Not to be confused with Classical theism, sometimes also called philosophical theism. Philosophical theism is the belief that a deity exists independent of the teaching or revelation of any particular religion and it represents belief in a personal God entirely without doctrine. Philosophical theism has parallels with the 18th century philosophical view called Deism, philosophical theism conceives of nature as the result of purposive activity and so as an intelligible system open to human understanding, although possibly never completely understandable. It implies the belief that nature is ordered according to some sort of consistent plan and manifests a single purpose or intention, however, philosophical theists do not endorse or adhere to the theology or doctrines of any organized religion or church. They may accept arguments or observations about the existence of a god advanced by theologians working in some religious tradition, thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician from Miletus in Asia Minor. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition, socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher, he is the earliest known proponent of the teleological argument, though it is questionable if he abandoned polytheism. Aristotle founded what are known as the cosmological arguments for a God. Chrysippus of Soli was a Greek Stoic philosopher, chrysippus sought to prove the existence of God, making use of a teleological argument, If there is anything that humanity cannot produce, the being who produces it is better than humanity. But humanity cannot produce the things that are in the universe – the heavenly bodies, the being, therefore, who produces them is superior to humanity. But who is there that is superior to humanity, except God, leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. But man is no mere instrument of his Creator. He is himself a machine of extraordinary quality and proficiency and thus proof of natures rationality, christiaan Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist. Huygens was first to formulate what is now known as the second of Newtons laws of motion in a quadratic form, Émilie du Châtelet was a French mathematician, physicist, her most celebrated achievement is considered to be her translation and commentary on Isaac Newtons work Principia Mathematica. He argued for Gods existence on teleological grounds without appeal to revelation, nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the father of thermodynamics. As a deist, he believed in divine causality, stating that what to an ignorant man is chance, cannot be chance to one better instructed, but he did not believe in divine punishment. He criticized established religion, though at the time spoke in favor of the belief in an all-powerful Being. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum, according to biographer Dunnington, Gausss religion was based upon the search for truth. He produced a vast array of work, but is probably best remembered today for coining the word Dinosauria
O you who look on this our machine, do not be sad that with others you are fated to die, but rejoice that our Creator has endowed us with such an excellent instrument as the intellect.
Kurt Gödel, the eminent mathematical logician, composed a formal argument for God's existence.