Locris was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts. The city of Locri in Calabria, known in antiquity as Epizephyrian Locris, was a founded by the Locrians in Magna Graecia. There is some disagreement over whether it was those from Opuntian Locris or from Ozolian Locris who were responsible, the territory of the Locrians was divided into three by Doris and Phocis, perhaps due to an early invasion of a contiguous Locrian state. This fact, combined with the regions infertility, meant that the Locrians tended to be dominated by their neighbours, to the south-west of Phocis was Ozolian Locris, situated on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, between Naupactus and Crisa. The main cities of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus which was its seaport, to the north east of Phocis was Opuntian Locris, named after its main city, Opus. Finally, to the north of Phocis was Epicnemidian Locris, situated near the pass of Thermopylae, the territories of the Opuntian Locri and the Epicnemidian Locri were not a continuous unit but were separated from one another by Phocis The main towns of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus.
Today, the area is part of Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis, the main towns of Opuntia Locris were Opus and Larymna. Today, Opuntian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, main article, Epicnemidian Locris The main towns of Epicnemidian Locris were Nicaea and Thronium. Today, Epicnemidian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, the province of Locris was one of the provinces of the Phthiotis Prefecture. Its capital was the town Atalanti and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Amfikleia-Elateia and Molos-Agios Konstantinos
The Locrians were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Locris in Central Greece, around Parnassus. They spoke the Locrian dialect, a Doric-Northwest dialect, and were related to their neighbouring tribes, the Phocians. In Greek mythology, the Locrians were the descendants of Locrus, great-grandson of Deucalion and Pyrrha, according to some traditions, Deucalion was a native of the Locrian city of Opus, thus the Locrians are said to have been the first tribe to be called Hellenes. The Locrians are said to have arrived in southern Greece in the late 2nd millennium BC from their homeland on Pindus, in historical times, the Locrians were divided into two distinct tribes, differing from each other in customs and civilization. It is likely that Locrian territory once extended from sea to sea, the most famous colony of the Locrian tribe was the city of Epizephyrian Locri, founded in the 7th century BC in Magna Græcia, which exists until today as Locri. According to Strabo the founders were the Ozolian Locrians, from the region of Amphissa, in the 6th century BC, the Locrians had a series of conflicts with the neighbouring tribes.
Only the Opuntian Locrians are mentioned by Homer, they were the more ancient and the more civilized. The Ozolian Locrians, who are said to have been a colony of the former, are not mentioned in history until the time of the Peloponnesian War, and are even represented as a semi-barbarous people. That was the last mention of the Ozolian Locrians, as they suffered the defeat from Corinth later, the Locrians around Thermopylae were the first to have been called Hellenes. Later the name expanded to include the other Greek tribes through the Amphictionia of Delphi, to which they belonged, and their religion. The most famous of their heroes were Ajax the Locrian, best known as Ajax the Lesser, son of Oileus, in the Greek mythology, the Locrians are closely related to the Phocians and Eleans. Although the Locrians hardly viewed men and women as equals, women held special religious rights, Locrian women became the vehicles for the transmission of status, and marriage maintained the social order of a traditional oligarchy.
The national hero of the Locrians was Ajax the Locrian, who led the 40 Locrian ships to Troy, Locrians respected him so much, that after his death they kept a place for him in their phalanx, thinking that he will always fight with them. On the other side, Ajaxs actions resulted in his death according to Greek mythology, after the fall of Troy, he raped Cassandra in the temple of Athena, where she had taken refuge as a supplicant. For this crime, Poseidon wrecked the ship of Ajax on the coast of Euboea and Ajax was killed by a lightning bolt. After their death, they would not be given a decent burial, while for each maiden who died, another one must be sent into the temple by night, and she would be stoned to death if seen. The goddess is referred to as Athena Ilias, a not necessarily derived from Ilion, but maybe from the family deity Oileus, the father of Ajax. According to Apollodorus, after the command of the Delphic oracle, after their death, they were replaced, while the tribute ended after a thousand years with the end of the Phocian War, which destroyed Naryca, the town that supplied the maidens
Desfina is a town and a former municipality in the southern part of Phocis, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Delphi, the municipal unit has an area of 148.992 km2. At the 2011 census, its population was 1,988 and it is situated on a plateau at 680m elevation,5 km from the Corinthian Gulf. It is 7 km southeast of Delphi,9 km east of Itea and 30 km west of Livadeia, ruins near Desfina have been identified as those of the ancient towns Echedameia and Medeon. Both towns were destroyed by King Philip II of Macedon around 355-346 BC during the Third Sacred War and were never rebuilt, Isaias gave the signal for the beginning of revolution of Central Greece at the region of Prophet Daniel. His residence is found in Desfina and has converted to a museum. A large employer in the area of Desfina is Aluminium of Greece, the locals were mainly sustained by animal breeding. The most important traditional products in the region are bakery products and oil, grapes and wine, cheese products, the Christmas and the Easter are celebrated with particular way mainly in villages and small town.
Desfina is a town where the customs, the traditions and the feasts are still kept to a large extent, the most important festivities take place in August. The most important event is the feast of the Dormition of the Virgin Mary, there are several historical monuments and temples in Desfina as well as the central square which dates back to the 19th century. The square of Desfina is encircled by traditional cafes and taverns which offer a view of Mount Parnassos, the choir of Desfina, founded in 1999, consists of an adults and a childrens section. There are two clubs in Desfina, Isaias Desfina, founded in 1973, and Doxa Desfina
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
European route E65
European route E65 is a north-south Class-A European route that begins in Malmö, Sweden and ends in Chaniá, Greece. The road is about 4,400 km in length, the existing magistral road that goes via Podgorica through the town of Bijelo Polje continues northwards through western Serbia as E763, away from the direction of Pristina. Instead the route needs to turn to the east some 5 km before Bijelo Polje, after that, at Rožaje, the route winds slightly northwards again, goes through western Serbia near Tutin, and enters Kosovo near Kosovska Mitrovica. Formerly, before 1985, this was the E14, ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, the two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states
Mount Parnassus is a mountain of limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. According to Greek mythology, this mountain was sacred to Dionysus and the Dionysian mysteries, it was sacred to Apollo and the Corycian nymphs. The mountain was favored by the Dorians, there is a theory that Parna- derives from the same root as that which appears in the Luwian word for House. Parnassus is one of the largest mountainous regions of Mainland Greece and it spreads over three municipalities, namely of Boeotia and Phocis, where lies its largest part. Its altitude is 2,547 meters and its highest peak is Liakouras, to the Northeast it is connected to Giona and to the south with Kirphe. Its name is due to the hero of the Greek mythology, son of Cleopompus and Cleodora. Etymological analysis, shows an origin of the name. The mountain is delimited to the east by the valley of the Boeotian Kephissus, the geological particularity of Parnassus is its rich deposits of bauxite, which has led to their systematic mining since the end of the 1930s, resulting in ecological damage to part of the mountain.
Mount Parnassus is named after Parnassos, the son of the nymph Kleodora, a city, of which Parnassos was leader, was flooded by torrential rains. The citizens ran from the flood, following wolves howling, up the mountain slope, there the survivors built another city, and called it Lykoreia, which in Greek means the howling of the wolves. While Orpheus was living with his mother and his eight beautiful aunts on Parnassus, Apollo became fond of Orpheus and gave him a little golden lyre, and taught him to play it. Orpheuss mother taught him to make verses for singing, as the Oracle of Delphi was sacred to the god Apollo, so did the mountain itself become associated with Apollo. As the home of the Muses, Parnassus became known as the home of poetry, Parnassus was the site of several unrelated minor events in Greek mythology. In some versions of the Greek flood myth, the ark of Deucalion comes to rest on the slopes of Parnassus and this is the version of the myth recounted in Ovids Metamorphoses.
Orestes spent his time in hiding on Mount Parnassus, Parnassus was sacred to the god Dionysus. The Corycian Cave, located on the slopes of Parnassus, was sacred to Pan, in Book 19 of The Odyssey, Odysseus recounts a story of how he was gored in the thigh during a boar hunt on Mount Parnassus in his youth. Parnassus was the home of Pegasus, the horse of Bellerophon. This relation of the mountain to the Muses offered an instigation to its more recent mystification, the periodical Modern Parnassus issued for the first time by Catul Mendes and Xavier Ricard contained direct references to Mt. Parnassus and its mythological feature as habitation of the Muses
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Beotia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece and it was a region of ancient Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, and its largest city is Thebes, Boeotia lies to the north of the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. It has a coastline on the Gulf of Euboea. It bordered on Megaris in the south, Attica in the southeast, Euboea in the northeast, Opuntian Locris in the north and Phocis in the west. The main mountain ranges of Boeotia are Mount Parnassus in the west, Mount Helicon in the southwest, Cithaeron in the south and its longest river, the Cephissus, flows in the central part, where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia are found. Lake Copais was a lake in the center of Boeotia. It was drained in the 19th century, lake Yliki is a large lake near Thebes. The earliest inhabitants of Boeotia, associated with the city of Orchomenus, were called Minyans, pausanias mentions that Minyans established the maritime Ionian city of Teos, and occupied the islands of Lemnos and Thera.
The Argonauts were sometimes referred to as Minyans, according to legend the citizens of Thebes paid an annual tribute to their king Erginus. The early wealth and power of Boeotia is shown by the reputation and visible Mycenean remains of several of its cities, especially Orchomenus, the origin of the name Boeotians may lie in the mountain Boeon in Epirus. Some toponyms and the common Aeolic dialect indicate that the Boeotians were related to the Thessalians and they moved south and settled in another rich plain, while others filtered across the Aegean and settled on Lesbos and in Aeolis in Asia Minor. Others are said to have stayed in Thessaly, withdrawing into the hill country, many ancient Greek legends originated or are set in this region. The older myths took their form during the Mycenean age when the Mycenean Greeks established themselves in Boeotia. Many of them are related to the myths of Argos, and others indicate connections with Phoenicia, Boeotia was notable for the ancient oracular shrine of Trophonius at Lebadea.
Graea, an ancient city in Boeotia, is thought to be the origin of the Latin word Graecus, from which English derives the words Greece. The major poets Hesiod and Pindar were Boeotians, on the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development. The importance of the legendary Minyae has been confirmed by archaeological remains, the Boeotian population entered the land from the north possibly before the Dorian invasion
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of the oracle that was consulted on important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. Moreover, it was considered as the navel of the world by the Greeks as represented by the Omphalos and it occupies an impressive site on the south-western slope of Mount Parnassus overlooking the coastal plain to the south and the valley of Phocis. It is now an archaeological site and the modern town is nearby. The site of Delphi is located in upper central Greece, on multiple plateaux/terraces along the slope of Mount Parnassus, and includes the Sanctuary of Apollo and this semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades, and overlooks the Pleistos Valley. In myths dating to the period of Ancient Greece, the site of Delphi was believed to be determined by Zeus when he sought to find the centre of his Grandmother Earth. He sent two eagles flying from the eastern and western extremities, and the path of the eagles crossed over Delphi where the omphalos, Apollo was said to have slain Python, a drako a serpent or a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth.
Python is claimed by some to be the name of the site in recognition of Python which Apollo defeated. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa, others relate that it was named Pytho and that Pythia, the priestess serving as the oracle, was chosen from their ranks by a group of priestesses who officiated at the temple. At the settlement site in Delphi, which was a settlement of the late 9th century. Pottery and bronze work as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, the victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown which was ceremonially cut from a tree by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python. Delphi was set apart from the other sites because it hosted the mousikos agon. These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and these games, were different from the games at Olympia in that they were not of such vast importance to the city of Delphi as the games at Olympia were to the area surrounding Olympia.
Delphi would have been a renowned city whether or not it hosted these games, it had other attractions that led to it being labeled the omphalos of the earth, in other words, in the inner hestia of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. The name Delphoi comes from the root as δελφύς delphys, womb. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, the epithet is connected with dolphins in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The Homeric name of the oracle is Pytho, another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly, to pick laurel which he considered to be a sacred plant. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel picked in the Temple, Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle.
Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger, according to Plutarchs essay on the meaning of the E at Delphi—the only literary source for the inscription—there was inscribed at the temple a large letter E
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density