Camille Anna Paglia is an American academic and social critic. Paglia has been a professor at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, since 1984, she is critical of many aspects of modern culture, is the author of Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson and other books. She is a critic of American feminism and of post-structuralism as well as a commentator on multiple aspects of American culture such as its visual art and film history. In 2005, Paglia was ranked No. 20 on a Prospect/Foreign Policy poll of the world's top 100 public intellectuals. Paglia was born in New York, the eldest child of Pasquale and Lydia Anne Paglia. All four of her grandparents were born in Italy, her mother emigrated to the United States at five years old from Ceccano, in the province of Frosinone, Italy. Additionally, Paglia has stated that her father's side of the family were from the Campanian towns of Avellino and Caserta. Paglia attended primary school in rural Oxford, New York, where her family lived in a working farmhouse.
Her father, a veteran of World War II, taught at the Oxford Academy high school, exposed his young daughter to art through books he brought home about French art history. In 1957, her family moved to New York, so that her father could begin graduate school, she attended the Edward Smith Elementary School, T. Aaron Levy Junior High and William Nottingham High School. In 1992 Carmelia Metosh, her Latin teacher for three years, said, "She always has been controversial. Whatever statements were being made, she had to challenge them, she made good points as she does now." Paglia thanked Metosh in the acknowledgements to Sexual Personae describing her as "the dragon lady of Latin studies, who breathed fire at principals and school boards". During her stays at a summer Girl Scout camp in Thendara, New York, she took on a variety of new names, including Anastasia and Stanley. A crucially significant event for her was when an outhouse exploded after she poured too much quicklime into the latrine. "That symbolized everything I would do with my work.
Excess and extravagance and explosiveness. I would be someone who would look into the latrine of culture, into pornography and crime and psychopathology... and I would drop the bomb into it". For more than a decade, Paglia was the partner of artist Alison Maddex. Paglia adopted Maddex's son. In 2007 the couple separated but remained "harmonious co-parents," in Paglia's words, who lived two miles apart. Paglia identifies as transgender and stated that she has "never identified at all with being a woman". Paglia entered Harpur College at Binghamton University in 1964; the same year, Paglia's poem "Atrophy" was published in the local newspaper. She said that she was trained to read literature by poet Milton Kessler, who, "believed in the responsiveness of the body, of the activation of the senses to literature... And oh did I believe in that", she graduated from Harpur as class valedictorian in 1968. According to Paglia, while in college she punched a "marauding drunk," and takes pride in having been put on probation for committing 39 pranks.
Paglia attended Yale as a graduate student, she claims to have been the only open lesbian at Yale Graduate School from 1968 to 1972. At Yale, Paglia quarreled with Rita Mae Brown, whom she characterized as "then darkly nihilist," and argued with the New Haven, Connecticut Women's Liberation Rock Band when they dismissed the Rolling Stones as sexist. Paglia was mentored by Harold Bloom. Sexual Personae was titled "The Androgynous Dream: the image of the androgyne as it appears in literature and is embodied in the psyche of the artist, with reference to the visual arts and the cinema."Paglia read Susan Sontag and aspired to emulate what she called her "celebrity, her positioning in the media world at the border of the high arts and popular culture." Paglia first saw Sontag in person on October 15, 1969, when Paglia a Yale graduate student, was visiting a friend at Princeton. In 1973, Paglia, a militant feminist and open lesbian, was working at her first academic job at Bennington College, she considered Sontag a radical.
The same year, Paglia drove to an appearance by Sontag at Dartmouth, hoping to arrange for her to speak at Bennington, but found it difficult to find the money for Sontag's speaking fee. Bennington College agreed to pay Sontag $700 to give a talk about contemporary issues. Paglia staged a poster campaign urging students to attend Sontag's appearance. Sontag arrived at Bennington Carriage Barn, where she was to speak, more than an hour late, began reading what Paglia recalled as a "boring and bleak" short story about "nothing" in the style of a French New Novel; as a result of Sontag's Bennington College appearance, Paglia began to become disenchanted with her, believing that she had withdrawn from confrontation with the academic world, that her "mandarin disdain" for popular culture showed an elitism that betrayed her early work, which had suggested that high and low culture both reflected a new sensibility. In the autumn of 1972, Paglia began teaching at Bennington College, which hired her in part thanks to a recommendation from Harold Bloom.
At Bennington, she befriended the philosopher James Fessenden, who first taught there in the same semester. Through her study of the classics and t
Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both for religious reasons. It is in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity. Celibacy has existed in one form or another throughout history, in all the major religions of the world, views on it have varied; the Romans viewed it as an aberration and legislated fiscal penalties against it, with the sole exception granted to the Vestal Virgins. The Islamic attitudes toward celibacy have been complex as well; some Hadiths claim that Muhammad denounced celibacy. Classical Hindu culture encouraged asceticism and celibacy in the stages of life, after one has met his societal obligations. Jainism, on the other hand, preached complete celibacy for young monks and considered celibacy to be an essential behavior to attain moksha.
Buddhism has been influenced by Jainism in this respect. There were, significant cultural differences in the various areas where Buddhism spread, which affected the local attitudes toward celibacy, it was not well received in China, for example, where other religions movements such as Daoism were opposed to it. A somewhat similar situation existed in Japan, where the Shinto tradition opposed celibacy. In most native African and American Indian religious traditions, celibacy has been viewed negatively as well, although there were exceptions like periodic celibacy practiced by some Mesoamerican warriors; the English word celibacy derives from the Latin caelibatus, "state of being unmarried", from Latin caelebs, meaning "unmarried". This word derives from two Proto-Indo-European stems, *kaiwelo- "alone" and *libs- "living"; the words abstinence and celibacy are used interchangeably, but are not the same thing. Sexual abstinence known as continence, is abstaining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for some limited period of time, while celibacy may be defined as a voluntary religious vow not to marry or engage in sexual activity.
Asexuality is conflated with celibacy and sexual abstinence, but it is considered distinct from the two, as celibacy and sexual abstinence are behavioral and those who use those terms for themselves are motivated by factors such as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. A. W. Richard Sipe, while focusing on the topic of celibacy in Catholicism, states that "the most assumed definition of celibate is an unmarried or single person, celibacy is perceived as synonymous with sexual abstinence or restraint." Sipe adds that in the uniform milieu of Catholic priests in the United States "there is no clear operational definition of celibacy". Elizabeth Abbott commented on the terminology in her A History of Celibacy: "I drafted a definition that discarded the rigidly pedantic and unhelpful distinctions between celibacy and virginity"; the concept of "new celibacy" was introduced by Gabrielle Brown in her 1980 book The New Celibacy. In a revised version of her book, she claims that "abstinence is a response on the outside to what's going on, celibacy is a response from the inside".
According to her definition, celibacy is much more than not having sex. It is more intentional than abstinence, its goal is personal growth and empowerment; this new perspective on celibacy is echoed by several authors including Elizabeth Abbott, Wendy Keller, Wendy Shalit. The rule of celibacy in the Buddhist religion, whether Theravada, has a long history. Celibacy was advocated as an ideal rule of life for all monks and nuns by Gautama Buddha, except for Japan where it is not followed due to historical and political developments following the Meiji Restoration. In Japan, celibacy was an ideal among Buddhist clerics for hundreds of years, but violations of clerical celibacy were so common for so long that in 1872, state laws made marriage legal for Buddhist clerics. Subsequently, ninety percent of Buddhist monks/clerics married. An example is Higashifushimi Kunihide, a prominent Buddhist priest of Japanese royal ancestry, married and a father whilst serving as a monk for most of his lifetime.
Gautama known as the Buddha, is known for his renunciation of his wife, Princess Yasodharā, son, Rahula. In order to pursue an ascetic life, he needed to renounce aspects of the impermanent world, including his wife and son. On both his wife and son joined the ascetic community and are mentioned in the Buddhist texts to have become enlightened. In another sense, a buddhavacana recorded the zen patriarch Vimalakirti as being an advocate of marital continence instead of monastic renunciation, the sutra became somewhat popular due to its brash humour as well as integrating the role of women in laity as well as spiritual life. In the religious movement of Brahma Kumaris, celibacy is promoted for peace and to defeat power of lust and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind for householders to like holy brother and sister. In this belief system, celibacy is given the utmost importance, it is said that, as per the direction of the Supreme God those lead a pure and celibate life will be able to conquer the surging vices.
The power of celibacy creates an unseen environment of divinity bringing peace, purity and fortune. Those with the powe
First Epistle to the Corinthians
The First Epistle to the Corinthians referred to as First Corinthians and written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle says that Paul the Apostle and "Sosthenes our brother" wrote it to "the church of God, at Corinth" 1 Cor.1:1–2 although the scholarly consensus holds that Sosthenes was the amanuensis who wrote down the text of the letter at Paul's direction. Called "a masterpiece of pastoral theology", it addresses various issues that had arisen in the Christian community at Corinth; this epistle contains some well-known phrases, including: "all things to all men", "through a glass, darkly", "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child". There is consensus among historians and Christian theologians that Paul is the author of the First Epistle to the Corinthians; the letter is quoted or mentioned by the earliest of sources, is included in every ancient canon, including that of Marcion.
The personal and embarrassing texts about immorality in the church increase consensus. However, a passage may have been inserted at a stage; this passage is 1 Corinthians 14:34–35, the authenticity of, hotly debated. Part of the reason for doubt is that in some manuscripts, the verses come at the end of the chapter instead of at its present location. Furthermore, Paul is here appealing to the law, uncharacteristic of him. Lastly, the verses come into conflict with 11:5 where women are described as praying and prophesying; as well, 10:1–22 is sometimes regarded as another letter fragment, interpolation, or inserted midrash because, among other things, this section seems to equate the consumption of idol meat with idolatry, but Paul seems more lenient regarding its consumption in 8:1–13 and 10:23–11:1. Such views are rejected by other scholars who give arguments for the unity of 8:1–11:1. About the year AD 50, towards the end of his second missionary journey, Paul founded the church in Corinth, before moving on to Ephesus, a city on the west coast of today's Turkey, about 180 miles by sea from Corinth.
From there he traveled to Caesarea, Antioch. Paul returned to Ephesus on his third missionary journey and spent three years there, it was while staying in Ephesus that he received disconcerting news of the community in Corinth regarding jealousies and immoral behavior. It appears that based on a letter the Corinthians sent Paul, the congregation was requesting clarification on a number of matters, such as marriage and the consumption of meat offered to idols. By comparing Acts of the Apostles 18:1–17 and mentions of Ephesus in the Corinthian correspondence, scholars suggest that the letter was written during Paul's stay in Ephesus, dated as being in the range of AD 53–57. Anthony C. Thiselton suggests that it is possible that I Corinthians was written during Paul's first stay in Ephesus, at the end of his Second Journey dated to early AD 54. However, it is more that it was written during his extended stay in Ephesus, where he refers to sending Timothy to them; the epistle may be divided into seven parts: Salutation Paul addresses the issue regarding challenges to his apostleship and defends the issue by claiming that it was given to him through a revelation from Christ.
The salutation reinforces the legitimacy of Paul's apostolic claim. Thanksgiving The thanksgiving part of the letter is typical of Hellenistic letter writing. In a thanksgiving recitation the writer thanks God for health, a safe journey, deliverance from danger, or good fortune. In this letter, the thanksgiving "introduces charismata and gnosis, topics to which Paul will return and that he will discuss at greater length in the letter". Division in Corinth Facts of division Causes of division Cure for division Immorality in Corinth Discipline an immoral Brother Resolving personal disputes Sexual purity Difficulties in Corinth Marriage Christian liberty Worship Doctrine of Resurrection Closing Paul's closing remarks in his letters contain his intentions and efforts to improve the community, he would first conclude with his paraenesis and wish them peace by including a prayer request, greet them with his name and his friends with a holy kiss, offer final grace and benediction:Now concerning the contribution for the saints: as I directed the churches of Galatia… Let all your things be done with charity.
Greet one another with a holy kiss... I, write this greeting with my own hand. If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha; the grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen; some time before 2 Corinthians was written, Paul paid them a second visit to check some rising disorder, wrote them a letter, now lost. They had been visited by Apollos by Peter, by some Jewish Christians who brought with them letters of commendation from Jerusalem. Paul wrote this letter to correct. Several sources informed Paul of conflicts within the church at Corinth: Apollos, a letter from the Corinthians, the "household of Chloe", Stephanas and his two friends who had visited Paul. Paul wrote this letter to the Corinthians, urging uniformity of belief ("that ye all speak the same thing and that t
John Mitchell Finnis, is an Australian legal philosopher and scholar specializing in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. He is the Biolchini Family Professor of Law at Notre Dame Law School and Permanent Senior Distinguished Research Fellow at the Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture, he was Professor of Law & Legal Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1989 to 2010, where he is now professor emeritus. He acted as a constitutional adviser to successive Australian Commonwealth governments in constitutional matters and bilateral relations with the United Kingdom, his academic focus is in the areas of jurisprudence, political theory, constitutional law, while his practice at the English Bar saw him in cases at the High Court and at the Court of Appeal. He is a member of Gray's Inn, he was appointed an honorary Queen's Counsel in 2017. Finnis was educated at St. Peter's College and the University of Adelaide, where he was a member of St. Mark's College, he obtained his Bachelor of Laws degree there, winning a Rhodes scholarship to University College, Oxford, in 1962, where he obtained his Doctor of Philosophy degree with a thesis on the concept of judicial power, with reference to Australian federal constitutional law.
In 1962, Finnis converted to Roman Catholicism. Finnis was a friend of Aung San Suu Kyi an Oxford graduate. Aung San Suu Kyi won the prize but did not receive it until June 2012, when she recalled how her late husband, Michael Aris, had visited her under house arrest and brought her the news "that a friend, John Finnis" had nominated her for the prize. Finnis is a legal philosopher and author of Natural Law and Natural Rights, a seminal contribution to the philosophy of law and a restatement of natural law doctrine. For Finnis there are seven basic goods. In his book on Finnis' student Neil Gorsuch while at Oxford University, John Greenya has described Finnis's views by stating: "Some of John Finnis's views are controversial. For example, in defending his long-held position against same-sex marriage and same-sex coupling, he once compared them to bestiality."Life involves all aspects of vitality that enable a person to gain strong willpower. The second aspect of well-being is knowledge and is described as the pure desire to know out of curiosity, as well as a concerning interest and desire for truth.
The third aspect, play, is regarded as self-evident as there is no real point of performing such activities, only for pure enjoyment. Aesthetic experience is the fourth aspect and is considered to play however; the fifth aspect for Finnis is sociability where it is realised through the creation of friendships, that these relationships are fundamental goods. Practical reasonableness is the sixth basic good where it is one's ability to use their intellect in deciding choices that shape one's nature; the final basic good is religion. After discussing the basic goods it is argued that within the list there is no hierarchal order, as the basic goods are considered impossible to compare or measure. Finnis believes the goods are self-evident; each of the basic goods can be considered the most important, as none of them can be reduced to a mechanism of achieving another. While technically the goods can be treated as superior to one another Finnis provides that each good is still fundamental where no priority value exists.
Philosopher Stephen Buckle sees Finnis's list of proposed basic goods as plausible, but notes that "Finnis's account becomes more controversial when he goes on to specify the basic requirements of practical reasonableness". He sees Finnis's requirement that practical reason requires "respect for every basic value in every act" as intended both to rule out consequentialism in ethics and to support the moral viewpoint of the Catholic Church on a range of contentious issues, including contraception and masturbation, which in his view undermines its plausibility. Finnis's work on natural law ethics has been a source of controversy in both neo-Thomist and analytical circles. Craig Paterson sees his work as interesting because it challenges a key assumption of both neo-Thomist and analytical philosophy: the idea that a natural law ethics must be based upon an attempt to derive normative statements from descriptive statements. According to Andrew Sullivan, Finnis has articulated "an intelligible and subtle account of homosexuality" based on the new natural law, a less biologically-based version of natural law theory.
Finnis argues that the state should deter public approval of homosexual behaviour while refusing to persecute individuals on the basis of their sexual orientation, basing this position not on the claim that homosexual sex is unnatural but on the idea that it cannot involve the union of procreation and emotional commitment that heterosexual sex can, is therefore an assault on heterosexual union. Sullivan believes that such a conservative position is vulnerable to criticism on its own terms, since the stability of existing families is better served by the acceptance of those homosexuals who are part of them. Other scholars, such as Stephen Macedo and Michael J. Perry, have criticised Finnis's views, he has supervised several PhD students including Robert P. George. In May 2011, Oxford Universi
Alan Gerald Soble is an American philosopher and author of several books on the philosophy of sex. He taught at the University of New Orleans from 1986 to 2006, he is Adjunct Professor of philosophy at Drexel University in Philadelphia. Soble was born in 1947 to Sylvia Soble in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Early in his professional career, Soble wrote papers in areas of Epistemology. In the late 1970s he began to help articulate the fledgling specialty of the philosophy of sex, becoming one of the founding scholars and leaders of the field. In 1977, while at the University of Texas in Austin, he founded the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, serving as the society's director from 1977 to 1992. In subsequent years, Soble has written many works in this field. In late 2005 he completed the central reference work in the philosophy of sex, Sex from Plato to Paglia. Alan Soble was Research Professor at the University of New Orleans from 1986 to 2006. Power, Nicholas. Philosophy of Sex, 6th edition.
Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-1671-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Soble, Alan; the Philosophy of Sex and Love: An Introduction, 2nd edition and expanded. Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-55778-875-7. Soble, Alan. Sex from Plato to Paglia: A Philosophical Encyclopedia, 2 volumes. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32686-X. Soble, Alan. Pornography and Feminism. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-944-1. Soble, Alan. Sexual Investigations. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-8085-7. Soble, Alan; the Structure of Love. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04566-2. Soble, Alan. Pornography: Marxism and the Future of Sexuality. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03524-1. American philosophy Roger Scruton Sexual ethics
Romance is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards, another person, the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions. Although the emotions and sensations of romantic love are associated with sexual attraction, romantic feelings can exist without expectation of physical consummation and be subsequently expressed; the term romance originates with the medieval ideal of chivalry as set out in the literature of chivalric romance. Romantic love is a relative term that distinguishes moments and situations within intimate relationships as contributing to a deepened relational connection; the addition of "drama" to relationships of close and strong love. Anthropologist Charles Lindholm defined love as "an intense attraction that involves the idealization of the other, within an erotic context, with expectation of enduring sometime into the future"; the word "romance" comes from the French vernacular where it indicated a verse narrative.
The word was an adverb of Latin origin, "romanicus," meaning "of the Roman style". European medieval vernacular tales and ballads dealt with chivalric adventure, not bringing in the concept of love until late into the seventeenth century; the word romance developed other meanings, such as the early nineteenth century Spanish and Italian definitions of "adventurous" and "passionate," which could intimate both "love affair" and "idealistic quality." Anthropologists such as Claude Lévi-Strauss show that there were complex forms of courtship in ancient as well as contemporary primitive societies. There may not be evidence, that members of such societies formed loving relationships distinct from their established customs in a way that would parallel modern romance. Before the 18th century, many marriages were not arranged, but rather developed out of more or less spontaneous relationships. After the 18th century, illicit relationships took on a more independent role. In bourgeois marriage, illicitness may have become more formidable and to cause tension.
In Ladies of the Leisure Class, Rutgers University professor Bonnie G. Smith depicts courtship and marriage rituals that may be viewed as oppressive to modern people, she writes "When the young women of the Nord married, they did so without illusions of love and romance. They acted within a framework of concern for the reproduction of bloodlines according to financial and sometimes political interests." Subsequent sexual revolution has lessened the conflicts arising out of liberalism, but not eliminated them. Anthony Giddens, in The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality and Eroticism in Modern Society, states that romantic love introduced the idea of a narrative to an individual's life, telling a story is a root meaning of the term romance. According to Giddens, the rise of romantic love more or less coincided with the emergence of the novel, it was that romantic love, associated with freedom and therefore the ideals of romantic love, created the ties between freedom and self-realization. David R. Shumway states that "the discourse of intimacy" emerged in the last third of the 20th century, intended to explain how marriage and other relationships worked, making the specific case that emotional closeness is much more important than passion, with intimacy and romance coexisting.
One example of the changes experienced in relationships in the early 21st century was explored by Giddens regarding homosexual relationships. According to Giddens, since homosexuals were not able to marry they were forced to pioneer more open and negotiated relationships; these kinds of relationships permeated the heterosexual population. The conception of romantic love was popularized in Western culture by the concept of courtly love. Chevaliers, or knights in the Middle Ages, engaged in what were non-physical and non-marital relationships with women of nobility whom they served; these relations were elaborate and ritualized in a complexity, steeped in a framework of tradition, which stemmed from theories of etiquette derived out of chivalry as a moral code of conduct. Courtly love and the notion of domnei were the subjects of troubadours, could be found in artistic endeavors such as lyrical narratives and poetic prose of the time. Since marriage was nothing more than a formal arrangement, courtly love sometimes permitted expressions of emotional closeness that may have been lacking from the union between husband and wife.
In terms of courtly love, "lovers" did not refer to those engaging in sexual acts, but rather, to the act of caring and to emotional intimacy. The bond between a knight and his Lady, or the woman of high stature of whom he served, may have escalated psychologically but ever physically. For knighthood during the Middle Ages, the intrinsic importance of a code of conduct was in large part as a value system of rules codified as a guide to aid a knight in his capacity as champion of the downtrodden, but in his service to the Lord. In the context of dutiful service to a woman of high social standing, ethics designated as a code were established as an institution to provide a firm moral foundation by which to combat the idea that unfit attentions and affections were to be tolerated as "a secret game of trysts" behind closed doors. Therefore, a knight trained in the substance of "chivalry" was instructed, with especial emphasis, to serve a lady most honorably, with purity of heart and mind. To that end, he committed himself to the welfare of both Lord and Lady with unwavering discipline and devotion, while at the same time, presuming to uphold core principles set forth in the code by the religion by which he followed.
Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love of food. Most love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Love is considered to be a virtue representing human kindness and affection, as "the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another", it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species. Ancient Greek philosophers identified five forms of love: familial love, friendly love or platonic love, romantic love, guest love and divine love.
Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, courtly love. Asian cultures have distinguished Ren, Bhakti, Mettā, Ishq and other variants or symbioses of these states. Love has additional spiritual meaning; this diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to define, compared to other emotional states. The word "love" can have a variety of distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as "love". Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love. Love as a general expression of positive sentiment is contrasted with hate; as a less-sexual and more-emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is contrasted with lust.
As an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is applied to close friendships or platonic love.. Abstractly discussed, love refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself. In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed over time; some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry. The complex and abstract nature of love reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the good of another." Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value,".
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another." Meher Baba stated that in love there is a "feeling of unity" and an "active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love." Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness". People can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are committed and value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love and strong spiritual or political convictions. People can "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is involved this feeling is called paraphilia. A common principle that people say they love is life itself. Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings, it is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for a person. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love.
Interpersonal love is most associated with interpersonal relationships. Such love might exist between family members and couples. There are a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania. Throughout history and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology and biology have added to the understanding the concept of love. Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like thirst. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three overlapping stages: lust and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire. Three distinct