Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
The Arizona Diamondbacks shortened as the D-backs, are an American professional baseball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. The club competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the National League West division; the team has played every home game in franchise history at Chase Field known as Bank One Ballpark. The Diamondbacks have won one World Series championship – becoming the fastest expansion team in the Major Leagues to win a championship, which it did in only the fourth season since the franchise's inception, they remain the only professional men's sports team from Arizona to have won a championship title. On March 9, 1995, Phoenix was awarded an expansion franchise to begin play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were voted into the National League; the Diamondbacks' first major league game was played against the Colorado Rockies on March 31, 1998, at Bank One Ballpark. The ballpark was renamed Chase Field in 2005, as a result of Bank One Corporation's merger with JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five NL West division titles, one NL pennant, one Wild Card game, the 2001 World Series. The Diamondbacks' original colors were purple, black and copper, their first logo was an italicized block letter "A" with a diamond pattern, the crossbar represented by a snake's tongue. Prior to their inaugural season, they released their baseball caps; the home cap had a cream color crown with a purple button. The road cap had a turquoise visor and button, their alternate cap had a turquoise crown with a purple button. Depending on the cap, the "A" logo on the front of the cap had different color variations. In the Diamondbacks' second season, they introduced a new logo, a copper color snake in the shape of a letter "D", it was used on a solid black cap. The franchise unveiled new uniforms and colors of Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black on November 8, 2006; the red shade is named for the sandstone canyon at Red Rock State Park near Sedona, while the beige shade is named for the Sonoran Desert.
A sleeve patch was added featuring a lowercase. The team kept the "D" logo, but was altered and put on an all red cap to be used as their game cap, they kept the "A" logo with the new colors applied to it, with a solid black cap used as the alternate cap. A similar color scheme is used by the Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League. Prior to the 2016 season, the Diamondbacks reincorporated teal into its color scheme while keeping Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black, they unveiled eight different uniform combinations, including two separate home white and away grey uniforms. One major difference between the two sets is that the non-teal uniforms feature a snakeskin pattern on the shoulders, while the teal-trimmed uniforms include a charcoal/grey snakeskin pattern on the back. Arizona kept the throwback pinstriped sleeveless uniforms from their 2001 championship season for use during Thursday home games; the primary television play-by-play voice for the team's first nine seasons of play was Thom Brennaman, who broadcasts baseball and college football games nationally for Fox Television.
Brennaman was the TV announcer for the Chicago Cubs and Cincinnati Reds before being hired by Diamondbacks founder Jerry Colangelo in 1996, two years before the team would begin play. In October 2006, Brennaman left the Diamondbacks to call games with his father for the Reds beginning in 2007, signing a four-year deal; the English language flagship radio station is KTAR. Greg Schulte is the regular radio play-by-play voice, a 25-year veteran of sports radio in the Phoenix market well known for his previous work on Phoenix Suns, Arizona Cardinals and Arizona State University broadcasts. Jeff Munn is a backup radio play-by-play announcer, he is well known to many Phoenix area sports fans, having served as the public address announcer for the Suns at America West Arena in the 1990s. He is the play-by-play radio voice for ASU women's basketball. On November 1, 2006, the team announced that the TV voice of the Milwaukee Brewers since 2002, Daron Sutton, would be hired as the Diamondbacks primary TV play-by-play voice.
Sutton was signed to a five-year contract with a team option for three more years. Sutton is considered one of the best of the younger generation of baseball broadcasters, his signature chants include "let's get some runs". Sutton's father is Hall of current Atlanta Braves broadcaster Don Sutton. Former Diamondbacks and Chicago Cubs first baseman Mark Grace and former Major League knuckleball pitcher Tom Candiotti were the Diamondbacks primary color analysts for the 2006 and 2007 seasons. Former Diamondbacks third baseman Matt Williams did color commentary on occasion, as did former Cardinals and NBC broadcast legend Joe Garagiola, Sr. a longtime Phoenix-area resident and father of Joe Garagiola, Jr. the first GM of the Diamondbacks. The Diamondbacks announced in July 2007 that for the 2008 season, all regionally broadcast Diamondbacks TV games will be shown on Fox Sports Arizona, a few could be shown on the national Fox
1966 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1966 throughout the world. World Series: Baltimore Orioles over Los Angeles Dodgers. Williams receives 282 of a possible 302 votes. February 28 – Seeking an unprecedented three-year $1.05 million to be divided evenly, the Los Angeles Dodgers pitchers Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale begin a joint holdout. March 5 – In what will prove to be one of the more influential off-the-field events in Major League history, United Steelworkers union official Marvin Miller is elected the Executive Director of the Major League Baseball Players Association. Under Miller's guidance, the players' union will make major gains such as salary increases, improvements in pension benefits, the advent of free agency and salary arbitration. Miller will occupy his position from 1966 to 1982, as the players' union was transformed into one of the strongest unions in the United States. March 8 – The Special Veterans Committee waives Hall of Fame election rules and inducts Casey Stengel retired manager of the New York Mets.
March 17 – Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale escalate their threat of retirement by signing movie contracts. On March 30, they will end their 32-day holdout, signing for $105,000 respectively. April 3 – USC pitcher Tom Seaver signs with the New York Mets, he had been drafted by the Braves, but they had signed him to a minor league contract while he was still in college. This voided Seaver's remaining eligibility, voided the contract; the Mets won a special lottery over Philadelphia to win the right to sign him. April 11 – Emmett Ashford takes the field to officiate a 5–2 Washington Senators win over the Cleveland Indians at Washington, to become the first African-American umpire in Major League history. April 12 – Over 50,000 fans show up at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium to watch the Braves first home game in Atlanta; the Braves fall to the Pittsburgh Pirates in 13 innings, 3–2. April 19 - The California Angels play their first regular-season game in their new ballpark, Anaheim Stadium, in front of 31,660 fans.
White Sox pitcher Tommy John is the 3-2 winner, Marcelino Lopez takes the loss for the home team. The Angels' Rick Reichardt scores the first run, with a 1-out solo home run in the bottom of the 2nd inning. May 7 – One day after the New York Yankees' record falls to 4–16, general manager Ralph Houk fires Johnny Keane as manager and returns to manage the team himself. Dan Topping, Jr. replaces Houk as general manager. Houk had managed the Yankees to three consecutive American League pennants from 1961 to 1963 and a World Series title during the first two of those years, but his second stint will have a far less than successful beginning, their talent and farm system both depleted, the Yankees, after finishing in sixth place in 1965, will finish dead last—their first time doing so since 1912. May 8 The San Francisco Giants trade first baseman/outfielder Orlando Cepeda to the St. Louis Cardinals for pitcher Ray Sadecki. Cepeda will go on to win the National League Most Valuable Player award in 1967 on the Cardinals' World Championship team.
That same day, the Giants defeat the Cardinals 10–5 in the final game at the old Busch Stadium. Frank Robinson of the Baltimore Orioles hits what will be the only home run hit out of Memorial Stadium; the shot comes against Luis Tiant in the first inning of the Orioles' 8-3 victory in the second game of a doubleheader against the Cleveland Indians. May 12 – With 46,048 spectators in attendance for the first game at the new Busch Memorial Stadium, the St. Louis Cardinals defeated the Atlanta Braves in 12 innings, 4–3, behind a single RBI by Lou Brock. Braves outfielder Felipe Alou delivered a pair of home runs. May 14 – The San Francisco Giants' Willie Mays hits his National League record 512th home run – topping another Giant, Mel Ott. San Francisco beat 6 -- 1, at Candlestick Park. June 7 – The Kansas City Athletics use the second overall pick to draft Arizona State outfielder Reggie Jackson. June 9 – At Metropolitan Stadium, the Minnesota Twins rock the Kansas City Athletics, 9–4, with five home runs off the bats of Rich Rollins, Zoilo Versalles, Tony Oliva, Don Mincher and Harmon Killebrew in the seventh inning.
These five home runs still stand as a Major League record for the most home runs batted in a single inning, were hit off starter Catfish Hunter, reliever Paul Lindblad, reliever John Wyatt. June 10 – Sonny Siebert of the Cleveland Indians no-hits the Washington Senators 2–0 at Cleveland Stadium; the no-hitter is the first by an Indian since Bob Feller's third career no-hitter, in 1951. July 3 – Atlanta pitcher Tony Cloninger hits two grand slams in a game against the Giants, his nine RBI in a game is a record for pitchers. July 9 – Astroturf is installed in the Astrodome ou
Willie Lee McCovey was an American Major League Baseball first baseman. Known as "Stretch" during his playing days, also nicknamed "Mac" and "Willie Mac," he is best known for his long tenure as one of the sport's greatest stars with the San Francisco Giants. Over a 22-year career between 1959 and 1980 he played 19 seasons with the Giants and three more for the San Diego Padres and Oakland Athletics. A fearsome left-handed hitter, he was a six time All-Star, three-time home run champion, MVP, was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1986 in his first year of eligibility, only the 16th man so honored at that time. McCovey was known as a dead-pull line drive hitter, causing some teams to employ a shift against him. Seventh on baseball's all-time home run list when he retired, McCovey was called "the scariest hitter in baseball" by pitcher Bob Gibson, seconded by feared slugger Reggie Jackson. McCovey lashed 521 home runs, 231 launched in Candlestick Park, the most there by any player. One on September 16, 1966 was described as the longest hit in that stadium.
McCovey was born in Mobile, the seventh child of ten born to Frank McCovey, a railroad worker, Esther. He began working part time at the age of 12 and dropped out of high school without graduating in order to work full time. Despite being passed on by scout Ed Scott, who signed Hank Aaron for the Negro American League Indianapolis Clowns, McCovey was invited to a New York Giants tryout camp in Melbourne, Florida while he was living and working in Los Angeles; the invitation came from former Negro League owner Alex Pompez. On his way to the Major Leagues, McCovey played for a San Francisco Giants' farm club in Dallas, Texas, part of the Class AA Southern League, he did not participate when his team played in Shreveport, Louisiana due to segregation in that city. He played for the Pacific Coast League Phoenix Giants just prior to being called up by the San Francisco Giants. In his Major League debut on July 30, 1959, McCovey went four-for-four against Hall-of-Famer Robin Roberts of the Philadelphia Phillies with two singles and two triples.
In 52 major league games, he had 13 home runs. He was named the National League's Rookie of the Year, he won the NL Player of the Month Award in August, his first full month in the majors. He had a 22-game hitting streak, setting the mark for San Francisco Giants rookies, four short of the all-time team record. Three years McCovey helped the Giants to the 1962 World Series against the New York Yankees, the only World Series appearance of his career. In the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7, with two outs and the Giants trailing 1–0, Willie Mays was on second base and Matty Alou was on third base. Any base hit would have won the championship for the Giants. McCovey hit a hard line drive, snared by the Yankees' second baseman Bobby Richardson, ending the series with a Yankees' win; the moment was immortalized in two Peanuts comic strips by Charles M. Schulz; the first ran on December 22, 1962, with Charlie Brown sitting silently alongside Linus for three panels before lamenting, "Why couldn't McCovey have hit the ball just three feet higher?"
The second, from January 28, 1963, featured Charlie Brown breaking an identical extended silence by crying, "Or why couldn't McCovey have hit the ball two feet higher?" 26 years on the occasion of his Hall of Fame election, McCovey was asked how he would like his career to be remembered. “As the guy who hit the ball over Bobby Richardson’s head in the seventh game,” replied McCovey. McCovey spent many years at the heart of the Giants' batting order, along with fellow Hall-of-Famer Willie Mays, his best year statistically was 1969, when he hit 45 home runs, had 126 RBI and batted.320 to become the National League MVP. He won NL Player of the Month awards in July 1963 and August 1969. In 1963 he and Hank Aaron tied for the NL lead with 44 home runs. In the early years of Candlestick Park, the Giants home stadium, the area behind right field was open except for three small bleacher sections; when McCovey came to bat those bleachers would empty as the fans positioned themselves on the flat ground, hoping to catch a McCovey home run ball.
On October 23, 1973, the Giants traded McCovey and Bernie Williams to the San Diego Padres for Mike Caldwell. The Giants gave McCovey input into his destination. McCovey played in 128 games in 1974 and 122 games in 1975, he hit 22 home runs in 1974 and 23 in 1975. In 1976, McCovey struggled, lost the starting first base job to Mike Ivie, he batted.203 with seven home runs in 71 games. Near the end of the season, the Oakland Athletics purchased his contract from the Padres, he played in eleven games for them. McCovey returned to the Giants in 1977 without a guaranteed contract, but he earned a position on the team. With Hank Aaron and Frank Robinson having retired at the end of the 1976 season with 755 and 586 home runs McCovey began 1977 as the active home run leader with 465; that year, during a June 27 game against the Cincinnati Reds, he became the first player to hit two home runs in one inning twice in his career, a feat since accomplished by Andre Dawson, Jeff King, Alex Rodriguez, Edwin Encarnacion.
One was a grand slam and he became the first National Leaguer to hit seventeen. At age 39, he was named the Comeback Player of the Year. On June 30, 1978, at Atlanta's Fulton County Stadium, McCovey hit his 500th home run, two years on May 3, 1980, at Montreal's Olympic Stadium, McCovey hit his 521st and last home run, of
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a Minor League Baseball league operating in the Western and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, one grade below Major League Baseball, it is named the Pacific Coast League of Professional Baseball Clubs, Inc. Its headquarters are in Texas. Upon its founding in 1903, the Pacific Coast League fielded six teams from the Pacific States of California and Washington. Today, the league is composed of 16 teams across 12 states stretching from Sacramento, California, to Nashville and from Tacoma, Washington, to New Orleans, Louisiana; the PCL was one of the premier regional baseball leagues in the first half of the 20th century. Although it was never recognized as a true major league, to which it aspired, its quality of play was considered high. A number of top stars of the era, including Joe DiMaggio and Ted Williams, were products of the league. In 1958, with the arrival of major league teams on the west coast and the availability of televised major league games, the PCL's modern era began with each team signing Player Development Contracts to become farm teams of major league clubs.
A league champion is determined at the end of every season. The San Francisco Seals won 14 Pacific Coast League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Los Angeles Angels and the Albuquerque Dukes and Portland Beavers. After the season, the PCL champion plays in the Triple-A National Championship Game against the International League champion to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball; the Omaha Storm Chasers and Sacramento River Cats have each won two national championships, more than any other PCL teams. The Pacific Coast League was formed on December 29, 1902, when officials from the California State League met in San Francisco for the purpose of expanding the league beyond California. Six franchises were granted; these were the Los Angeles Angels, Oakland Oaks, Portland Beavers, Sacramento Senators, San Francisco Seals, Seattle Indians. A dispute over territories owned by the Pacific Northwest League, in which the PCL had placed franchises, the PCL's allowing blacklisted players to compete led to the National Association labeling the PCL as an outlaw league.
The mild climate of the West Coast California, allowed the league to play longer seasons, sometimes starting in late February and ending as late as the beginning of December. During the 1905 season the San Francisco Seals set the all-time PCL record by playing 230 games. Teams played between 170 and 200 games in a season until the late 1950s; this allowed players, who were career minor leaguers, to hone their skills, earn an extra month or two of pay, reduce the need to find off-season work. These longer seasons gave owners the opportunity to generate more revenue. Another outcome was that a number of the all-time minor league records for season statistical totals are held by players from the PCL; the inaugural 1903 season, which consisted of over 200 scheduled games for each team, began on March 26. The Los Angeles Angels finished the season in first place with a 133–78 record, making them the first league champions. In 1904, National Association President Patrick T. Powers brokered terms with the PCL, clearing it of its outlaw status and designating it as a Class A league.
In 1909, the league classification was raised to Double-A. In 1919, with the earlier addition of the Salt Lake Bees and Vernon Tigers, league membership reached eight teams for the first time. While the league had experienced little commercial success up to this point, the 1920s were a turning point which saw increased attendance and teams fielding star players; the Great Depression of the 1930s resulted in a lower quality of play due to the league's salary reduction. Still, a number of top stars, including Joe DiMaggio, Ted Williams, Bobby Doerr, Ox Eckhardt, competed on PCL teams that decade. Helping attendance was the introduction of night games. At Sacramento's Moreing Field, the Sacramento Solons and the Oakland Oaks played the first night baseball game, five years before any major league night game, on June 10, 1930; the Hollywood Stars and San Diego Padres were added to the league in the 1930s as well. During the first half of the 20th century, the Pacific Coast League developed into one of the premier regional baseball leagues.
The cities enfranchised by the other two high-minor leagues, the International League and the American Association, were coordinated geographically with the major leagues, but such was not the case with the PCL. With no major league baseball team existing west of St. Louis, the PCL was unrivaled for American west coast baseball. Although it was never recognized as a true major league, its quality of play was considered high. Drawing from a strong pool of talent in the area, the PCL produced many outstanding players, including such future major-league Hall of Famers as Joe DiMaggio, Ted Williams, Tony Lazzeri, Paul Waner, Earl Averill, Bobby Doerr, Joe Gordon, Ernie Lombardi. Amid success experienced after World War II, league President Pants Rowland began to envision the PCL as a third major league. During 1945 the league voted to become a major league. However, the American League and National League were uninterested in allowing it to join their ranks. While many PCL players went on to play in the major leagues, teams in the league were successful enough that they could offer competitive salaries to avoid being outbid for their players' services.
Some players made a career out of the minor leagues. One of the better known was Frank Shellenback, whose major league pitching career was brief, but