Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Stephanie Mary Dalley FSA is a British scholar of the Ancient Near East. She has retired as a teaching Fellow from the Oriental Oxford, she is known for her publications of cuneiform texts and her investigation into the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, her proposal that it was situated in Nineveh, constructed during Sennacherib's rule. As a schoolgirl Stephanie Page worked as a volunteer on archaeological excavations at Verulamium and Bignor Villa. In 1962 she was invited by David Oates, a family friend, to an archaeological dig he was directing in Nimrud, northern Iraq. Here she was responsible for conserving the discovered ivories. Between 1962 and 1966 she studied Assyriology at Cambridge University, followed it up with a PhD from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. In the years 1966–67, Page was awarded a Fellowship by the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, she worked at the excavation at Tell al-Rimah as Epigrapher and registrar; the tablets excavated at Tell al-Rimah formed the subject of her PhD thesis and for a book for general readership and Karana, two Old Babylonian Cities.
In Iraq she met Christopher Dalley, now a Chartered Engineer, whom she married. They have three children. From 1979 to 2007, Dalley taught Akkadian and Sumerian at the Oriental Institute, Oxford University, being appointed Shillito Fellow in Assyriology in 1988, she is an Honorary Senior Research Fellow of Somerville College, a member of Common Room at Wolfson College, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Dalley took part in archaeological excavations in the Aegean, Syria and Turkey, she has published extensively, both technical editions of texts from excavations and national museums, more general books. She has been involved in several television documentaries. Dalley published her own translations of the main Babylonian myths: Atrahasis, The Descent of Ishtar, The Epic of Creation and Ishum. Collected into one volume, this work has made the Babylonian corpus accessible for the first time to the student of general mythology and it is used in university teaching. In 1989 the Iraqi Department of Antiquities excavated one of a series of tombs in the ancient Palace of Nimrud.
A sarcophagus contained the skeletons of two women, buried with over 26kg of gold objects, many of them inscribed. The inscriptions identified the women as queens from c 700 BC. Dalley showed; the name of the other queen, Yaba could have been Hebrew, a word meaning Beautiful and equating to another, Assyrian name form Banitu, found on the jewellery. She concluded that these women mother and daughter as they had been buried together, were Judean princesses relatives of King Hezekiah of Jerusalem, given in diplomatic marriage to the Assyrian Kings; this arrangement sheds a new light on the political relationships between Judah and Assyria at that time. The analysis offers an explanation for an otherwise obscure passage in the Old Testament; the besieging Assyrian commander, who would have been a close relative of the King, calls on the people of Jerusalem advising them to abandon their rebellion. "Then Rab-shakeh stood, cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, said'Hear ye the words of the great king, the King of Assyria'".
He could speak in Hebrew. In several academic articles Dalley has traced the influence of Mesopotamian culture in the Hebrew Old Testament, early Greek epics, the Arabian Nights. In particular she has studied the transmission of the story of Gilgamesh across the cultures of the Near and Middle East and shown its persistence to the Tale of Buluqiya in the Arabian Nights, examining the evidence for Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the tale, as well as contrasting Akkadian and Arabic stories, she has noted the appearance of the name Gilgamesh in the Book of Enoch. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were not found despite extensive archaeological excavations. Dalley has suggested, based on eighteen years of textual study, that the Garden was built not at Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar, but in Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrians, by Sennacherib, around 2700 years ago, she deciphered Babylonian and Assyrian cuneiform, reinterpreted Greek and Roman texts, determined that a crucial seventh century BC inscription had been mistranslated.
While none of Nebuchadnezzar's inscriptions mentioned any gardens, Dalley found texts by Sennacherib about a palace he built and a garden alongside that he called a wonder for all people. The texts described a water screw, pre-dating Archimedes, using a new bronze-casting methodology that raised water all day, related these to extensive aqueducts and canals that brought water from hills eighty kilometres away. A bas-relief from Nineveh and now in the British Museum depicts a palace and trees suspended on terraces, which Dalley used as further supporting evidence, her research confirms the description of Greek writers that the gardens were, in fact, terraces built up like an amphitheatre around a central pond. She compiled these conclusions into her book The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: An Elusive World Wonder Traced, published in 2013. Dalley published in 2009 an archive of some 470 newly-found cuneiform texts and deduced that they had originated in a southern Mesopotamian kingdom known only as the Sea land which flourished c 1,500 BC.
This fills a significant gap in modern historical knowledge. Her analysis of the texts has made it possible to identify tablets in other museums and collections as being from the Sealand dy
A circle is a simple closed shape. It is the set of all points in a plane; the distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. A circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior. A circle may be defined as a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci are coincident and the eccentricity is 0, or the two-dimensional shape enclosing the most area per unit perimeter squared, using calculus of variations. A circle is a plane figure bounded by one line, such that all right lines drawn from a certain point within it to the bounding line, are equal; the bounding line is called the point, its centre. Annulus: a ring-shaped object, the region bounded by two concentric circles.
Arc: any connected part of a circle. Specifying two end points of an arc and a center allows for two arcs that together make up a full circle. Centre: the point equidistant from all points on the circle. Chord: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle, thus dividing a circle in two sements. Circumference: the length of one circuit along the circle, or the distance around the circle. Diameter: a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and that passes through the centre; this is the largest distance between any two points on the circle. It is a special case of a chord, namely the longest chord for a given circle, its length is twice the length of a radius. Disc: the region of the plane bounded by a circle. Lens: the region common to two overlapping discs. Passant: a coplanar straight line that has no point in common with the circle. Radius: a line segment joining the centre of a circle with any single point on the circle itself. Sector: a region bounded by two radii of equal length with a common center and either of the two possible arcs, determined by this center and the endpoints of the radii.
Segment: a region bounded by a chord and one of the arcs connecting the chord's endpoints. The length of the chord imposes a lower boundary on the diameter of possible arcs. Sometimes the term segment is used only for regions not containing the center of the circle to which their arc belongs to. Secant: an extended chord, a coplanar straight line, intersecting a circle in two points. Semicircle: one of the two possible arcs determined by the endpoints of a diameter, taking its midpoint as center. In non-technical common usage it may mean the interior of the two dimensional region bounded by a diameter and one of its arcs, technically called a half-disc. A half-disc is a special case of a segment, namely the largest one. Tangent: a coplanar straight line that has one single point in common with a circle. All of the specified regions may be considered as open, that is, not containing their boundaries, or as closed, including their respective boundaries; the word circle derives from the Greek κίρκος/κύκλος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, meaning "hoop" or "ring".
The origins of the words circus and circuit are related. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. Natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand; the circle is the basis for the wheel, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern machinery possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. Early science geometry and astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles; some highlights in the history of the circle are: 1700 BCE – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field. The result corresponds to 256/81 as an approximate value of π. 300 BCE – Book 3 of Euclid's Elements deals with the properties of circles. In Plato's Seventh Letter there is a detailed explanation of the circle.
Plato explains the perfect circle, how it is different from any drawing, definition or explanation. 1880 CE – Lindemann proves that π is transcendental settling the millennia-old problem of squaring the circle. The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is π, an irrational constant equal to 3.141592654. Thus the length of the circumference C is related to the radius r and diameter d by: C = 2 π r = π d; as proved by Archimedes, in his Measurement of a Circle, the area enclosed by a circle is equal to that of a triangle whose base has the length of the circle's circumference and whose height equals the circle's radius, which comes to π multiplied by the radius squared: A r e a = π r 2. Equivalently, denoting diameter by d, A r e
An escapement is a mechanical linkage in mechanical watches and clocks that gives impulses to the timekeeping element and periodically releases the gear train to move forward, advancing the clock's hands. The impulse action transfers energy to the clock's timekeeping element to replace the energy lost to friction during its cycle and keep the timekeeper oscillating; the escapement is driven by force from a coiled spring or a suspended weight, transmitted through the timepiece's gear train. Each swing of the pendulum or balance wheel releases a tooth of the escapement's escape wheel gear, allowing the clock's gear train to advance or "escape" by a fixed amount; this regular periodic advancement moves the clock's hands forward at a steady rate. At the same time the tooth gives the timekeeping element a push, before another tooth catches on the escapement's pallet, returning the escapement to its "locked" state; the sudden stopping of the escapement's tooth is what generates the characteristic "ticking" sound heard in operating mechanical clocks and watches.
The first mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, was invented in medieval Europe during the 13th century, was the crucial innovation which lead to the development of the mechanical clock. The design of the escapement has a large effect on a timepiece's accuracy, improvements in escapement design drove improvements in time measurement during the era of mechanical timekeeping from the 13th through the 19th century. Escapements are used in other mechanisms besides timepieces. Manual typewriters used escapements to step the carriage. A liquid-driven escapement was used for a washstand design in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world Ptolemaic Egypt, while liquid-driven escapements were applied to clockworks beginning in Tang dynasty China and culminating during the Song dynasty; the importance of the escapement in the history of technology is that it was the key invention that made the all-mechanical clock possible. The invention of the first all-mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, in 13th-century Europe initiated a change in timekeeping methods from continuous processes, such as the flow of water in water clocks, to repetitive oscillatory processes, such as the swing of pendulums, which could yield more accuracy.
Oscillating timekeepers are used in every modern clock. The earliest liquid-driven escapement was described by the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium in his technical treatise Pneumatics as part of a washstand. A counterweighted spoon, supplied by a water tank, tips over in a basin when full, releasing a spherical piece of pumice in the process. Once the spoon has emptied, it is pulled up again by the counterweight, closing the door on the pumice by the tightening string. Remarkably, Philo's comment that "its construction is similar to that of clocks" indicates that such escapement mechanisms were integrated in ancient water clocks. In China, the Tang dynasty Buddhist monk Yi Xing along with government official Liang Lingzan made the escapement in 723 to the workings of a water-powered armillary sphere and clock drive. Song dynasty horologists Zhang Sixun and Su Song duly applied escapement devices for their astronomical clock towers, before the technology stagnated and retrogressed. According to historian Derek J. de Solla Price, the Chinese escapement spread west and was the source for Western escapement technology.
According to Ahmad Y. Hassan, a mercury escapement in a Spanish work for Alfonso X in 1277 can be traced back to earlier Arabic sources. Knowledge of these mercury escapements may have spread through Europe with translations of Arabic and Spanish texts. However, none of these were true mechanical escapements, since they still depended on the flow of liquid through an orifice to measure time. For example, in Su Song's clock, water flowed into a container on a pivot; the escapement's role was to tip the container over each time it filled up, thus advancing the clock's wheels each time an equal quantity of water was measured out. The time between releases depended on the rate of flow; the rate of flow of a liquid through an orifice varies with temperature and viscosity changes, decreases with pressure as the level of liquid in the source container drops. The development of mechanical clocks depended on the invention of an escapement which would allow a clock's movement to be controlled by an oscillating weight.
The first mechanical escapement, the verge escapement, was used in a bell ringing apparatus called an alarum for several centuries before it was adapted to clocks. In 14th-century Europe it appeared as the timekeeper in the first mechanical clocks, which were large tower clocks Its origin and first use is unknown because it is difficult to distinguish which of these early tower clocks were mechanical, which were water clocks. However, indirect evidence, such as a sudden increase in cost and construction of clocks, points to the late 13th century as the most date for the development of the modern clock escapement. Astronomer Robertus Anglicus wrote in 1271 that clockmakers were trying to invent an escapement, but hadn't been successful yet. On the other hand, most sources agree that mechanical escapement clocks existed by 1300; the earliest description of an escapement, in Richard of Wallingford's 1327 manuscript Tractatus Horologii Astronomici on the clock he buil
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis. A set of three gimbals, one mounted on the other with orthogonal pivot axes, may be used to allow an object mounted on the innermost gimbal to remain independent of the rotation of its support. For example, on a ship, the gyroscopes, shipboard compasses and drink holders use gimbals to keep them upright with respect to the horizon despite the ship's pitching and rolling; the gimbal suspension used for mounting compasses and the like is sometimes called a Cardan suspension after Italian mathematician and physicist Gerolamo Cardano described it in detail. However, Cardano did he claim to; the device has been known since antiquity, first described in the 3rd c. BC by Philo of Byzantium, although some modern authors support it may not have a single identifiable inventor; the gimbal was first described by the Greek inventor Philo of Byzantium. Philo described an eight-sided ink pot with an opening on each side, which can be turned so that while any face is on top, a pen can be dipped and inked — yet the ink never runs out through the holes of the other sides.
This was done by the suspension of the inkwell at the center, mounted on a series of concentric metal rings so that it remained stationary no matter which way the pot is turned. In Ancient China, the Han Dynasty inventor and mechanical engineer Ding Huan created a gimbal incense burner around 180 AD. There is a hint in the writing of the earlier Sima Xiangru that the gimbal existed in China since the 2nd century BC. There is mention during the Liang Dynasty that gimbals were used for hinges of doors and windows, while an artisan once presented a portable warming stove to Empress Wu Zetian which employed gimbals. Extant specimens of Chinese gimbals used for incense burners date to the early Tang Dynasty, were part of the silver-smithing tradition in China; the authenticity of Philo's description of a cardan suspension has been doubted by some authors on the ground that the part of Philo's Pneumatica which describes the use of the gimbal survived only in an Arabic translation of the early 9th century.
Thus, as late as 1965, the sinologist Joseph Needham suspected Arab interpolation. However, Carra de Vaux, author of the French translation which still provides the basis for modern scholars, regards the Pneumatics as genuine; the historian of technology George Sarton asserts that it is safe to assume the Arabic version is a faithful copying of Philo's original, credits Philon explicitly with the invention. So does his colleague Michael Lewis. In fact, research by the latter scholar demonstrates that the Arab copy contains sequences of Greek letters which fell out of use after the 1st century, thereby strengthening the case that it is a faithful copy of the Hellenistic original, a view also shared by the classicist Andrew Wilson; the ancient Roman author Athenaeus Mechanicus, writing during the reign of Augustus, described the military use of a gimbal-like mechanism, calling it "little ape". When preparing to attack coastal towns from the sea-side, military engineers used to yoke merchant-ships together to take the siege machines up to the walls.
But to prevent the shipborne machinery from rolling around the deck in heavy seas, Athenaeus advises that "you must fix the pithêkion on the platform attached to the merchant-ships in the middle, so that the machine stays upright in any angle". After antiquity, gimbals remained known in the Near East. In the Latin West, reference to the device appeared again in the 9th century recipe book called the Little Key of Painting Mappae clavicula; the French inventor Villard de Honnecourt depicts a set of gimbals in his famous sketchbook. In the early modern period, dry compasses were suspended in gimbals. In inertial navigation, as applied to ships and submarines, a minimum of three gimbals are needed to allow an inertial navigation system to remain fixed in inertial space, compensating for changes in the ship's yaw and roll. In this application, the inertial measurement unit is equipped with three orthogonally mounted gyros to sense rotation about all axes in three-dimensional space; the gyro outputs are kept to a null through drive motors on each gimbal axis, to maintain the orientation of the IMU.
To accomplish this, the gyro error signals are passed through "resolvers" mounted on the three gimbals, roll and yaw. These resolvers perform an automatic matrix transformation according to each gimbal angle, so that the required torques are delivered to the appropriate gimbal axis; the yaw torques must be resolved by pitch transformations. The gimbal angle is never measured. Similar sensing platforms are used on aircraft. In inertial navigation systems, gimbal lock may occur when vehicle rotation causes two of the three gimbal rings to align with their pivot axes in a single plane; when this occurs, it is no longer possible to maintain the sensing platform's orientation. In spacecraft propulsion, rocket engines are mounted on a pair of gimbals to allow a single engine to vector thrust about both the pitch and yaw axes. To control roll, twin engines with differential pitch or yaw control signals are used to provide torque about the vehicle's roll axis; the word "gimbal" began as a noun. Most modern dictionaries continue to list it as such.
Lacking a convenient term to describe the swinging movement of a rocket engine, engineers began using the word "gimbal" as a verb. When a thrust chamber is swung by an attached actuator
The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain. One part of the chain dips into the water, the chain runs through a tube bigger than the diameter of the discs; as the chain is drawn up the tube, water becomes trapped between the discs and is lifted to and discharged at the top. Chain pumps were used for centuries in the ancient Middle East, China; the earliest evidence for this device is in a Babylonian text from about 700 B. C, they were powered by humans or animals. The device appeared in ancient Egypt from about 200 B. C. featuring a pair of gear-wheels. A version of the chain pump was used in Ancient Greek and Roman times, sometimes with pots fixed to the chain, which, as they passed over the top pulley, tipped the water out. Philo of Byzantium wrote of such a device in the 2nd century B. C.. C. Fragments of these buckets were found on the Roman barges of Lake Nemi. Chain pumps were used in European mines during the Renaissance, they were used in dockyards, several formed part of the Portsmouth Block Mills complex.
Chain pumps were used on naval vessels of the time to pump the bilges, examples are known in the nineteenth century for low-lift irrigation. Chain pumps were used in ancient China by at least the 1st century A. D. In China, they were called dragon backbones. One of the earliest accounts was a description by the Han Dynasty philosopher Wang Chong around A. D. 80. Unlike those found in the West, chain pumps in China resembled the square-pallet type instead of the pear-shaped bucket. Illustrations of such Chinese chain pumps show them drawing water up a slanted channel; these were sometimes powered by hydraulics of a rushing current against a horizontal water wheel acting against a vertical wheel, others by a horizontal mechanical wheel acting upon a vertical wheel, pulled by the labor of oxen. There were square-pallet chain pumps operated by pedals. From the 1st century onwards, chain pumps were widespread throughout the Chinese countryside. Chinese square-pallet chain pumps were used for irrigation, though they found use in public works as well.
The infamous Eastern Han court eunuch Zhang Rang once ordered the engineer Bi Lan to construct a series of square-pallet chain pumps outside the capital city Luoyang. These chain pumps serviced the palaces and living quarters of the Luoyang. Ma Jun, the renowned mechanical engineer of the Three Kingdoms era constructed a series of chain pumps for watering the palatial gardens of Emperor Ming of Wei. During the period of agricultural expansion in Song China, the technology of water-rising devices was improved. For some centuries they had been used for moving water for irrigation purposes; the simplest design, such as the counterbalanced bucket or'swape' or'well-sweep' was found universally. A more complicated design, the'square-pallet chain pump', was introduced several centuries before the growth in Song technology, but had not been used until for farming, they became more common around the end of the first millennium AD. From the 13th century onwards, the Chinese used windmills to power square-pallet chain pumps.
Yet there were other types of chain pumps besides the square-pallet design. In Song Yingxing's encyclopedic book the Tiangong Kaiwu, there is description and illustration of a cylinder chain pump, powered by waterwheels and leading water up from the river to an elevated plain of agricultural crops; the contribution of chain pumps to agricultural growth during the Song was extolled by poets such as Li Chuquan of the twelfth century. The Song government spread the technology, introducing pumping equipment and chain pumps to those areas as yet unfamiliar with the technique. Airlift pump Chain drive Rope pump Joseph. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 2, Agriculture. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Song, translated with preface by E-Tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun. T'ien-Kung K'ai-Wu: Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century.
University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press