Fidel Valdez Ramos, popularly known as FVR and Eddie, is a retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy. At age 91, he is the oldest living former Philippine President. Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the cabinet of President Corazón Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991, he was the father of the Philippine Army's Special Forces and the Philippine National Police Special Action Force. During the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Aquino. Thirty years he however shifted to the side of Rodrigo Duterte, who he persuaded to run for president against Aquino's ally, Mar Roxas, his nemesis, Miriam Defensor Santiago.
Ramos supported the Philippine Drug War Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan and he was raised in Asingan, Pangasinan. His father, Narciso Ramos, was a lawyer and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs; as such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967, was a founding member of the Liberal Party. According to Fidel Ramos's biography in his presidential inauguration in 1992, Narciso Ramos served as one of the leaders of the anti-Japanese guerrilla group the Maharlika founded by Ferdinand Marcos, his mother, Angela Valdez, was an educator, woman suffragette, member of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte, making him a second degree cousin to former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos, he received elementary education in Lingayen Public Schools. Ramos began secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School in the City of Manila, continued in the High School Department of Mapúa Institute of Technology.
He graduated high school from Centro Escolar University Integrated School in 1945. He on obtained his degree in Civil Engineering at National University in Manila, he was Top 8 in the Civil Engineering Board Exam in 1953. Afterwards he went to the United States and he graduated from the United States Military Academy, with Bachelor of Science in Military Engineering and the University of Illinois, with a master's degree in civil engineering, he holds a master's degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a master's degree in Business Administration from Ateneo de Manila University. In addition, he received a total of 29 honorary doctorate degrees, he married Amelita Martinez on October 21, 1954, together they have five daughters: Angelita Ramos-Jones, Josephine Ramos-Samartino, Carolina Ramos-Sembrano, Cristina Ramos-Jalasco and Gloria Ramos. Ramos went to the United States Military Academy at West Point, he graduated in 1950. Ramos, along with the Philippines' 20th Battalion Combat Team and the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea, fought in the Korean War.
He was an Infantry Reconnaissance Platoon Leader. Ramos was one of the heroes of the Battle of Hill Eerie, where he led his platoon to sabotage the enemy in Hill Eerie, he was present in the Vietnam War as a non-combat civil military engineer and Chief of Staff of the Philippine Civil Action Group. It is during this assignment where he forged his lifelong friendship with his junior officer Maj. Leonard Geromo, who went on to become his National Security Advisor throughout during his administration from 1992 to 1998. Ramos has received several military awards including the Philippine Legion of Honor, the Distinguished Conduct Star, the Distinguished Service Star, Philippine Military Merit Medal, the United States Legion of Merit, the French Legion of Honor, the U. S. Military Academy Distinguished Graduate Legion of Merit. During his stint at the Philippine Army, Ramos founded the Philippine Army Special Forces, and he was named to the commander of the Army's 3rd Division based in Cebu City, Cebu.
Ramos headed the Philippine Constabulary a major service branch of the Armed Forces, that acted as the country's national police until 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos imposed Martial Law. Ramos is held responsible for human rights abuses committed under Martial Law as head of the Philippine Constabulary chief. In 1975, all civic and municipal police forces in the country were integrated by decree, it became known as the Integrated National Police, under the control and supervision of the Constabulary; as head of the PC, Ramos was ex officio the INP's first concurrent Director-General. Martial Law was formally lifted nine years on January 17, 1981, but Marcos retained absolute powers. Due to his accomplishments, Ramos became one of the candidates to become the new chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, to replace retiring General Romeo Espino. Longest Martial law, chief of staff. However, Marcos instead opted and appointed his trusted military officer, General Fabian Ver, a graduate of the University of the Philippines, into the top military post.
Thus, Marcos' cousin was named AFP Vice-Chief of staff in 1982, became the military's second most powerful offic
National Army of Colombia
The National Army of Colombia is the land military force of Colombia and the largest and oldest service branch of the Military Forces of Colombia. It is responsible for carrying out land-based military operations along with the Colombian Naval Infantry and for protecting the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats; the modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Army of the Commoners, formed on 7 August 1819 – before the establishment of the present day Colombia – to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire. After their triumph against the Spanish, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army; the Colombian Army traces its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the Comuneros – descendants of Spanish and Amerindians – decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war. On July 20 of 1810, Colombia declared its independence from the Spanish Empire, a Volunteer National Guard was raised composed of infantry and cavalry units.
As independence was declared, with the Spanish driven out temporarily, a nationwide civil war known as la Patria Boba broke out from 1810 to 1816 between federalists and centralists as many cities and provinces across the country set up their own autonomous junta. The junta declared themselves sovereign from each other as result of the lack of communications between many provinces and cities due to Colombia's complicated mountain terrain; this prevented a full establishment of a regular army, it would take 9 years before a national army would be formed. This gave a rise to a prolonged period of instability and Spanish were able to take advantage of this with Spanish crown sending General Pablo Morillo. Morillo known by his nickname the El Pacificador invaded New Granada in 1816, the United Provinces of New Granada tried to resist with an army under the command of Antonio Baraya and Custodio García Rovira but they were defeated by the Spanish forces at the Battle of El Tambo and the Battle of Bajo Palacé reestablishing Spanish rule in New Granada.
With New Granada being under control of the Spanish again, Morillo launched a campaign of terror by executing many of the leaders of Independence movement in public squares in order to instill fear. The Greater Colombian Army was consolidated on August 7, 1819, following the defeat of the Spaniards at the Battle of Boyacá under the command of Simon Bolivar. Since the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia. With independence gained after the defeat of the Spanish Royalist forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, the republic of Gran Colombia was established by the Constitution of Cúcuta in 1821, with its capital in Bogotá. There upon the Gran Colombian Army was formed. In 1828 a war broke out with Peru and the Gran Colombian Army was called upon to defend the nation's sovereignty; the war lasted into 1829 with a Peruvian naval victory, but the Colombians were victorious on land with the crushing of the Peruvian invasion force at the Battle of Tarqui. The war ended in a stalemate.
After the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia and the death of Bolivar, the Army of the new New Granada had been involved in war and civil war without being able to progress or modernize. Its officers were not technically skilled; the government addressed this by founding and organizing military schools and colleges, but was hampered by the constant civil wars that financially drained the country's economy. In 1839 General Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera hired Italian Colonel Agustin Códazzi as an inspector of the army; as a consequence of these civil wars over partisan affairs, the chiefs and officers began to be involved in politics. The need to professionalize and retrain the army prompted the creation of a military school, created in 1887. In order to reorganize the army, the government hired a French military mission, its mission was fruitful and the organization along French lines based on divisions and battalions was implemented in the country. Another civil war the most devastating of them all, the Thousand Days War, was declared on October 8, 1899, did not allow the retraining and education of officers and commanders.
This civil war lasted until 1903. With the ending of the Thousand Days War, General Rafael Reyes Prieto was elected President of Colombia with many ambitious plans to reorganize and professionalize the army; the first thing he did was to reduce troop numbers drastically: the army at the time had an estimated 80,000 troops who were poorly equipped, poorly trained, poorly dressed and malnourished. The army lacked professionalism and sense of duty to the country and never acted as a national army, acting instead as militias and armed factions led by Commanders who had their own political agendas. In 1907 a military reform was carried out by President Rafael Reyes Prieto right in the aftermath of the Thousand Days War which had devastated the country economically and morally; the ministry of war hired a Chilean military mission to advise the ministry on how to professionalize the army. This led to the creation of the Colombian Military School in June 1907; the Army was dramatically reorganized under the guise of the Chilean military mission, the Chilean army which had adopted Prussian military doctrine and uniforms since 1886 did the same to the Colombian army as Colombian troops began using Prussian military uniforms and doctrine, still present today in the Colombian Military Academy with ceremonial uniforms being of Prussian influence and the use of Pickelhaube helmets.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
The Philippine Army is the main and largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines responsible for ground warfare. The Commanding General of the Philippine Army, its professional and overall head, is Lieutenant General Macairog S. Alberto, who took office on October 15, 2018, its main headquarters is located at Metro Manila. Today the functions of the Philippine Army are: Organize and equip Army forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations on land. After three centuries of Spanish rule, there were calls for social reforms and an end to the perceived oppressive friar rule. In 1896, Andres Bonifacio founded the Katipunan to prepare his band of Filipinos for armed revolt against the Spanish government; the Katipunan formed an army of insurgents. A year after the outbreak of hostilities between the Katipuneros and the Spanish troops, Emilio Aguinaldo's Philippine Revolutionary Government and its Army were born on March 22, 1897 at Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon in Cavite.
General Artemio Ricarte was named Captain General of the Ejercito en la Republica de las Islas Filipinas or the revolutionary Philippine Army. This date marks the founding day of the modern day Philippine Army. On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence from Spain and formed the first Philippine Republic, in which he sat as its president; the Filipino troops were to enjoy only a brief respite from combat when American forces came in to establish rule in the islands by virtue of the Treaty of Paris, which Spain co-signed with America on 10 December 1898. The treaty ceded the Philippines to the United States. During the final years of the Philippine–American War, with the notable successes by the all-Filipino Macabebe Scouts cavalry squadron under U. S. command against the Philippine Revolutionary Army, the American President Theodore Roosevelt sanctioned the raising of the Philippine Scouts as part of the United States Army, with full effect starting from October 1901.
Earlier, in August that same year, came the colonial civil government's decision to found the Philippine Constabulary as the national gendarmerie force for law enforcement. Both of these organizations and their victories over the PRA contributed to the official end of the conflict in 1902 as resistance continued through 1914. Starting in 1910, Filipino personnel in the Philippine Scouts were sent to the United States Military Academy with one PS soldier being sent per year. Several of these graduates who served with the Scouts, plus PC officers, both formed part of the first officer corps of the revitalized Philippine Army established in 1935; the Philippine Army of today was organized under the National Defense Act of 1935 that formally created the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The act specified that in so far as may be practicable, original appointments by the President in grades above third lieutenant should be made from among former holders of reserve commissions in the United States Army, from among former officers of the Philippine Scouts and Constabulary.
After the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth on November 15, 1935, President Manuel L. Quezon sought the services of General Douglas MacArthur to evolve a national defense plan; the official rebirth of the Philippine Army occurred with the passage of Commonwealth Act No. 1, approved on December 21, 1935, which effected the organization of a Council of National Defense and of the Army of the Philippines. The act set forth the organizational structure of the army in some detail, set forth enlistment procedures, established mobilization procedures. With this act, the AFP was established; the development of the new Philippine Army was slow. The year 1936 was devoted to the building of camps, organization of cadres, the special training of instructors, drawn from the Constabulary, which joined the new force as the Constabulary Division; the commander of the Philippine Department provided Philippine Scouts as instructors and detailed U. S. Army officers to assist in the inspection and administration of the program.
By the end of the year instructors had been trained and camps established. The first group of 20,000 men was called up on January 1, 1937. Infantry training was given at camps scattered throughout the Philippines. S. Army's Fort Stotsenburg near Angeles, about fifty miles north of Manila, specialized training was given at Fort William McKinley just south of Manila. Coast artillery instruction was carried on at Fort Stotsenburg and at Grande Island in Subic Bay by personnel supplied by the American commander at Corregidor. A decade with the threat of war with Japan becoming imminent, on July 26, 1941 a new U. S. command in the Far East was created, known as the United States Army Forces Far East under the command of General MacArthur. On the same date, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued a Presidential Order which called the Philippine Army into the service of the Armed Forces of the United
Missing in action
Missing in action is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire. They may have been killed, captured, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave has been positively identified. Becoming MIA has been an occupational risk for as long as there has been ceasefire; until around 1912, service personnel in most countries were not issued with ID tags. As a result, if someone was killed in action and his body was not recovered until much there was little or no chance of identifying the remains. Starting around the time of the First World War, nations began to issue their service personnel with purpose-made ID tags; these were made of some form of lightweight metal such as aluminium. However, in the case of the British Army the material chosen was compressed fiber, not durable. Although wearing ID tags proved to be beneficial, the problem remained that bodies could be destroyed, burned or buried by the type of high explosive munitions used in modern warfare.
Additionally, the combat environment itself could increase the likelihood of missing combatants such as jungle warfare, or submarine warfare, air-crashes in remote mountainous terrain, or at sea. Alternatively, there could be administrative errors e.g. the actual location of a temporary battlefield grave could be misidentified or forgotten due to the "fog of war" Finally, since military forces had no strong incentive to keep detailed records of enemy dead, bodies were buried in temporary graves, the locations of which were lost or obliterated e.g. the forgotten mass grave at Fromelles. As a result, the remains of missing combatants might not be found for many years, if ever; when missing combatants are recovered and cannot be identified after a thorough forensic examination the remains are interred with a tombstone which indicates their unknown status. The development of genetic fingerprinting in the late 20th century means that if cell samples from a cheek swab are collected from service personnel prior to deployment to a combat zone, identity can be established using a small fragment of human remains.
Although it is possible to take genetic samples from a close relative of the missing person, it is preferable to collect such samples directly from the subjects themselves. It is a fact of warfare that some combatants are to go missing in action and never be found. However, by wearing ID tags and using modern technology the numbers involved can be reduced. In addition to the obvious military advantages, conclusively identifying the remains of missing service personnel is beneficial to the surviving relatives. Having positive identification makes it somewhat easier to come to terms with their loss and move on with their lives. Otherwise, some relatives may suspect that the missing person is still alive somewhere and may return someday. However, many of these identifying procedures are not used for combatants who are members of militias, mercenary armies and other irregular forces, it is possible that some of the combatants who took part of the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC went missing in action.
The numerous wars which followed over successive centuries created many MIAs. The list is long and includes most battles which have been fought by any nation; the usual problems of identification caused by rapid decomposition were exacerbated by the fact that it was common practice to loot the remains of the dead for any valuables e.g. personal items and clothing. This made the difficult task of identification harder. Thereafter the dead were buried in mass graves and scant official records were retained. Notable examples include such medieval battles as Towton, the Hundred Years' War, the English Civil Wars and Napoleonic Wars together with any battle taking place until around the middle of the 19th century. Starting around the time of the Crimean War, American Civil War and Franco-Prussian War, it became more common to make formal efforts to identify individual soldiers. However, since there was no formal system of ID tags at the time, this could be difficult during the process of battlefield clearance.
So, there had been a notable shift in perceptions e.g. where the remains of a soldier in Confederate uniform were recovered from, the Gettysburg battlefield, he would be interred in a single grave with a headstone which stated that he was an unknown Confederate soldier. This change in attitudes coincided with the Geneva Conventions, the first of, signed in 1864. Although the First Geneva Convention did not address the issue of MIAs, the reasoning behind it was influential; the phenomenon of MIAs became notable during World War I, where the mechanized nature of modern warfare meant that a single battle could cause astounding numbers of casualties. For example, in 1916 over 300,000 Allied and German combatants were killed in the Battle of the Somme. A total of 19,240 British and Commonwealth combatants were killed in action or died of wounds on the first day of that battle alone, it is therefore not surprising that the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme in France bears the names of 72,090 British and Commonwealth combatants, all of whom went missing in action during the Battle of the Somme, were never found and who have no known grave.
The Menin Gate memorial in Belgium commemorates 54,896 missing Allied combatants who are known to have been killed in the Ypres Salient. The Doua
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e