The Las Piñas Bamboo Organ in St. Joseph Parish Church in Las Piñas City, Philippines, is a 19th-century church organ with unique organ pipes, it was completed after 6 years of work in 1824 by Father Diego Cera, the builder of the town's stone church and its first resident Catholic parish priest. After age and numerous disasters had rendered the musical instrument unplayable for a long time, in 1972, the national government and the local community joined together to have the organ shipped to Germany for restoration. For its anticipated return in 1975, the home church of the bamboo organ and the surrounding buildings were restored to their 19th-century state by Architect Francisco Mañosa and partner Ludwig Alvarez in time for its scheduled return; the annual International Bamboo Organ Festival, a music festival of classical music, was started to celebrate the music of the reborn instrument and its unique sound. Since 1992, Prof. Armando Salarza has been the titular organist of the Bamboo Organ.
He is the Artistic Director of the International Bamboo Organ Festival, now the longest-running annual international music festival held in the country. The organ was declared a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines in 2003; the St. Joseph Parish Church, with the famous organ and the church museum at the old convent house, is a popular tourist destination for Filipinos and foreign visitors alike in Las Piñas; the builder of both the church and its organ was Father Diego Cera de la Virgen del Carmen, a Catholic priest under the Augustinian Recollects. A native of Spain, he served as parish priest in Las Piñas from 1795 to 1830. Historians portray him as a gifted man, a natural scientist, chemist and community leader, as well as an organist and organ builder. Having built organs in the Manila area with some organ stops made from bamboo, he chose bamboo for most of this organ – only the trumpet stops are made of metal; the choice of bamboo was both practical and aesthetic - bamboo was abundant and used for hundreds of items of both a practical and an artistic nature.
Fr. Cera began work on the organ in 1816, he buried under beach sand the bamboos he would use. It is assumed to have been conducted in October–December 1816 since as a natural scientist he knew that bamboos to be used must be tough and enduring. Burying them would protect them from insects. In 1817, Fr. Cera unearthed the bamboo pieces. Together with the natives, whom he trained prior to the gathering of materials, he proceeded with the construction of the organ; the organ was playable in 1851, secretly working with Swiss chemist Jacques E. Brandenberger, employed by Blanchisserie et Teinturerie de Thaonbut, the cellophane inventor for the air bags to be used in the construction but without the trumpet stops. At first, he attempted to use bamboo for twenty two pipes, his experiment failed, the bamboo pipes were used as ornamental pipes located at the rear side. The organ was completed in 1824, after Fr. Cera decided to make the trumpets using metal, musical characteristics of which he could not replicate with bamboo.
Within a span of one week, three earthquakes occurred and damaged the organ. In October 1882, a typhoon hit the country causing the rise of flood water, reaching within the church's vicinity. Dismantled portions of the organ were found adrift in the flood waters. After the incident, the Gobernadorcillo and other prominent residents of Las Piñas pleaded for help from the central administration in Manila. During Fr. Cera's lifetime, disasters such as earthquakes and typhoons damaged both the organ. Fr. Cera himself was the organ's first "restorer." Down through the years, natural disasters continued to take their toll. In February 1883, repairs on the organ were carried out through the combined contributions of the government, town residents, the Archbishop. A total of two hundred seventy pesos was the cost of the repair. In 1888, Fr. Saturio Albeniz headed the project of improving the organ; the project was not completed, further degrading the condition of the organ. In 1891, the organ was repaired once again.
In 1909, an attempt was made to replace it with a harmonium. However, "Capitan Pedro" opposed this, paid for the repair work. Only two stops were rehabilitated. Although deteriorated it continued to attract tourists; the administration of Las Piñas Church shifted to the C. I. C. M. or Belgian Fathers. Fr. Victor Faniel showed deep appreciation of the organ's historical value. During his term, he authored "Historical Facts", a pamphlet featuring substantial historical data about the bamboo organ; this was published in order to solicit voluntary contributions for the repair of the organ. In 1917, the organ was reassembled by the Las Piñeros. However, the repair works were not conducted in an expert manner. In April 1932, Fr. Paul Hubaux, C. I. C. M. Saw the difficulty of pumping air and physically manipulating the bellows, he had installed a one-horse power Wagner electric motor in order for the bamboo organ "to be heard again in full and sufficient volume." In 1960, H. E. Friedrich von Fürstenberg, the German Ambassador to the Philippines, offered a donation worth 150,000 DM.
However, the restoration work needed be done in Germany. The risks of transporting the organ from Manila to Germany and back temporarily shelved the restoration project. In 1962, the Historical Conservation Society offered its services to restore the organ, in anticipation of the second centennial anniversary of Las Piñas. A total of Php 4,975
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
The babandil is a single, narrow-rimmed Philippine gong used as the “timekeeper” of the Maguindanao kulintang ensemble. The babendil has a diameter of one foot making it larger than the largest kulintang gong and comparable to the diameter of the agung or gandingan. However, unlike the gandingan or the agong, the babendil has a sunken boss which makes the boss non-functional; because of their sunken boss, babendils are instead struck either at the flange or the rim, using either bamboo betays or a strip of rattan, producing a sharp, distinctive metallic clang and are sometimes considered “false gongs.” In fact, this distinction makes the babendil classified as a bell in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification Babandils are made out of bronze but due to the scarcity of this metal in Mindanao, most gongs, including the babendil are made out of more common metal such as brass and tin-can. The babendil could be played while standing or when seated with the babendil hung half a foot from the floor. Proper technique requires the player to hold the babendil vertically, angled away from the body, with the gong held at the rim between their thumb and four fingers.
With their thumb parallel to the rim of the gong, the players strikes the rim of the gong using their betay to play fundamental patterns that are similar to the drum pattern on the dabakan or the beat of the lower-pitched agung. The babendil traditionally could be played by either genders. In wooden kulintang ensembles, the kagul is substituted for the babendil part. Among the Tausug, the Samal and the Yakan, their babendil-type instrument has gone into disuse while among the Tagbanwa, the babandil is used not only to keep the rhythm of pieces but as a song accompaniment as well; the origins of the word "babendil" could either be traced from the Middle East or the Indian Subcontinent. Scholars suggest the name babendil is derived from the Arabic word, meaning, “circular-type, pan-Arabic, tambourine or frame drum." Others suggests that since the babendil is related to the Javanese bebende or bende, it has relations with an ancient Indian kettle drum, where ancient Sanskrit indicated the bende was the bronze equivalent of the behri.
Called: babendir, bandil, babindil, babandir, tungtung and the mapindil
The United Nations Children's Fund known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries, devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF". UNICEF relies on contributions from private donors. UNICEF's total income for 2015 was US$5,009,557,471. Governments contribute two-thirds of the organization's resources.
Private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees. It is estimated. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006. Most of UNICEF's work is with a presence in 190 countries and territories. UNICEF's network of over 150 country offices and other offices, 34 National Committees carry out UNICEF's mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, educational supplies. A 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans.
The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for three-year terms. Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government; this five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of women. Regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives, they establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups; these five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis.
As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board services the Executive Board, it is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board. There are national committees in 38 countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization; the national committees raise funds from the public sector. UNICEF is funded by voluntary contributions, the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEF's annual income; this comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide. In the United States and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy.
UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF; these non-governmental organizations are responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, providing other support. The US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947. On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, in which role she has visited Brazil and Burundi. In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used "Change for Good" as advertising, trademarked by UNICEF for charity usage but not for commercial or retail use; this prompted the agency to say, "it is the first time in Unicef's history that a commercial entity has purposely set out to capitalise on one of our campaigns and subsequently damage an income stream which several of our programs for children are dependent on".
They went on to call on the public "who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider who they support when making consumer choices". In 2013 William Armstrong was the first British m
Omar Sosa is a Cuban-born composer and jazz pianist. Born in Camagüey, Sosa began studying marimba at the age of eight switched to piano at the Escuela Nacional de Musica in Havana, where he studied jazz. Sosa moved to Quito, Ecuador, in 1993 San Francisco, California, in 1995. In San Francisco he became involved in the local Latin jazz scene and began a long collaboration with percussionist John Santos, he made a series of recordings with producer Greg Landau, including the ground-breaking Oaktown Irawo, featuring Tower of Power drummer Dave Garibaldi, Cuban saxophonist Yosvany Terry and Cuban percussionist Jesus Diaz. Sosa and Landau recorded with Carlos "Patato" Valdes and Pancho Quinto and worked on several film scores. Around 1999 Sosa moved to Catalonia. In January 2011, Omar Sosa won The 10th Annual Independent Music Awards in the Jazz Album category for Ceremony. Sosa has received four Grammy Awards nominations: Sentir nominated for Best Latin Jazz Album Mulatos nominated for Best Latin Jazz Album Across the Divide: A Tale of Rhythm & Ancestry nominated for Best Contemporary World Music Album Eggun nominated for Best Latin Jazz AlbumSosa has received three Latin Grammy Awards nominations: Sentir nominated for Best Latin Jazz Album Across the Divide: A Tale of Rhythm & Ancestry nominated for Best Instrumental Album Calma nominated for Best Instrumental Album He has played with a number of world musicians all around the globe, collaborates with those outside the jazz and Afro-Cuban traditions.
Sosa mixes jazz influences alongside Latin rhythms, North African percussions and spoken word/rap lyrics. He references classical music. Political and spiritual, he describes his music as an expression of Santería. On various projects his sounds have ranged from pleasant and melodic, big Latin band, piano improvisation, world music, to free jazz and avant-garde. Omar collaborated once again with Greg Landau for a CD with Peruvian singer Susana Baca, deconstructing the music of Cuban legend Bola de Nieve, his newest band, combines Afro Pop, a variety of European instruments. The band, which includes musicians from Africa, Cuba and France, released a CD in 2009 and went on a world tour in early 2010. In 2012 he released Alma in collaboration with Paolo Fresu; the CD features guest cello contributions on four tracks by the masterful Brazilian conductor, arranger and cellist, Jaques Morelenbaum. The compositions are written by Omar Sosa and Paolo Fresu, except for "Under African Skies", a gentle version of the popular track from the Paul Simon CD Graceland.
In 2013 Sosa released Eggun. The project began as a commission from the Barcelona Jazz Festival in 2009; the assignment was to compose and produce a tribute performance to Miles Davis’ classic recording Kind Of Blue, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary. Inspired by various musical elements and motifs from Kind Of Blue, Sosa wrote a suite of music honoring the spirit of freedom in Davis’ seminal work; the CD received a nomination for Best Latin Jazz Album at the 56th annual Grammy Awards. On March 10, 2015 Sosa went back to his Cuban roots with the release of Ilé. Joining him on the project were three musicians with whom Omar shares a close connection: fellow Camagüeyanos, Ernesto Simpson on drums, Leandro Saint-Hill on alto saxophone and clarinet, Mozambican electric bassist Childo Tomas – collectively known as Quarteto AfroCubano. Omar Omar Free Roots Nfumbe for the Unseen Spirit of the Roots Inside Bembón Prietos Sentir Ayaguna A New Life Pictures of Soul Aleatoric EFX Mulatos Ballads Mulatos Remix Live à FIP Promise D.
O. - A Day Off Afreecanos Across the Divide: A Tale of Rhythm & Ancestry Tales from the Earth Ceremony Calma Alma Eggun Senses Ilé Jog Eros Transparent Water Es:sensual Aguas with Yilian Cañizares Official website 3d Family biography Melodia biography Calabash music page
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art