United Arab Emirates
In 2013, the UAEs population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on 2 December 1971, the constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by a monarch, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates, Islam is the official religion of the UAE and Arabic is the official language. The UAEs oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the worlds seventeenth-largest, Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure. The UAEs economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas.
The UAE is criticised for its rights record, including the specific interpretations of Sharia used in its legal system. The UAEs rising international profile has led analysts to identify it as a regional. It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years, there is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, in ancient times, Al Hasa was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast, in 637, Julfar was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire. The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tuam and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, a monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island.
Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD and it forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD. This led to a group of travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids. Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory with the battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost
An electric vehicle, referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. EVs include road and rail vehicles and underwater vessels, electric aircraft, in the 21st century, EVs saw a resurgence due to technological developments and an increased focus on renewable energy. Government incentives to increase adoptions were introduced, including in the United States, around the same period, early experimental electrical cars were moving on rails, too. American blacksmith and inventor Thomas Davenport built a toy electric locomotive, powered by an electric motor. In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built a locomotive that attained a speed of four miles per hour. In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, between 1832 and 1839, Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines.
Switzerlands lack of fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries - the nickel-iron battery - was favored by Edison for use in electric cars and they were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit Electric, and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In fact, in 1900,28 percent of the cars on the road in the USA were electric, EVs were so popular that even President Woodrow Wilson and his secret service agents toured Washington DC in their Milburn Electrics, which covered 60–70 mi per charge. A number of developments contributed to decline of electric cars, as roads were improved outside urban areas electric vehicle range could not compete with the ICE. Finally, the initiation of production of gasoline-powered vehicles by Henry Ford in 1913 reduced significantly the cost of gasoline cars as compared to electric cars. In January 1990, General Motors President introduced its EV concept two-seater and that September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998.
From 1996 to 1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s,800 of which were available through three-year leases. Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda and Toyota produced limited numbers of EVs for California drivers, in 2003, upon the expiration of GMs EV1 leases, GM crushed them. A movie made on the subject in 2005-2006 was titled Who Killed the Electric Car. Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market. Honda and Toyota repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, after public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers, they sold at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price. This lesson did not go unlearned, BMW of Canada sold off a number of Mini EVs when their Canadian testing ended, the production of the Citroën Berlingo Electrique stopped in September 2005
A flatbed truck is a type of truck which can be either articulated or rigid. As the name suggests, its bodywork is just an entirely flat, a flatbed has a solid bed, usually of wooden planks. There is no roof and no fixed sides, to retain the load there are often low sides which may be hinged down for loading, as a drop-side truck. A stake truck has no sides but has steel upright pillars, loads are retained by being manually tied down with ropes. The bed of a truck has tie-down hooks around its edge. Weather protection is provided by manually sheeting the load with a tarpaulin. These manual loading techniques are slow and require care and skill. There is the risk that an improperly secured load may be shed in transit, there is little theft protection for such a load. The slowness of loading loads like this led to the development of more efficient truck designs with enclosed bodies, some improvement was made with the general replacement of ropes by flat webbing straps, tightened with a ratchet.
These reduced the skill of roping up and improved the control of tension, containers are carried on specialised semi-trailers with twistlocks in the corners to retain the container. Pallet loads are carried in either box bodies, loaded through rear doors, both of these protect loads from the weather and can be quickly loaded with standard loads, but are more restrictive for single bulky loads, loaded by crane. Flatbeds are still in use, but are now used for more specialised cargoes, such as constructional steelwork or lighter abnormal loads, low loaders, for construction machinery and heavy plant vehicles, are not considered as flatbeds. Neither are abnormal load carriers for heavy haulage, most places in North America, length is commonly 48 feet or 53 feet, and width is either 96 or 102 inches. Some older trailers still in service are only 45 feet or shorter if used in sets of doubles or triples, various lengths and combination setups can only be legally driven on turnpike/toll roads which are far too long for most roadways.
Incredibly light and very expensive to purchase, all aluminium trailers are very slippery when wet and they have a natural upwards bend so that when loaded they straighten out to be more flat, rather than to sag in the middle under a load. Another popular type of flatbed trailer is a stepdeck with approximately 2 feet lower deck and low profile wheels to accommodate taller loads and these stepdecks can come with loading ramps to allow vehicles to roll on and off of the back from ground level. A bulkhead or headache rack is sometimes be attached to the front of either a straight or a trailer for load securement at the front of the deck. In the event of long pipes or steel or lumber coming loose in a hard braking incident, they save the operator, so-called Cali spread was originally designed to comply with bridge weight formulas in that state but has since been adopted in most other parts of the country
California Air Resources Board
The California Air Resources Board, known as CARB or ARB, is the clean air agency in the government of California. CARB has been instrumental in driving innovation throughout the automotive industry through programs such as its ZEV mandate. One of CARBs responsibilities is to define vehicle emissions standards, California is the only state permitted to issue emissions standards under the federal Clean Air Act, subject to a waiver from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Other states may choose to follow CARB or federal standards but may not set their own, CARBs governing board is made up of 14 members, soon to be 16 with 2 members being non-voting. The governors three remaining appointees are members of the public, including an expert in air pollution control or one of the mentioned above. The two legislature-appointed board members work directly with communities affected by air pollution, the divisions technical support work provides a basis for clean air plans and CARBs regulatory programs.
This support includes management and interpretation of emission inventories, air quality data, meteorological data, the other two sections are the Regional Air Quality Modeling Section and the Meteorology Section. The air quality and atmospheric pollution dispersion models routinely used by this Section include a number of the models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The section uses models which were developed by CARB or whose development was funded by CARB, such as. Currently maintained by the TRC Solution Company under contract to the U. S. EPA, CALGRID – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB. SARMAP – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB, the CARB ZEV program was enacted by the California government to promote the use of zero emission vehicles. The program goal is to reduce the air pollution affecting the main metropolitan areas in the state, particularly in Los Angeles. The first ruling was the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle Program, the first definition has its origin in the California ZEV rule, adopted as part of the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle Program mandated by CARB.
ULEV, 50% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle, SULEV, These vehicles emit substantially lower levels of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter than conventional vehicles. They are 90% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle, PZEV, Meets SULEV tailpipe standards, has a 15-year /150,000 mile warranty, and zero evaporative emissions. These vehicles are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car, AT PZEV, These are advanced technology vehicles that meet PZEV standards and include ZEV enabling technology. They are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car, ZEV, Zero tailpipe emissions, and 98% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle. The Low-Emission Vehicle Program is currently under revision to define modified ZEV regulations for 2015 models, CARB voted unanimously in March 2017 to require automakers to average 54.5 mpg for new cars in 2025
A startup is usually a company such as a small business, a partnership or an organization designed to rapidly develop a scalable business model. Startup companies can come in all forms and sizes, some of the critical tasks are to build a co-founder team to secure key skills, know-how, financial resources and other elements to conduct research on the target market. Typically, a startup will begin by building a first minimum viable product, in addition, startups founders do research to deepen their understanding of the ideas, technologies or business concepts and their commercial potential. Business models for startups are generally found via a bottom-up or top-down approach, given that startups operate in high-risk sectors, it can be hard to attract investors to support the product/service development or attract buyers. The size and maturity of the startup ecosystem where the startup is launched, the startup ecosystem consists of the individuals and organizations business incubators and business accelerators and top-performing entrepreneurial firms and startups. A region with all of elements is considered to be a strong entrepreneurship ecosystem.
Investors are generally most attracted to new companies distinguished by their strong co-founding team. Attractive startups generally have lower bootstrapping costs, higher risk, successful startups are typically more scalable than an established business, in the sense that the startup has the potential to grow rapidly with a limited investment of capital, labor or land. Startups have several options for funding, venture capital firms and angel investors may help startup companies begin operations, exchanging seed money for an equity stake in the firm. Venture capitalists and angel investors provide financing to a range of startups, with the expectation that a small number of the startups will become viable. Factoring is another option, though it is not unique to startups, startups usually need to form partnerships with other firms to enable their business model to operate. To become attractive to businesses, startups need to align their internal features, such as management style. In their 2013 study and Linton develop two ideal profiles, or known as configurations or archetypes, for startups that are commercializing inventions, the inheritor profile calls for management style that is not too entrepreneurial and the startup should have an incremental invention.
This profile is set out to be successful in a market that has a dominant design. In contrast to this profile is the originator which has a management style that is highly entrepreneurial and this profile is set out to be more successful in a market that does not have a dominant design. New startups should align themselves to one of the profiles when commercializing an invention to be able to find, by finding a business partner a startup will have greater chances to become successful. Startup founders often have a casual or offbeat attitude in their dress, office space and marketing. Startup founders in the 2010s may wear hoodies and other clothes to business meetings
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
The AES Corporation is a Fortune 200 company that generates and distributes electrical power. AES is headquartered in Arlington, and is one of the leading power companies and distributing electric power in 17 countries. The company was founded on January 28,1981, as Applied Energy Services by Roger Sant, the company was initially a consulting firm, it became AES Corporation, which went public in 1991. Sant was Chairman, CEO, and President and Bakke was Executive Vice President until 1987 when Bakke became President, Bakke became CEO in 1994 until he resigned in 2002. Sant remained as Executive Chairman until 2003 and as a member of the board until 2006, Bakke and Sant expanded AES at a breakneck pace, building power plants in 29 countries and expanding its staff from 1,400 to 32,000 employees. At the same time, they advocated a decentralized management system, after the collapse of Enron in 2002, another energy giant, AES faced a liquidity crisis and Bakke resigned. Paul Hanrahan was appointed President and CEO and served for 10 years as the company stabilized, in 2012 he resigned and Andres Gluski was named President and CEO to the present.
In fiscal 2015 AES total revenue was $15 billion, AES Eletropaulo AES Energy Storage AES Gener AES Tietê - Brazil AES Wind Generation DPL - Dayton Power and Light Company IPL - Indianapolis Power & Light Company Premier Power Official website
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is coterminous with the U. S. Census Bureau-census-designated place of Arlington, as a result, the county is often referred to in the region simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia. In 2015, the population was estimated at 229,164. The land that became Arlington was originally donated by Virginia to the United States government to form part of the new federal district of Columbia. In 1846, Congress returned the land southwest of the Potomac River donated by Virginia due to issues involving Congressional representation, the General Assembly of Virginia changed the countys name to Arlington in 1920 to avoid confusion with the adjacent City of Alexandria. The county is situated in Northern Virginia on the bank of the Potomac River directly across from Washington. Arlington is bordered by Fairfax County and City of Falls Church to the northwest and southwest, as of the 2010 census, the population was 207,627. Due to the proximity to downtown Washington, D. C.
It is home to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, the many federal agencies, government contractors, and service industries contribute to Arlingtons stable economy. It is the county in the United States by median family income. According to a 2016 study by Bankrate. com, Arlington is the best place to retire, the area that now constitutes Arlington County was originally part of Fairfax County in the Colony of Virginia. Land grants from the British monarch were awarded to prominent Englishmen in exchange for political favors, one of the grantees was Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who lends his name to both Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of First Lady Martha Washington, the estate was eventually passed down to Mary Anna Custis Lee, wife of General Robert E. Lee. The property became Arlington National Cemetery during the American Civil War, the area that now contains Arlington County was ceded to the new United States federal government by the Commonwealth of Virginia.
With the passage of the Residence Act in 1790, Congress approved a new permanent capital to be located on the Potomac River, the Residence Act originally only allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as what is now the Anacostia River. However, President Washington shifted the federal territorys borders to the southeast in order to include the city of Alexandria at the Districts southern tip. In 1791, Congress amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, this amendment to the Residence Act specifically prohibited the erection of the public buildings otherwise than on the Maryland side of the River Potomac. As permitted by the U. S. Constitution, the shape of the federal district was a square, measuring 10 miles on each side
Ontario is a city located in southwestern San Bernardino County, United States,35 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Located in the part of the Inland Empire region, it lies just east of the Los Angeles county line and is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 163,924, up from 158,007 at the 2000 census, making it the fourth most populous city after San Bernardino, Fontana. The city is home to the Ontario International Airport, which is the 15th busiest airport in the United States by cargo carried, Ontario handles the mass of freight traffic between the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and the rest of the country. It is the home of Ontario Mills and former home of the Ontario Motor Speedway and it takes its name from the Ontario Model Colony development established in 1882 by the Canadian engineer George Chaffey and his brothers William Chaffey and Charles Chaffey. They named the settlement after their province of Ontario. At the time of Mexican and of American settlement, active Native American settlements were scattered across the entire valley, remains of a Serrano village were discovered in the neighboring foothills of the present-day city of Claremont.
Following the 1819 establishment of San Bernardino Asistencia, which may have served as an outpost of the San Gabriel mission, it part of a large. In 1826, Jedediah Smith passed through what is now Upland on the first overland journey to the West coast of North America via the National Old Trails Road, the 1834 secularization of California land holdings resulted in the lands transferral to private hands. In 1881, the Chaffey brothers and William, purchased the land and they created the main thoroughfare of Euclid Avenue, with its distinctive wide lanes and grassy median. The new Model Colony was originally conceived as a dry town, the two named the town Ontario in honor of the province of Ontario in Canada, where they were born. Ontario attracted farmers and ailing Easterners seeking a drier climate, to impress visitors and potential settlers with the abundance of water in Ontario, a fountain was placed at the Southern Pacific railway station. It was turned on when trains were approaching and frugally turned off again after their departure.
Agriculture was vital to the economy, and many street names recall this legacy. The Sunkist plant remains as a vestige of the citrus era. The Chaffey brothers left to found the settlements of Mildura and Renmark, Charles Frankish continued their work at Ontario. Mining engineer John Tays refined the design of the mule car. At that point, the two mules were loaded onto a platform at the rear of the car and allowed to ride, soon replaced by an electric streetcar, the mule car is commemorated by a replica in an enclosure south of C Street on the Euclid Avenue median
Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. It is located on the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf and is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the countrys legislature. The city of Dubai is located on the northern coastline. Dubai will host World Expo 2020, Dubai has emerged as a global city and business hub of the Middle East. It is a transport hub for passengers and cargo. By the 1960s, Dubais economy was based on revenues from trade and, to an extent, oil exploration concessions. Oil revenue first started to flow in 1969, Dubais oil revenue helped accelerate the early development of the city, but its reserves are limited and production levels are low, less than 5% of the emirates revenue comes from oil. The emirates Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism, real estate, Dubai was recently named the best destination for Muslim travellers by Salam Standard.
Dubai has recently attracted attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the worlds tallest building, Dubai has been criticised for human rights violations concerning the citys largely South Asian and Filipino workforce. As of 2012, Dubai was the 22nd most expensive city in the world, in 2014, Dubais hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world, after Geneva. Dubai was rated as one of the best places to live in the Middle East by U. S. global consulting firm Mercer, Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word Dubai. One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, another theory states that the name came from a word meaning money, as people from Dubai were commonly believed to be rich due to the thriving trading centre of the location. An Arabic proverb says Daba Dubai, meaning They came with a lot of money, according to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAEs history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland.
The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, an inhabitant or native of the city is a Dubaian. Although stone tools have been found at archaeological sites, little is known about the UAEs early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found. Many ancient towns in the area were trading centres between the Eastern and Western worlds, the remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp, dated at 7000 BC, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai Internet City. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries