Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
The Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Marine Corps. It was established on 8 May 1919 as the Marine Corps Expeditionary Ribbon. A full-sized medal was authorized on 1 March 1921 by Presidential Order of Warren G. Harding; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is therefore one of the oldest medals of the United States military, still issued to active duty personnel. To be awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, a Marine must have engaged in a landing on foreign territory, participated in combat operations against an opposing force, or participated in a designated operation for which no other service medal is authorized. After 1961, some commands permitted eligible personnel to choose between the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, or the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, depending on the nature of the operation in question; the medal was designed by Walker Hancock and features a 1920s-era Marine in full combat gear, advancing with one foot in the water and one foot on land, bayonet at the ready, with the word "Expeditions".
On the reverse of both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, in the center of the bronze medallion an eagle is shown alight upon an anchor. The eagle is grasping sprigs of laurel. Above the eagle are the words UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS or UNITED STATES NAVY presented as an arch. Above the laurel are the words FOR SERVICE presented horizontally; the eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, the anchor alludes to Marine Corps or Navy service, the laurel is symbolic of victory and achievement. Subsequent awards of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal were denoted by award numerals. After 1921, multiple awards were denoted by bronze service stars; the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for navy personnel who were on duty with and attached to a Marine Corps unit that participated in combat. The Wake Island Device is authorized for any personnel who were awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal as part of the defense of Wake Island during the opening days of World War II.
Under the "deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded" clause, both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been awarded for classified operations with proper adjudication by the Secretary of the Navy Special Awards Board. The MCEM and NEM "can be authorized and awarded to individuals or units who have participated in classified operations not in connection with larger operations in which the public is aware.” The SECNAV INSTRUCTION 1650.1H - NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AWARDS MANUAL details the process via the Special Awards Board for issuing classified awards. Anecdotal reports from former service members cite a wide variety of classified operations for which the MCEM and NEM have been awarded, ranging from Marine Corps units clandestinely deployed in Africa, to helicopter gun-crews or force protection units assisting SEAL-DEVGRU or DeltaForce teams worldwide, classified submarine movements during the Cold War. In cases where the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal or Navy Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for classified operations, the name of the operation is omitted from public documentation including from the individual service member’s DD214 personnel record with only the name of the award and issue date provided.
Both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been fraudulently worn by military service members convicted under the UCMJ and civilians fraudulently claiming to have been awarded the MCEM or NEM along with other medals such as the Purple Heart. It has been reported that L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology, fraudulently claimed being awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal. Awards and decorations of the United States military
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
China Relief Expedition Medal
The China Relief Expedition Medal was a decoration of the United States military, issued to members of both the United States Navy and the United States Marines for service in the China Relief Expedition between 1900 and 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion. The medal was authorized by General Orders of the Department of the Navy on June 27, 1908. General Order 81 established the medal authorized for Naval personnel while General Order 82 authorized the medal for the Marine Corps. To be awarded the China Relief Expedition Medal, a service member was required to perform duty within the borders of China as part of the China Relief Expedition; the eligibility dates of the China Relief Expedition Medal were from May 24, 1900 to May 17, 1901. The medal was issued as a one time award and there were no devices authorized for multiple bestowals; the United States Army equivalent of the China Relief Expedition Medal was the China Campaign Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal was authorized by the Navy in 1941.
The ribbon of the Navy and Marine Corps version of the medal bore a yellow and black motif. The colors were changed in 1915 to yellow and blue to correspond with those of the U. S. Army medal issued for similar service; the first 400 medals struck bear the date "1901." The die in use became replaced with a re-engraved die. This one, had the date "1900" which appears on all subsequent copies. List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military "China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17
Philippine Campaign Medal
The Philippine Campaign Medal is a medal of the United States Armed Forces, created to denote service of U. S. military members in the Philippine–American War between the years of 1899 and 1913. Although a single service medal, the Philippine Campaign Medal was issued under separate criteria for both the United States Army and the U. S. Navy; the Philippine Campaign Medal was a separate award from the Philippine Congressional Medal, an Army medal awarded for special services rendered during the Philippine–American War. The Army's version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on January 12, 1905 by order of the United States War Department; the medal was authorized to any Army service member who had served in campaigns ashore, on the Philippine Islands, from February 4, 1899 to a date, yet to be determined. In January 1914, the Philippine Campaign Medal was declared closed with the following the approved operations for issuance. Any action in the Philippines between February 4, 1899 and July 4, 1902.
Service in the Department of Mindanao between February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904. Actions against the Pulajanes on Leyte Island between July 20, 1906 and June 30, 1907 Military actions on Samar between August 2, 1904, June 30, 1907. Military actions against Pala on Jolo between April and May, 1905. Military actions against Datu Ali on Mindanao in October 1905. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bud-Dajo, Jolo in March 1906. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bagsac, between January and July 1913. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mindanao or Jolo between 1910 and 1913. Any action in which a U. S. service member was killed or wounded between February 4, 1899, December 31, 1913. The Army's Philippine Campaign Medal was issued as a one time service medal regardless of the number of campaigns in which a service member participated; the Silver Citation Star was authorized for those who had performed feats of bravery. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on June 27, 1908 by special order of the United States Navy Department.
The obverse of this medal was the same for both services, while the reverse included the service name. To be awarded the Philippine Campaign Medal, a Navy or Marine Corps service member was required to perform service in the Philippine Islands between the dates of February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904; such service was required to be either ashore in support of Army units or on board certain vessels assigned to the area of the Philippine Sea. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was as a one-time award with no devices authorized; the Army and Navy versions of the Philippine Campaign Medal varied in the design with the Army's version of the award displaying a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Insurrection" centered above the year numeral 1898 and below a palm tree and Roman lamp. The ribbon for the Army's medal consisted of a wide blue ribbon with two red stripes; the Navy Philippine Campaign Medal was considered a separate award from the Army medal and appeared as suspended from a red and yellow ribbon.
On August 12, 1913, the Navy changed the ribbon color to match the Army's version of the award and from that point on the Army and Navy Philippine Campaign Medals were considered the same award but with different medal styles. The Navy's Philippine Campaign Medal displayed a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Campaign", centered above the dates "1898–1903", below a depiction of a stone gate leading into Manila. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Philippine Campaign Medal Navy History and Heritage Command The Philippine Campaign Medal
Cuban Pacification Medal (Navy)
The Cuban Pacification Medal is a military award of the United States Navy, created by orders of the United States Navy Department on 13 August 1909. The medal was awarded to officers and enlisted men who served ashore in Cuba between the dates of 12 September 1906 and 1 April 1909, or who were attached to a specific number of ships, for the Cuban Pacification; the crews of the following ships were awarded the Cuban Pacification Medal for service during the noted periods of time
A service ribbon, medal ribbon, or ribbon bar is a small ribbon, mounted on a small metal bar equipped with an attaching device, issued for wear in place of a medal when it is not appropriate to wear the actual medal. Each country's government has its own rules on what ribbons can be worn in what circumstances and in which order; this is defined in an official document and is called "the order of precedence" or "the order of wearing." In some countries, some awards are "ribbon only," having no associated medal. According to the Defense Logistics Agency, the U. S. military's standard size for a ribbon bar is 1 3/8 in wide, 3/8 inches tall, with a thickness of 0.8mm. The service ribbon for a specific medal is identical to the suspension ribbon on the medal. For example, the suspension and service ribbon for the U. S. government's Purple Heart medal is purple with a white vertical stripe at each end. However, there are some military awards that do not have a suspension ribbon, but have an authorized ribbon and unit award emblem.
The Soviet Order of Victory is a badge, worn on the military parade uniform. However, a ribbon bar representing the Order of Victory was worn on a military field uniform. Ribbon bars come in a variety of colors. In the case of the U. S. military, it maintains a specific list of colors used on its ribbons, based on the Pantone Matching System and Federal Standard 595 color systems: There is a variety of constructions of service ribbons. In some countries, service ribbons are mounted on a "pin backing", which can be pushed through the fabric of a uniform and secured, with fasteners, on the inside edge; these ribbons can be individually secured and lined up, or they can be all mounted on to a single fastener. After the Second World War, it was common for all ribbons to be mounted on a single metal bar and worn in a manner similar to a brooch. Other methods of wearing have included physically sewing each service ribbon onto the uniform garments. "Orders of wearing" define which ribbons may be worn on which types of uniform in which positions under which circumstances.
For example, miniature medals on dinner dress, full medals on parade dress, ribbons on dress shirts, but no decorations on combat dress and working clothing. Some countries maintain a standard practice of wearing full service ribbons on combat utility clothing. Others prohibit this; these regulations are similar to the regulations regarding display of rank insignia and regulations regarding saluting of more senior ranks. The reasoning for such regulations is to prevent these displays from enabling opposing forces to identify persons of higher rank and therefore aid them in choosing targets which will have a larger impact on the battlefield. In times of war, it is not uncommon for commanders and other high value individuals to wear no markings on their uniforms and wear clothing and insignia of a lower ranking soldier. Service medals and ribbons are worn in rows on the left side of the chest. In certain commemorative and/ or memorial circumstances, a relative may wear the medals or ribbons of a dead relative on the right side of the chest.
Medals and ribbons not mentioned in the "Order of wear" are generally worn on the right side of the chest. Sequencing of the ribbons depends on each country's regulations. In the United States, for example, those with the highest status—typically awarded for heroism or distinguished service—are placed at the top of the display, while foreign decorations are last in the bottom rows; when medals are worn, ribbons with no corresponding medals are worn on the right side. The study and collection of ribbons, among other military decorations, is known as phaleristics. Keith Payne, VC, OAMHis Excellency General The Honourable Sir Peter Cosgrove, AK, MC Sir Hans Jesper Helsø former General and Chief of Defence. Ecuadorian General of the Army Paco Moncayo Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Admiral of the Fleet Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma In the U. S. military, the different services have different methods of wearing ribbon bars. In the U. S. Navy, they are worn in rows of three with no spacing between rows.
For U. S. Navy members who have three or more ribbons, they can elect to wear only their three highest-ranked ones instead of all of them. In the U. S. Marine Corps, they can be worn with optional staggering. In the U. S. Army staggered with spacing in between rows. A U. S. serviceman's complete ribbon display is referred to colloquially as a "ribbon rack" or "rack" for short. Field Marshal S. H. F. J. Manekshaw Phaleristics Order List of military decorations List of prizes and awards Awards and decorations of the United States military Danish service ribbons
Texas Cavalry Medal
The Texas Cavalry Medal was a federal service medal, approved by the United States Congress and awarded to the members of the cavalry brigades raised by the State of Texas who were not called into federal service in 1917 and 1918, rendering the men of those two units ineligible for the World War I Victory Medal. Qualifying dates of the Texas Cavalry Service Medal were from December 8, 1917 to November 11, 1918. Only 840 medals were awarded for this time period; the Texas Cavalry Medal was created by Congress to commemorate federal service, is the only medal for state troops awarded by the federal government. For this reason, the legislation authorizing the Texas Cavalry Medal authorizes its wear on active duty United States military uniforms; the Italian-American sculptor Anthony de Francisci designed the medal. The medal was designed by Anthony de Francisci based on design and imagery criteria specified by The Equipment Branch, Quartermaster General Department of the Army; the approved design is a bronze hexagonal medal 1 1⁄8 inches in diameter.
The obverse of the medal depicts the state flower of Texas. Inscribed around the edge are the words AWARDED • BY • CONGRESS • FOR • SERVICE; the reverse of the medal bears the Coat of arms of Texas, a Lone Star encircled by a wreath, surrounded by the dates of service in 1918 when the cavalry became eligible for federal activation and the signing of the armistice to end World War I