Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian theology within the monastic schools at the earliest European universities; the rise of scholasticism was associated with the rise of the 12th and 13th century schools that developed into the earliest modern universities, including those in Italy, France and England. Scholasticism is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions. In the classroom and in writing, it takes the form of explicit disputation; because of its emphasis on rigorous dialectical method, scholasticism was applied to many other fields of study.
As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers, to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy that of Aristotle but of Neoplatonism. Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas's masterwork Summa Theologica is considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic and Christian philosophy. Important work in the scholastic tradition has been carried on well past Aquinas's time, for instance by Francisco Suárez and Luis de Molina, among Lutheran and Reformed thinkers; the historical legacy of scholasticism lay not in specific scientific discoveries, for these were not made, but laying the foundations for the development of natural science. The terms "scholastic" and "scholasticism" derive from the Latin word scholasticus, the Latinized form of the Greek σχολαστικός, an adjective derived from σχολή, "school".
Scholasticus means "of or pertaining to schools". The "scholastics" were "schoolmen"; the foundations of Christian scholasticism were laid by Boethius through his logical and theological essays, forerunners to scholasticism were Islamic Ilm al-Kalām "science of discourse", Jewish philosophy Jewish Kalam. The first significant renewal of learning in the West came with the Carolingian Renaissance of the Early Middle Ages. Charlemagne, advised by Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York, attracted the scholars of England and Ireland. By decree in AD 787, he established schools in every abbey in his empire; these schools, from which the name scholasticism is derived, became centers of medieval learning. During this period, knowledge of Ancient Greek had vanished in the West except in Ireland, where its teaching and use was dispersed in the monastic schools. Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court, where they were renowned for their learning. Among them was Johannes Scotus Eriugena, one of the founders of scholasticism.
Eriugena was the most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period and an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality. He had considerable familiarity with the Greek language and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers and the Greek theological tradition; the other three founders of scholasticism were the 11th-century scholars Peter Abelard, Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. This period saw the beginning of the'rediscovery' of many Greek works, lost to the Latin West; as early as the 10th century, scholars in Spain had begun to gather translated texts and, in the latter half of that century, began transmitting them to the rest of Europe. After a successful burst of Reconquista in the 12th century, Spain opened further for Christian scholars, as these Europeans encountered Islamic philosophy, they opened a wealth of Arab knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Scholars such as Adelard of Bath traveled to Spain and Sicily, translating works on astronomy and mathematics, including the first complete translation of Euclid's Elements into Latin.
At the same time, Anselm of Laon systematized the production of the gloss on Scripture, followed by the rise to prominence of dialectic in the work of Abelard. Peter Lombard produced a collection of Sentences, or opinions of the Church Fathers and other authorities The 13th and early 14th centuries are seen as the high period of scholasticism; the early 13th century witnessed the culmination of the recovery of Greek philosophy. Schools of translation grew up in Italy and Sicily, in the rest of Europe. Powerful Norman kings gathered men of knowledge from Italy and other areas into their courts as a sign of their prestige. William of Moerbeke's translations and editions of Greek philosophical texts in the middle half of the thirteenth century helped form a clearer picture of Greek philosophy of Aristotle, than was given by the Arabic versions on wh
Jacques Ellul was a French philosopher, lay theologian, professor, a noted Christian anarchist. Ellul was a longtime Professor of History and the Sociology of Institutions on the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences at the University of Bordeaux. A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propaganda, the impact of technology on society, the interaction between religion and politics; the dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology. Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. Considered by many a philosopher, Ellul was by training a sociologist who approached the question of technology and human action from a dialectical viewpoint, his constant concern was the emergence of a technological tyranny over humanity. As a philosopher and theologian, he further explored the religiosity of the technological society.
In 2000 the International Jacques Ellul Society was founded by a group of former Ellul students. The society, which includes scholars from a variety of disciplines, is devoted to continuing Ellul's legacy and discussing the contemporary relevance and implications of his work. Jacques Ellul was born in France, on January 6, 1912, to Marthe Mendes and Joseph Ellul; as a teenager he wanted to be a naval officer but his father made him study law. He married Yvette Lensvelt in 1937. Ellul was educated at the universities of Paris. In World War II, he was a leader in the French resistance. For his efforts to save Jews he was awarded the title Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem in 2001, he was a layman in the Reformed Church of France and attained a high position within it as part of the National Council. Ellul was best friends with Bernard Charbonneau, a writer from the Aquitaine region and a protagonist of the French personalism movement, they met through the Protestant Student Federation during the academic school year of 1929–1930.
Both men acknowledged. By the early 1930s, Ellul's three primary sources of inspiration were Karl Marx, Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Barth. Ellul was first introduced to the ideas of Karl Marx during an economics lecture course taught by Joseph Benzacar in 1929–30. During this same period, he came across the Christian existentialism of Kierkegaard. According to Ellul and Kierkegaard were his two greatest influences, the only two authors whose work he read in its entirety, he considered Karl Barth, a leader of the resistance against the German state church in World War II, the greatest theologian of the 20th century. In addition to these intellectual influences, Ellul said that his father played a great role in his life and considered him his role model; these ideological influences earned him vicious enemies. In large measure, in those of his books concerned with theological matters, Ellul restates the viewpoints held by Barth, whose polar dialectic of the Word of God, in which the Gospel both judges and renews the world, shaped Ellul's theological perspective.
In Jacques Ellul: A Systemic Exposition Darrell J. Fasching claimed Ellul believed "That which desacralizes a given reality, itself in turn becomes the new sacred reality". In 1932, after what he describes as "a brutal and sudden conversion", Ellul professed himself a Christian. Ellul believes he was about spending the summer with some friends in Blanquefort, France. While translating Faust alone in the house, Ellul knew he was in the presence of a something so astounding, so overwhelming, which entered the center of his being, he jumped on a bike and fled, concluding that he had been in the presence of God. This experience started the conversion process which Ellul said continued over a period of years thereafter, he was prominent in the worldwide ecumenical movement, although he became critical of the movement for what he felt were indiscriminate endorsements of political establishments of the Left. However, he was no friendlier in his assessment of those of the Right. Ellul has been credited with coining the phrase, "Think globally, act locally."
He said that he was born in Bordeaux by chance, but that it was by choice that he spent all his academic career there. On 19 May 1994, after a long illness, he died in his house in Pessac, just a mile or two from the University of Bordeaux campus and surrounded by those closest to him, his wife had died a few years prior, on 16 April 1991. While Ellul is most noted for his sociological work his discussions of technology, he saw his theological work as an essential aspect of his career, began publishing theological discussions early, with such books as The Presence of the Kingdom. Although a son of the minority French Reformed tradition and thus a spiritual heir of thinkers like John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli, Ellul departed from Reformed doctrinal traditions, but unlike other European Protestant thinkers, utterly rejected the influence of philosophical idealism or romanticism upon his beliefs about God and human faith. In articulating his theological ideas, he drew upon the corpus of works by the Swiss-German theologian Karl
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. His works are credited with developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism, his works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most he argued science could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. Although his practical ideas about such a method, the Baconian method, did not have a long-lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a sceptical methodology makes Bacon the father of the scientific method; this method was a new rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, the practical details of which are still central in debates about science and methodology. Bacon was a patron of libraries and developed a functional system for the cataloging of books by dividing them into three categories—history and philosophy—which could further be divided into more specific subjects and subheadings.
Bacon was educated at Trinity College, where he rigorously followed the medieval curriculum in Latin. Bacon was the first recipient of the Queen's counsel designation, conferred in 1597 when Queen Elizabeth reserved Bacon as her legal advisor. After the accession of King James I in 1603, Bacon was knighted, he was created Baron Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621; because he had no heirs, both titles became extinct upon his death at 65 years. Bacon died of pneumonia, with one account by John Aubrey stating that he had contracted the condition while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat, he is buried at St Michael's Church, St Albans, Hertfordshire. Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 at York House near the Strand in London, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his second wife, Anne Bacon, the daughter of the noted humanist Anthony Cooke, his mother's sister was married to 1st Baron Burghley, making Burghley Bacon's uncle. Biographers believe that Bacon was educated at home in his early years owing to poor health, which would plague him throughout his life.
He received tuition from a graduate of Oxford with a strong leaning toward Puritanism. He went up to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge on 5 April 1573 at the age of 12, living for three years there, together with his older brother Anthony Bacon under the personal tutelage of Dr John Whitgift, future Archbishop of Canterbury. Bacon's education was conducted in Latin and followed the medieval curriculum, he was educated at the University of Poitiers. It was at Cambridge that Bacon first met Queen Elizabeth, impressed by his precocious intellect, was accustomed to calling him "The young lord keeper", his studies brought him to the belief that the methods and results of science as practised were erroneous. His reverence for Aristotle conflicted with his rejection of Aristotelian philosophy, which seemed to him barren and wrong in its objectives. On 27 June 1576, he and Anthony entered de societate magistrorum at Gray's Inn. A few months Francis went abroad with Sir Amias Paulet, the English ambassador at Paris, while Anthony continued his studies at home.
The state of government and society in France under Henry III afforded him valuable political instruction. For the next three years he visited Blois, Tours and Spain. During his travels, Bacon studied language and civil law while performing routine diplomatic tasks. On at least one occasion he delivered diplomatic letters to England for Walsingham and Leicester, as well as for the queen; the sudden death of his father in February 1579 prompted Bacon to return to England. Sir Nicholas had laid up a considerable sum of money to purchase an estate for his youngest son, but he died before doing so, Francis was left with only a fifth of that money. Having borrowed money, Bacon got into debt. To support himself, he took up his residence in law at Gray's Inn in 1579, his income being supplemented by a grant from his mother Lady Anne of the manor of Marks near Romford in Essex, which generated a rent of £46. Bacon stated that he had three goals: to uncover truth, to serve his country, to serve his church.
He sought to further these ends by seeking a prestigious post. In 1580, through his uncle, Lord Burghley, he applied for a post at court that might enable him to pursue a life of learning, but his application failed. For two years he worked at Gray's Inn, until he was admitted as an outer barrister in 1582, his parliamentary career began when he was elected MP for Bossiney, Cornwall, in a by-election in 1581. In 1584 he took his seat in parliament for Melcombe in Dorset, in 1586 for Taunton. At this time, he began to write on the condition of parties in the church, as well as on the topic of philosophical reform in the lost tract Temporis Partus Maximus, yet he failed to gain a position. He showed signs of sympathy to Puritanism, attending the sermons of the Puritan chaplain of Gray's Inn and accompanying his mother to the Temple Church to hear Walter Travers; this led to the publication of his earliest surviving tract, which criticised the English church's suppression of the Puritan clergy. In the Parliament of 1586, he urged execution for the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots.
About this time, he again approached his powerful uncle for help. He became a bencher in 1586 and was elected a
Andrew Feenberg is an American philosopher. He holds the Canada Research Chair in the Philosophy of Technology in the School of Communication at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, his main interests are philosophy of technology, continental philosophy, critique of technology and science and technology studies. Feenberg studied philosophy under Herbert Marcuse at the University of California, San Diego and was awarded his PhD in 1972. During this time Feenberg was active in the New Left, founding a journal entitled Alternatives and participating in the May'68 events in Paris. Feenberg's primary contribution to the philosophy of technology is his argument for the democratic transformation of technology. From his book Transforming Technology, "What human beings are and will become is decided in the shape of our tools no less than in the action of statesmen and political movements; the design of technology is thus an ontological decision fraught with political consequences. The exclusion of the vast majority from participation in this decision is profoundly undemocratic".
Feenberg provides the theoretical foundation for this idea through the Critical Theory of Technology which he develops over three books: The Critical Theory of Technology, Alternative Modernity: The Technical Turn in Philosophy and Social Theory, Questioning Technology. The basis of Feenberg's critical theory of technology is a concept of dialectical technological rationality he terms instrumentalization theory. Instrumentalization theory combines the social critique of technology familiar from the philosophy of technology with insights taken from the empirical case studies of science and technology studies. Applications of his theory include studies of online education, the Minitel, the Internet, digital games. Feenberg has published books and articles on the philosophy of Herbert Marcuse, Martin Heidegger, Jürgen Habermas, Karl Marx, Georg Lukacs, Kitarō Nishida. Author Lukacs and the Sources of Critical Theory Critical Theory of Technology republished as Transforming Technology, see below.
Alternative Modernity Questioning Technology. Transforming Technology: A Critical Theory Revisited. Heidegger and Marcuse: The Catastrophe and Redemption of History. Between Reason and Experience: Essays in Technology and Modernity; the Philosophy of Praxis: Marx, Lukács and the Frankfurt School. Technosystem: The Social Life of Reason, Harvard University Press, 2017. Editor w/ R. Pippen & C. Webel, Marcuse: Critical Theory and the Promise of Utopia w/ A. Hannay and the Politics of Knowledge w/ T. Misa & P. Brey and Technology w/ D. Barney, Community in the Digital Age. W/ W. Leiss, The Essential Marcuse: Selected Writings of Philosopher and Social Critic Herbert Marcuse. Zachry, Mark. "An Interview with Andrew Feenberg", Technical Communication Quarterly, 16. Tyler Veak. "Democratizing Technology: Andrew Feenberg's Critical Theory of Technology. SUNY Press, 2006. Ricardo Neder. "A teoría crítica de Andrew Neder: racionalizacao democrática, poder e tecnología". Brasília: Observatório do Movimento pela Tecnologia Social na América Latina / CDS / UnB / Capes, 2010.
Darrell P. Arnold y Andreas Michel. "Critical Theory and the Thought of Andrew Feenberg". Palgrave MacMillan, 2017. Andrew Feenberg's homepage From Essentialism to Constructivism: Philosophy of Technology at the Crossroads online article by Andrew Feenberg discussing Heidegger and Borgmann. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology Vol 9 No 3 Special Review Section Devoted to Andrew Feenberg's book Heidegger and Marcuse: The Catastrophe and Redemption of History. Review of Community in the Digital Age by Arun Kumar Tripathi. From Information to Communication: The French Experience with Videotex online article by Andrew Feenberg discussing Minitel. Dr. Andrew Feenberg: Ten Paradoxes of Technology - on YouTube at Simon Fraser University The bursting boiler of digital education: critical pedagogy and philosophy of technology interview with Petar Jandrić. Andrew Feenberg in conversation with Laureano Ralón. Figure/Ground. August 18th, 2010
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of Vitruvian Man. By his own description Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices, he served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum and libratores who operated the machines. Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura, his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores". An inscription in Verona, which names a Lucius Vitruvius Cordo, an inscription from Thilbilis in North Africa, which names a Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra were from the same family.
Neither association, however, is borne out by De Architectura, nor by the little, known of Mamurra. Vitruvius was a military engineer, or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group, he is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's table of contents for Naturalis Historia, in the heading for mosaic techniques. Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu. Born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, Gnaeus Cornelius; these names vary depending on the edition of De architectura. Publius Minidius is written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea; as an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated; the locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes".
Although he describes places throughout De Architectura, he does not say. His service included north Africa, Hispania and Pontus. To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in The Military Institutions of the Romans: The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the, had a post of no small importance; the position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, the physicians who had the care of them, he had the charge of providing carriages and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, onagri and all the other engines of war under his direction; this post was always conferred on an officer of great skill and long service, and, capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.
At various locations described by Vitruvius and sieges occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to: the siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC; the broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC. The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, and the siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war, we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC, the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, the Battle of Zela of 47 BC and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar's African campaign. A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit. Known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.
Frontinus mentions him in connection with the standard sizes of pipes. He is credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of echeas placement in theaters; the only building, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a basi
Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.
Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a soaper and candlemaker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin, Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in 1635, her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.
Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling e