The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Monroe County, Arkansas
Monroe County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for the fifth President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 20th county on November 2, 1829, Monroe County is home to two incorporated town and three incorporated cities, including Clarendon, the county seat, Brinkley, the most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 621 square miles, Monroe County is the 22nd smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 8,149 people in 4,455 households. Based on population, the county is the fifth-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest, bayous and grasslands, the area was cleared for agriculture by early European-American settlers who used enslaved African Americans to do the work and to cultivate cotton, it is drained by the Cache River, Bayou DeView, the White River.
Three large protected areas preserve old growth bald cypress forest and wildlife habitat in the county: Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Dagmar Wildlife Management Area and White River NWR and provide places for hunting and fishing. Interstate 40 is the only Interstate highway in Monroe County, crossing the county from east to west through Brinkley, the largest city; the county has three United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county from southwest to northeast. Shortly after the United States had completed the Louisiana Purchase, officials began to survey the territory at a site near the intersection of Monroe and Lee counties. From forested wetlands in what would become southern Monroe County 900,000 square miles of land would be explored after President James Madison commissioned a survey of the purchase area; the point was commemorated in 1961 by the Arkansas General Assembly as part of Louisiana Purchase State Park.
Settlement in Monroe County began when Dedrick Pike settled in 1816 where the Cache River enters the White River. The settlement was named Mouth of the Cache, a post office by that name was opened years later; the community renamed itself Clarendon in 1824 in honor of the Earl of Clarendon. Monroe County was established under the Arkansas territorial legislature in 1829, the county seat was established at Lawrenceville, where a jail and courthouse were erected. A ferry across the White River was founded in 1836. In 1857 the county seat was moved to Arkansas; the new brick courthouse was nearly finished by the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The county sent five units into Confederate service. After Union troops captured Clarendon in 1863, they destroyed the small city; the Union had dismantled the brick courthouse and shipped the bricks to De Valls Bluff. After the war, during Reconstruction, there was a high level of violence by insurgent whites seeking to suppress the rights of freedmen and to keep them from voting.
After Republican Congressman James M. Hinds was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County in October, 1868, Governor Powell Clayton established martial law in ten counties, including Monroe County, as the attacks and murders were out of control. Four military districts were operated for four years in an effort to suppress guerrilla insurgency by white paramilitary groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan and others, they continued to challenge enfranchisement of blacks and the increasing power of Republicans in the county. The Monroe County Sun newspaper was established in 1876. Violence continued after Reconstruction, when Democrats had regained control of the state legislature. Whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 12 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the fourth-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. Large portions of Monroe County are within the Grand Prairie, a subdivision of the Arkansas Delta known today for rice farming and aquaculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Prior to settlement, Monroe County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land.
Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops. Although some swampland has been preserved in the conservation areas like the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Monroe County is the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, owned by the
Elaine race riot
The Elaine massacre began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas. An estimated 100 to 237 blacks were killed, along with five white men. According to the Encyclopedia of Arkansas, "the Elaine Massacre was by far the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States"; because of the widespread white mob attacks on blacks during this period of racial terrorism of black citizens, in 2015 the Equal Justice Initiative of Montgomery, Alabama classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynching of African Americans in the South. Most historians classify the race riot as a different kind of criminal action than the targeted nature of lynchings of one or a few persons. Located in the Arkansas Delta, Phillips County had been developed for cotton plantations, was worked by African-American slaves before the Civil War. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black, as most freedmen and their descendants had stayed as illiterate farm workers and sharecroppers.
African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, by three-to-one in the county overall. White landowners controlled the economy, selling cotton on their own schedule, running high-priced plantation stores where farmers had to buy seed and supplies, settling accounts with sharecroppers in lump sums, without listing items; the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America had organized chapters in the Elaine area in 1918-19. On September 29, representatives met with about 100 black farmers at a church near Elaine to discuss how to obtain fairer settlements from landowners. Whites had resisted union organizing by the farmers and spied on or disrupted such meetings. In a confrontation at the church, a county deputy was shot and killed, another white man wounded; the county sheriff organized a posse, whites gathered to put down what was rumored as a "black insurrection". Other whites entered Phillips County to join the action, making a mob of 500 to 1000, they attacked blacks on sight across the county.
The governor called in 500 federal troops, who arrested nearly 260 blacks and were accused of killing some. Over a three-day period, fatalities included 100-240 blacks, with some estimates of more than 800, as well as five white men; the events have been subject to debate the total of black deaths. The only men prosecuted. Twelve were convicted and sentenced to death by all-white juries for murder of the white deputy at the church. Others were sentenced to prison. During appeals, the death penalty cases were separated. Six convictions were overturned at the state level for technical trial details; these six defendants were retried in 1920 and convicted again, but on appeal the State Supreme Court overturned the verdicts, based on violations of the Due Process Clause and the Civil Rights Act of 1875, due to exclusion of blacks from the juries. The lower courts failed to retry the men within the two years required by Arkansas law, the defense gained their release in 1923; the six other death penalty cases reached the United States Supreme Court.
The Court overturned the convictions in the Dempsey ruling. Grounds were the failure of the trial court to provide due process under the Fourteenth Amendment, as the trials had been dominated by adverse publicity and the presence of armed white mobs threatening the jury; this was a critical precedent for the "Supreme Court's strengthening of the requirements the Due Process Clause imposes on the conduct of state criminal trials."The NAACP assisted the defendants in the appeals process, raising money to hire a defense team, which it helped direct. When the cases were remanded to the state court, the six'Moore' defendants settled with the lower court on lesser charges and were sentenced to time served. Governor Thomas Chipman McRae freed these six men in 1925 in the closing days of his administration; the NAACP helped. The Democratic-dominated legislature had disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites in the 1890s by creating barriers to voter registration, it excluded them from the political system via the more complicated Election Law of 1891 and a poll tax amendment passed in 1892.
The white-dominated legislature enacted Jim Crow laws that established racial segregation and institutionalized Democratic efforts to impose white supremacy. The decades around the turn of the century were the period of the highest rate of lynchings across the South. Sharecropping, the African Americans had been having trouble in getting settlements for the cotton they raised on land owned by whites. Both the Negroes and the white owners were to share the profits. Between the time of planting and selling, the sharecroppers took up food and necessities at excessive prices from the plantation store owned by the planter; the landowner sold the crop whenever. At the time of settlement, landowners never gave an itemized statement to the black sharecroppers of accounts owed, nor details of the money received for cotton and seed; the farmers were disadvantaged. It was an unwritten law of the cotton country that the sharecroppers could not quit and leave a plantation until their debts were paid; the period of the year around accounts settlement was the time of most lynchings of blacks throughout the South if economic times were poor.
As an example, many Negroes in Phillips County, whose cotton wa
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Tunica County, Mississippi
Tunica County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,778, its county seat is Tunica. The county is named for the Tunica Native Americans. Most migrated to central Louisiana during the colonial period. Tunica County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the Mississippi Delta region. Since the late 20th century, it is known for Tunica Resorts, an unincorporated community, the site of nine casino resorts, it is one of the top six destinations in the country in terms of gambling revenues. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 481 square miles, of which 455 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water. Interstate 69 U. S. Route 61 Mississippi Highway 3 Mississippi Highway 4 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,778 people residing in the county. 73.5% were Black or African American, 23.7% White, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% of some other race and 0.9% of two or more races.
2.3% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,227 people, 3,258 households, 2,192 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 3,705 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.15% Black or African American, 27.54% White, 0.11% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.96% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 2.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,258 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.90% were married couples living together, 26.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.44. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.50% under the age of 18, 10.90% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 20.20% from 45 to 64, 10.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $23,270, the median income for a family was $25,443. Males had a median income of $25,244 versus $18,104 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,978. About 28.10% of families and 33.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.40% of those under age 18 and 32.50% of those age 65 or over. Public School Districts Tunica County School District Private Schools Tunica Academy is located in an unincorporated area, near Tunica Tunica North Tunica Tunica Resorts White Oak Commerce Harbert Landing Peyton Pink Trotter Landing National Register of Historic Places listings in Tunica County, Mississippi Tunica County Sheriff
The Arkansas Delta is one of the six natural regions of the state of Arkansas. Willard B. Gatewood Jr. author of The Arkansas Delta: Land of Paradox, says that rich cotton lands of the Arkansas Delta make that area "The Deepest of the Deep South."The region runs along the Mississippi River from Eudora north to Blytheville and as far west as Little Rock. It is part of the Mississippi embayment, itself part of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain; the flat plain is bisected by Crowley's Ridge, a narrow band of rolling hills rising 250 to 500 feet above the flat delta plains. Several towns and cities have been developed along Crowley's Ridge, including Jonesboro; the region's lower western border follows the Arkansas River just outside Little Rock down through Pine Bluff. There the border shifts to Bayou Bartholomew. While the Arkansas Delta shares many geographic similarities with the Mississippi Delta, it is distinguished by its five unique sub-regions: the St. Francis Basin, Crowley's Ridge, the White River Lowlands, the Grand Prairie and the Arkansas River Lowlands.
Much of the region is within the Mississippi lowland forests ecoregion. The Arkansas Delta includes the entire territories of 15 counties: Arkansas, Clay, Crittenden, Desha, Greene, Mississippi, Phillips, St. Francis, it includes portions of another 10 counties: Jackson, Prairie, White, Lincoln, Jefferson and Woodruff counties. The Delta is subdivided into five unique sub-regions, including the St. Francis Basin, Crowley's Ridge, the White River Lowlands, the Grand Prairie, the Arkansas River Lowlands; the underlying impermeable clay layer in the Stuttgart soil series that allowed the region to be a flat grassland plain appeared to stunt the region's growth relative to the rest of the Delta. But in 1897, William Fuller began cultivating rice, a crop that requires inundation, with great success. Rice cultivation still features prominently in the region's culture today. Riceland Foods, the world's largest rice miller and marketer, is based in Stuttgart, Arkansas on the Grand Prairie. In the earth's history, after the Gulf of Mexico withdrew from what was Missouri, many floods occurred in the Mississippi River Delta, building up alluvial deposits.
In some places the deposits measure 100 feet deep. The region was occupied by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years; some cultures built major earthwork mounds, with evidence of mound-building cultures dating back more than 12,000 years. These mounds have been preserved in three main locations: the Nodena Site, Parkin Archaeological State Park, Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park. French explorers and colonists encountered the historic Quapaw people in this region, who lived along the Arkansas River and its tributaries; the first European settlement in what became the state was Arkansas Post. The post was founded by Henri de Tonti while searching for Robert de La Salle in 1686; the commerce in the area was based on fishing and wild game. The fur trade and lumber were critical to the economy. Early European-American settlers crossed the Mississippi and settled among the swamps and bayous of east Arkansas. Frontier Arkansas was a lawless place infamous for violence and criminals.
Settlers, who were French and Spanish colonists engaged in a mutually beneficial give-and-take trading relationship with the Native Americans. French trappers married Quapaw women and lived in their villages, increasing their alliances for trade. Around 1800 United States settlers entered this area. In 1803 the US acquired the territory from France by the Louisiana Purchase; as settlers began to acquire and clear land, they encroached on Quapaw territory and traditional hunting and fishing practices. The two cultures had divergent views of property. Relations deteriorated further after the 1812 New Madrid earthquake, felt throughout the region and taken as a portent; some Native Americans considered the earthquake to be a sign of punishment for trading with the European settlers. The beginning point of all subsequent surveys of the Louisiana Purchase was placed in the Arkansas Delta near Blackton. In 1993 this site was named a National Historic Landmark and preserved as Louisiana Purchase State Park.
A granite marker, accessible via a boardwalk through a swamp, marks the starting point of the survey. During the antebellum era, American settlers used enslaved African Americans as laborers to drain swamps and clear forests along the river to cultivate the rich alluvial plain, they began to develop cotton plantations. After achieving territorial status in 1819, Arkansas reneged on an 1818 treaty with the Quapaw. Territory officials began removing the Quapaw from their fertile homeland in the Arkansas delta; the Quapaw had inhabited lands along the Arkansas River and near its mouth at the Mississippi River for centuries. The invention of the cotton gin had made short-staple cotton profitable, the Deep South was developed for cotton cultivation, it grew well in fertile delta soils. Settlers took these fertile lands for agriculture and pushed the Quapaw south to Louisiana in 1825-1826; the Quapaw returned to southeast Arkansas by 1830, but were permanently relocated to Oklahoma in 1833 under the Indian Removal Act passed by Congress.
High cotton prices encouraged many planters to concentrate on cotton as a commodity crop, the large plantations were dependent on slave labor. The plantation economy and a slave society were developed in the Arkansas Delta, with