The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Black-figure pottery painting known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases. It was common between the 7th and 5th centuries BC, although there are specimens dating as late as the 2nd century BC. Stylistically it can be distinguished from the preceding orientalizing period and the subsequent red-figure pottery style. Figures and ornaments were painted on the body of the vessel using shapes and colors reminiscent of silhouettes. Delicate contours were incised into the paint before firing, details could be reinforced and highlighted with opaque colors white and red; the principal centers for this style were the commercial hub Corinth, Athens. Other important production sites are known to have been in Laconia, eastern Greece, Italy. In Italy individual styles developed which were at least in part intended for the Etruscan market. Greek black-figure vases were popular with the Etruscans, as is evident from frequent imports. Greek artists created customized goods for the Etruscan market which differed in form and decor from their normal products.
The Etruscans developed their own black-figure ceramic industry oriented on Greek models. Black-figure painting on vases was the first art style to give rise to a significant number of identifiable artists; some are known by their true names, others only by the pragmatic names they were given in the scientific literature. Attica was the home of well-known artists; some potters introduced a variety of innovations which influenced the work of the painters. Red- as well as black-figure vases are one of the most important sources of mythology and iconography, sometimes for researching day-to-day ancient Greek life. Since the 19th century at the latest, these vases have been the subject of intensive investigation; the foundation for pottery painting is the image carrier, in other words the vase onto which an image is painted. Popular shapes alternated with passing fashions. Whereas many recurred after intervals, others were replaced over time, but they all had a common method of manufacture: after the vase was made, it was first dried before being painted.
The workshops were under the control of the potters, who as owners of businesses had an elevated social position. The extent to which potters and painters were identical is uncertain, it is that many master potters themselves made their main contribution in the production process as vase painters, while employing additional painters. It is, not easy to reconstruct links between potters and painters. In many cases, such as Tleson and the Tleson Painter and the Amasis Painter or Nikosthenes and Painter N, it is impossible to make unambiguous attributions, although in much of the scientific literature these painters and potters are assumed to be the same person, but such attributions can only be made with confidence if the signatures of potter and painter are at hand. The painters, who were either slaves or craftsmen paid as pottery painters, worked on unfired, leather-dry vases. In the case of black-figure production the subject was painted on the vase with a clay slurry which turned black and glossy after firing.
This was not "paint" in the usual sense, since this surface slip was made from the same clay material as the vase itself, only differing in the size of the component particles, achieved during refining the clay before potting began. The area for the figures was first painted with a brush-like implement; the internal outlines and structural details were incised into the slip so that the underlying clay could be seen through the scratches. Two other earth-based pigments giving red and white were used to add details such as ornaments, clothing or parts of clothing, animal manes, parts of weapons and other equipment. White was frequently used to represent women’s skin; the success of all this effort could only be judged after a complicated, three-phase firing process which generated the red color of the body clay and the black of the applied slip. The vessel was fired in a kiln at a temperature of about 800 °C, with the resultant oxidization turning the vase a reddish-orange color; the temperature was raised to about 950 °C with the kiln's vents closed and green wood added to remove the oxygen.
The vessel turned an overall black. The final stage required the vents to be re-opened to allow oxygen into the kiln, allowed to cool down; the vessel returned to its reddish-orange colour due to renewed oxidization, while the now-sintered painted layer remained the glossy black color, created in the second stage. Although scoring is one of the main stylistic indicators, some pieces do without. For these, the form is technically similar to the orientalizing style, but the image repertoire no longer reflects orientalizing practice; the evolution of black-figure pottery painting is traditionally described in terms of various regional styles and schools. Using Corinth as the hub, there were basic differences in the productions of the individual regions if they did influence each other. In Attica, although not there, the best and most influential artists of their time characterized classical Greek pottery painting; the further development and quality of the vessels as image carrier are the subjects of this section.
The black-figure technique was developed around 700 BC in Corinth and used for the first time in the early 7th century BC by Proto-Corinthian pottery painters, who were still painting in the orientalizing style. The new technique was reminiscent
The Antimenes Painter was an Attic vase painter of the black-figure style, active between circa 530 and 510 BC. The real name of the Antimenes Painter is not known, it is derived from the Kalos inscription on a hydria in the archaeological museum of Leyden. Of the 150 works ascribed to him, the majority are standard amphorae. Most works attributed, he is considered to have been connected with the workshop of Andokides. He depicted the current repertoire of his period: the adventures of Herakles and his companions, chariot scenes, he varies the themes, his compositions are described as organised. His distinctive motifs are rather idyllic including smaller figurines subsidiary to the main narrative. Examples are a well scene on the aforementioned Leyden hydria and a depiction of the olive harvest on an amphora in the British Museum at London, his drawing style resembles that of Psiax. Nonetheless, he continued to use the black-figure technique, it is hard to associated painters from the Antimenes Painter.
Some examples of his works are striking in the fine and expressive quality of the drawing. John Boardman: Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen. Ein Handbuch, Mainz 1977, ISBN 3-8053-0233-9, p. 119f. Johannes Burow: Der Antimenesmaler, von Zabern, Mainz 1990 ISBN 3-8053-1029-3 The Getty Museum – Biography of the Antimenes Painter Johannes Burow. Der Antimenesmaler. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1989. ISBN 3-8053-1029-3 Antimenes Painter in the German National Library catalogue
Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft called the Pauly–Wissowa or RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. With its supplements it comprises over eighty volumes; the RE is a complete revision of an older series of which the first volume was published by August Pauly in 1839. Pauly died in 1845, his work unfinished; this first edition comprised six volumes. A second edition of the first volume was worked on from 1861 to 1866. In 1890 Georg Wissowa started on the more ambitious edition, he expected it to be done in 10 years, but the last of its 83 volumes did not appear until 1978, the index volume came out in 1980. Each article was written by a recognized specialist in the relevant field, but unsurprisingly for a work spanning three generations, the underlying assumptions vary radically with the age of the article. Many early biographies for instance were written by Elimar Klebs, Paul von Rohden, Friedrich Münzer and Otto Seeck; the price and size of Pauly–Wissowa have always been daunting, so between 1964 and 1975 the J. B.
Metzler’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung put out Der Kleine Pauly in five volumes. An updated version called Der Neue Pauly, consisting of 18 volumes and an index, appeared from 1996 to 2003. Between 2004 and 2012 seven supplement volumes appeared. An English edition, Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World was published between 2002 and 2014 in 28 volumes; the index to Pauly–Wissowa is available on CD-ROM. Apopudobalia Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines Lexicon Universale August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, Wilhelm Kroll, Kurt Witte, Karl Mittelhaus, Konrat Ziegler, eds. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft: neue Bearbeitung, Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894–1980. Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, eds. Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike. Das klassische Altertum und seine Rezeptionsgeschichte, Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 2003, 11611 pages. ISBN 3-476-01470-3. Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, Manfred Landfester, Christine F. Salazar, eds.
Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, Brill Publishers, 2006. ISBN 90-04-12259-1. RE at German Wikisource J. B. Metzler Verlag: info about Der Neue Pauly Internet Archive: many of the earlier volumes can be found online here Volumes of the old Pauly
The Edinburgh Painter was an Attic black-figure vase painter, active around 500 BC. His speciality was white-ground lekythoi painted in the black-figure style, his real name is unknown. His conventional name is derived from his name vase in Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland 1956.436. C. H. Emilie Haspels: Attic black-figured lekythoi, Paris 1936, p. 86-89. 215-221. John Beazley: Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters, Oxford 1956, p. 476-480. John Boardman: Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen. Ein Handbuch, Mainz 1977, ISBN 3-8053-0233-9, p. 159. Thomas Mannack: Haspels addenda: additional references to C. H. E. Haspels Attic black-figured Lekythoi. Oxford 2006. ISBN 0-19-726315-1, p. Vases by the Edinburgh Painter in Perseus
The Dodwell Painter was an ancient Corinthian vase painter in the black-figure style. He was active during the Late Corinthian periods; the Dodwell painter was one of the most important Corinthian vase painters of his time. He decorated pyxides and oinochoai, but neck amphorae and hydriai, he painted most of his vases with friezes of animals or horsemen. Of exceptional importance is a pyxis in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen at Munich, known as the Dodwell Pyxis. On the lid, it depicts the hunt for the Calydonian Boar as well as several other figures from Greek mythology not connected with that motif, including Agamemnon; the figures are named by added inscriptions, not all of which appear appropriate to the figures they accompany. Another important piece is at the Villa Giulia in Rome; the olpe depicts a frieze with several komasts dacing around a krater. His paintings show much routine, but lack precision. About 70 vases are ascribed to him. They, too painted pyxides and oinochoai with animal friezes.
Additionally, several successors were influenced by the Dodwell Painter. Thomas Mannack: Griechische Vasenmalerei. Eine Einführung. Theiss, Stuttgart 2002, p. 101 ISBN 3-8062-1743-2
Euthymides was an ancient Athenian potter and painter of vases active between 515 and 500 BC. He was a member of the Greek art movement to be known as "The Pioneers" for their exploration of the new decorative style known as red-figure pottery. Euthymides was the teacher of the Kleophrades Painter. Euthymides was admired for his portrayal of human movement and studies of perspective, his painted figures being amongst the first to show foreshortened limbs, he was more minimalist than others in the movement, his tendency was to draw few figures, only overlap them. His works were inscribed "Euthymides painted me". Euthymides was a rival of his fellow Athenian Euphronios, one of his amphorae is additionally marked with the playful taunt "hos oudepote Euphronios", words which have been variously interpreted as "as never Euphronios ", or "this wasn't one of Euphronios". Only eight vessels signed by Euthymides survive, six signed as painter, two as potter, his most famous work is The Revelers Vase, an amphora depicting three men partying.
They are drunk. An unsigned two-handled amphora is attributed to the "circle of Euthymides". Further Reading: Philippe de Montebello; the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. External Links: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, a collection catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art containing information on Euthymides Neils, J: Phintias and Euthymides Euthymides' vase in the Louvre collection