For the movement associated with William F. Albright and known as biblical archaeology, see Biblical archaeology school. For the interpretation of biblical archaeology in relation to biblical historicity, see Historicity of the Bible and List of artifacts in biblical archaeology, for the magazine see Biblical Archaeology Review. Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions; the principal location of interest is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land, which from a Western perspective is called the Middle East. In contrast, the archaeology of the ancient Middle East deals with the Ancient Near East, or Middle East, without giving any especial consideration to whether its discoveries have any relationship with the Bible.
The scientific techniques used are the same as those used in general archaeology, such as excavation and radiocarbon dating. In order to understand the significance of biblical archaeology it is first necessary to understand two basic concepts: archaeology as a scientific framework and the Bible as an object for research. Archaeology is a science, not in the Aristotelian sense of cognitio certa per causas but in the modern sense of systematic knowledge. Vicente Vilar expands on this point by stating that archaeology is both art and science: as an art it searches for the material remains of ancient civilizations and tries to reconstruct, as far as possible, the environment and the organizations of one or many historical epochs, it might be thought that archaeology would have to disregard the information contained within religions and many philosophical systems. However, apart from the great deal of factual material that they provide such as places of worship, holy objects and other scientifically observable things, there are other aspects that are important for scientific archaeological investigation such as religious texts, rites and traditions.
Myths are used by archaeologists and historians as clues to events or places that have become hidden in the background, a process that Rudolf Bultmann calls "demythification" – the most notable example being Homer’s poems and the mythical city of Troy. This contemporary perception of the myth developed by Bultmann, has encouraged scientists such as archaeologists to examine the areas indicated by the biblical tales. Biblical archaeology is the discipline occupied with the scientific investigation and recovery of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the times and descriptions of the Bible, a broad swathe of time between 2000 BC and 100 AD. Other authors prefer to talk about the "archaeology of Palestine" and to define the relevant territories as those to the east and west of the River Jordan; this indicates that "biblical archaeology" or that of Palestine is circumscribed by the territories that were the backdrop to the biblical stories. The raison d’etre of biblical archaeology derives from the fact that it allows an understanding of the peoples that inhabited the Holy Land.
It allows an understanding of their history, culture and movements. This makes it possible to compare them with fact. Regarding this, Kaswalder has noted that the American and Israeli school of biblical archaeology saw archaeology as proof of the veracity of the biblical stories, as can be seen in the work of authors of the stature of William F. Albright, G. Ernest Wright and Yigael Yadin. However, today archaeologists are not trying to prove that the stories in the Bible are true, they are trying to discover the historical world upon which the books of the bible drew and from which they derive their meaning. Using this approach, introduced by P. Kaswalder, it is possible to shed light on the following, according to the classification presented by the Catalan papyrologist Joan Maria Vernet: Biblical archaeology can shed light on the knowledge that we have regarding certain historical data described in the biblical stories such as governments, people and cities, it allows us to provide some specific details reflected in the books of the bible for example the Siloam Tunnel, the Pool of Bethesda and others that relate to those described in the biblical stories.
Biblical archaeology lends fundamental support to exegetical studies. The geographical area that circumscribes the area of interest for biblical archaeology is the biblical lands known as the "Holy Land". There are many points of view regarding the exact extent of this area, biblical archaeology concentrates on the Land of Israel and Jordan, the area called the southern Levant. Many researchers are interested in other areas that are mentioned in the biblical tales and which have a great importance for their connecting thread: Egypt and Mesopotamia which are of interest to scientists interested in the Tanakh. Asia Minor, Macedonia and Rome have greater connections with the stories from the New Testament. In the same way that the spatial criteria vary according to the various points of view of the different researchers, there are a variety of dates that are of interest. Kaswalder comments that: The period is understood to run from the 9th millennium BC, which corresponds to the earliest dated Neolithic remains of Jericho, to 700 AD, which marks the first invasions by Muslim armies.
This time period is considered by some au
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation and surveys. One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture; the anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture" and "nature", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature".
Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, teach such abstractions to others. Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global; the rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century, when questions regarding which cultures were "primitive" and which were "civilized" occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud, but many others. Colonialism and its processes brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with "primitive others."
The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists. Parallel with the rise of cultural anthropology in the United States, social anthropology, in which sociality is the central concept and which focuses on the study of social statuses and roles, groups and the relations among them—developed as an academic discipline in Britain and in France; the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. Anthropology is concerned with the lives of people in different parts of the world in relation to the discourse of beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must have learned from one another somehow, however indirectly.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of creating similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not have arisen before others. For example, industrial farming could not have been invented before simple farming, metallurgy could not have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. 20th-century anthropologists reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.
Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers reached a consensus that both processes occur, that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities. But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, they noted that traits that spread through diffusion were given different meanings and function from one society to another. Analyses of large human concentrations in big cities, in multidisciplinary studies by Ronald Daus, show how new methods may be applied to the understanding of man living in a global world and how it was caused by the action of extra-European nations, so highlighting the role of Ethics in modern anthropology. Accordingly, most of these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativi
Maritime archaeology is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that studies human interaction with the sea and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore-side facilities, port-related structures, human remains and submerged landscapes. A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies ship construction and use; as with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods. An associated discipline, again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower; the study of submerged aircraft lost in lakes, rivers or in the sea is an example from the historical, industrial or modern era. Many specialist sub-disciplines within the broader maritime and underwater archaeological categories have emerged in recent years.
Maritime archaeological sites result from shipwrecks or sometimes seismic activity, thus represent a moment in time rather than a slow deposition of material accumulated over a period of years, as is the case with port-related structures where objects are lost or thrown off structures over extended periods of time. This fact has led to shipwrecks being described in the media and in popular accounts as'time capsules'. Archaeological material in the sea or in other underwater environments is subject to different factors than artifacts on land. However, as with terrestrial archaeology, what survives to be investigated by modern archaeologists can be a tiny fraction of the material deposited. A feature of maritime archaeology is that despite all the material, lost, there are occasional rare examples of substantial survival, from which a great deal can be learned, due to the difficulties experienced in accessing the sites. There are those in the archaeology community who see maritime archaeology as a separate discipline with its own concerns and requiring the specialized skills of the underwater archaeologist.
Others value an integrated approach, stressing that nautical activity has economic and social links to communities on land and that archaeology is archaeology no matter where the study is conducted. All, required is the mastering of skills specific to the environment in which the work occurs. Before the industrial era, travel by water was easier than over land; as a result, marine channels, navigable rivers and sea crossings formed the trade routes of historic and ancient civilisations. For example, the Mediterranean Sea was known to the Romans as the inner sea because the Roman empire spread around its coasts; the historic record as well as the remains of harbours and cargoes, testify to the volume of trade that crossed it. Nations with a strong maritime culture such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark and Spain were able to establish colonies on other continents. Wars were fought at sea over the control of important resources; the material cultural remains that are discovered by maritime archaeologists along former trade routes can be combined with historical documents and material cultural remains found on land to understand the economic and political environment of the past.
Of late maritime archaeologists have been examining the submerged cultural remains of China, India and other Asian nations. There are significant differences in the survival of archaeological material depending on whether a site is wet or dry, on the nature of the chemical environment, on the presence of biological organisms and on the dynamic forces present, thus rocky coastlines in shallow water, are inimical to the survival of artifacts, which can be dispersed, smashed or ground by the effect of currents and surf leaving an artifact pattern but little if any wreck structure. Saltwater is inimical to iron artefacts including metal shipwrecks, sea organisms will consume organic material such as wooden shipwrecks. On the other hand, out of all the thousands of potential archaeological sites destroyed or grossly eroded by such natural processes sites survive with exceptional preservation of a related collection of artifacts. An example of such a collection is Mary Rose. Survival in this instance is due to the remains being buried in sediment Of the many examples where the sea bed provides an hostile environment for submerged evidence of history, one of the most notable, RMS Titanic, though a young wreck and in deep water so calcium-starved that concretion does not occur, appears strong and intact, though indications are that it has incurred irreversible degradation of her steel and iron hull.
As such degradation continues, data will be forever lost, objects' context will be destroyed and the bulk of the wreck will over centuries deteriorate on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Comparative evidence shows that all iron and steel ships those in a oxygenated environment, continue to degrade and will continue to do so until only their engines and other machinery project much above the sea-floor. Where it remains after the passage of time, the iron or steel hull is fragile with no remaining metal within the layer of concretion and corrosion products. USS Monitor, having been found in the 1970s, was subjected to a program of attempted in situ preservat
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more known as Wits University or Wits; the university has its roots in the mining industry, as do Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand in general. Founded in 1896 as the South African School of Mines in Kimberley, it is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation; the university has an enrolment of 38,353 students as of 2017, of which 20 percent live on campus in the university's 22 residences. 65 percent of the university's total enrolment is for undergraduate study, with the remaining 35 percent being postgraduate. The 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities places Wits University, with its overall score, as the highest ranked university in Africa. Wits was ranked as the top university in South Africa in the Center for World University Rankings in 2016. According to the CWUR rankings, Wits occupies this ranking position since 2014.
The university was founded in Kimberley in 1896 as the South African School of Mines. It is the third oldest South African university in continuous operation, after the University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University.. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1908, a new campus of the Transvaal University College was established in Pretoria; the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated on 17 May 1910, each becoming a separate institution. The Johannesburg campus was reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus remained the Transvaal University College until 1930 when it became the University of Pretoria. In 1920, the school was renamed Johannesburg. On 1 March 1922, the University College, was granted full university status after being incorporated as the University of the Witwatersrand; the Johannesburg municipality donated a site in Milner Park, north-west of Braamfontein, to the new institution as its campus and construction began the same year, on 4 October.
The first Chancellor of the new university was Prince Arthur of Connaught and the first Principal was Professor Jan Hofmeyr. Hofmeyr set the tone of the university's subsequent opposition to apartheid when, during his inaugural address as Principal he declared, while discussing the nature of a university and its desired function in a democracy, that universities "should know no distinctions of class, race or creed". True to Hofmeyr's words, from the outset Wits was an open university with a policy of non-discrimination on racial or any other grounds. There were six faculties—Arts, Medicine, Engineering and Commerce—37 departments, 73 academic staff, 1,000 students. In 1923, the university began moving into the new campus vacating its former premises on Ellof Street for the first completed building in Milner Park: the Botany and Zoology Block. In 1925, the Prince of Wales opened Central Block; the university's first library, housed at the time in what was meant to be a temporary construction, was destroyed in a fire on Christmas Eve in 1931.
Following this, an appeal was made to the public for ₤80,000 to pay for the construction of a new library, the acquisition of books. This resulted in the rapid construction of the William Cullen Library. During this period, as the Great Depression hit South Africa, the university was faced with severe financial restrictions. Nonetheless, it continued to grow at an impressive rate. From a total enrolment of 2,544 students in 1939, the university grew to 3,100 in 1945; this growth led to accommodation problems, which were temporarily resolved by the construction of wood and galvanised-iron huts in the centre of the campus. During World War II, Wits was involved in South Africa's war efforts; the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research was placed under the Union of South Africa's defence ministry, was involved in important research into the use of radar. Additionally, an elite force of female soldiers was trained on the university's campus. In 1948 the National Party was voted into power by South Africa's white electorate on a platform of "apartheid".
The NP's aim was to create an artificial white majority in most of South Africa by depriving the black majority of their citizenship, making them citizens of the "homelands" associated with their ethnic groups instead. These were, in theory, "self-governing", in four cases were granted "independence", but in reality, their lack of economic infrastructure left the independent homelands as little more than South African puppet states. This policy of "grand apartheid" was accompanied by the extension of racially discriminatory measures within so-called "white South Africa", including the segregation of universities. Wits managed to remain an open institution, but by 1956 the NP government began to push for the full implementation of university apartheid. In response, in 1957, the University of Cape Town, Rhodes University and the University of Natal issued a joint statement entitled "The Open Universities in South Africa", committing themselves to the principles of university autonomy and academic freedom.
In 1959, the apartheid government's Extension of University Education Act forced restricted registrations of black students for most of the aparth
Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is subsumed within cultural anthropology. In contrast to cultural anthropology and its continuity have been traditionally seen more as the dependent "variable" by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities and contradictions of social life, rather than the independent one. Topics of interest for social anthropologists have included customs and political organization and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange and family structure, gender relations and socialization, while present-day social anthropologists are concerned with issues of globalism, ethnic violence, gender studies and local experience, the emerging cultures of cyberspace, can help with bringing opponents together when environmental concerns come into conflict with economic developments.
British and American anthropologists including Gillian Tett and Karen Ho who studied Wall Street provided an alternative explanation for the financial crisis of 2007–2010 to the technical explanations rooted in economic and political theory. Differences among British and American sociocultural anthropologies have diminished with increasing dialogue and borrowing of both theory and methods. Social and cultural anthropologists, some who integrate the two, are found in most institutes of anthropology, thus the formal names of institutional units no longer reflect the content of the disciplines these cover. Some, such as the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology changed their name to reflect the change in composition, such as Social Anthropology at the University of Kent became Anthropology. Most retain the name. Long-term qualitative research, including intensive field studies has been traditionally encouraged in social anthropology rather than quantitative analysis of surveys and brief field visits used by economists, political scientists, sociologists.
Social anthropology is distinguished from subjects such as economics or political science by its holistic range and the attention it gives to the comparative diversity of societies and cultures across the world, the capacity this gives the discipline to re-examine Euro-American assumptions. It is differentiated from sociology, both in its main methods, in its commitment to the relevance and illumination provided by micro studies, it extends beyond social phenomena to culture, art and cognition. Many social anthropologists use quantitative methods, too those whose research touches on topics such as local economies, human ecology, cognition, or health and illness. Specializations within social anthropology shift as its objects of study are transformed and as new intellectual paradigms appear. More recent and cognitive development; the subject has been enlivened by, has contributed to, approaches from other disciplines, such as philosophy, the history of science and linguistics. The subject has both reflexive dimensions.
Practitioners have developed an awareness of the sense in which scholars create their objects of study and the ways in which anthropologists themselves may contribute to processes of change in the societies they study. An example of this is the "hawthorne effect", whereby those being studied may alter their behaviour in response to the knowledge that they are being watched and studied. Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, Classics, among others, its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890-1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people.
This development was bolstered by Franz Boas's introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values. Museums such as the British Museum weren't the only site of anthropological studies: with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended "laboratories" the so-called "ethnological exhibitions" or "Negro villages". Thus, "savages" from the colonies were displayed
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"