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. Since the custom was to have one candle for each year of the deceased's life, 49 candles would date Eleanor's birth to the year 1241. Since her parents were apart from each other for 13 months while King Ferdinand was on a military campaign in Andalusia, from which he returned to the north of Spain only in February 1241, Eleanor was born toward the end of that year; the courts of her father and her half-brother Alfonso X of Castile were known for their literary atmosphere. Both kings encouraged extensive education of the royal children and it is therefore that Eleanor was educated to a standard higher than the norm, a likelihood, reinforced by her literary activities as queen.
She was at her father's deathbed in Seville in 1252. Eleanor's marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her; the kings of Castile had long made a tenuous claim to be paramount lords of the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees, from 1252 Ferdinand III's heir, Eleanor's half-brother Alfonso X of Castile, hoped she would marry Theobald II of Navarre. To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon in August 1253 allied with James I of Aragon instead, as part of that treaty solemnly promised that Theobald would never marry Eleanor. In 1252, Alfonso X had resurrected another ancestral claim, this time to the duchy of Gascony, in the south of Aquitaine, last possession of the Kings of England in France, which he claimed had formed part of the dowry of Eleanor of England. Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonso's claims with both military moves. Early in 1254 the two kings began to negotiate. Henry was so anxious for the marriage to take place that he willingly abandoned elaborate preparations made for Edward's knighting in England, agreed that Alfonso would knight Edward before the wedding took place.
The young couple were married at the monastery of Las Huelgas, Burgos, on 1 November 1254. Edward and Eleanor were second cousins once removed, as Edward's grandfather King John of England and Eleanor's great-grandmother Eleanor of England were the son and daughter of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Following the marriage they spent nearly a year with Edward ruling as lord of Aquitaine. During this time Eleanor, aged thirteen and a half certainly gave birth to her first child, a short lived daughter, she journeyed to England alone in late summer of 1255. Edward followed her a few months later. Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanor's kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henry's ruinous generosity. A few of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage, she was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III from supporting them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage soon became unpopular.
Eleanor's mother had been spurned in marriage by Henry III and her great-grandmother, Alys of France, Countess of Vexin, had been spurned in marriage by Richard I of England. However, the presence of more English and Norman soldiers of fortune and opportunists in the reconquered Seville and Cordoba Moorish Kingdoms would be increased, thanks to this alliance between royal houses, until the advent of the Hundred Years War when it would be symptomatic of extended hostilities between the French and the English for peninsular support. There is little record of Eleanor's life in England until the 1260s, when the Second Barons' War, between Henry III and his barons, divided the kingdom. During this time Eleanor supported Edward's interests, importing archers from her mother's county of Ponthieu in France, it is untrue, that she was sent to France to escape danger during the war. Rumours that she was seeking fresh troops from Castile led the baronial leader, Simon de Montfort, to order her removal from Windsor Castle in June 1264 af
Edward I of England
Edward I known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was referred to as The Lord Edward; the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land; the crusade accomplished little, Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August. He spent much of his reign reforming common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. However, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom; the war that followed continued after Edward's death though the English seemed victorious at several points. Edward I found himself at war with France after the French king Philip IV had confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine, which until had been held in personal union with the Kingdom of England.
Although Edward recovered his duchy, this conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. At the same time there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition; these crises were averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political problems. Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks", he was temperamental, this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, he instilled fear in his contemporaries. He held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility.
Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III, establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby a functional system for raising taxes, reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England; the Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1657. Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Edward is an Anglo-Saxon name, was not given among the aristocracy of England after the Norman conquest, but Henry was devoted to the veneration of Edward the Confessor, decided to name his firstborn son after the saint. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henry's brother Richard of Cornwall.
Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffard's death in 1246. There were concerns about Edward's health as a child, he fell ill in 1246, 1247, 1251. Nonetheless, he became an imposing man; the historian Michael Prestwich states that his "long arms gave him an advantage as a swordsman, long thighs one as a horseman. In youth, his curly hair was blond, his speech, despite a lisp, was said to be persuasive."In 1254, English fears of a Castilian invasion of the English province of Gascony induced Edward's father to arrange a politically expedient marriage between his fifteen-year-old son and thirteen-year-old Eleanor, the half-sister of King Alfonso X of Castile. Eleanor and Edward were married on 1 November 1254 in the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Castile; as part of the marriage agreement, the young prince received grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year.
Although the endowments King Henry made were sizeable, they offered Edwa