Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script used in writing the Hittite language. The surviving corpus of Hittite texts is preserved in cuneiform on clay tablets dating to the 2nd millennium BC. Hittite orthography was directly adapted from Old Assyrian cuneiform; the HZL of Rüster and Neu lists 375 cuneiform signs used in Hittite documents, compared to some 600 signs in use in Old Assyrian. About half of the signs have syllabic values, the remaining are used as ideograms or logograms to represent the entire word—much as the characters "$", "%" and "&" are used in contemporary English. Cuneiform signs can be employed in three functions: Akkadograms or Sumerograms. Syllabograms are characters. Akkadograms and Sumerograms are ideograms from the earlier Akkadian or Sumerian orthography but not intended to be pronounced as in the original language. Conventionally, Syllabograms are transcribed in italic lowercase Akkadograms in italic uppercase Sumerograms in roman uppercase. Thus, the sign GI can be used as the Hittite syllable gi.
The syllabary consists of single vowels, vowels preceded by a consonant, vowels followed by a consonant, or consonants in both locations. This system distinguishes the following consonants, b, p, d, t, g, k, ḫ, r, l, m, n, š, z,combined with the vowels a, e, i, u. Additional ya, wa and wi signs are introduced; the contrast of the Assyrian voiced/unvoiced series is not used to express the voiced/unvoiced contrast in Hittite. The contrast in these cases is not clear, several interpretations of the underlying phonology have been proposed; the purpose of inserting an additional vowel between syllabograms is not clear. Examples of this practice include the -a- in iš-ḫa-a-aš "master" or in la-a-man "name", ú-i-da-a-ar "waters". In some cases, it may indicate an inherited long vowel, but it may have other functions connected with'word accentuation'. Ḫ: ḫal. Sumerograms proper on the other hand are ideograms intended to be pronounced in Hittite. M, I, male personal names DIDLI, plural or collective DIDLI ḪI.
A, plural DINGIR "deity" DUG "vessel" É "house" GAD "linen, cloth" GI "tube. A, plural ḪUR. SAG "mountain" ÍD "river" IM "clay" ITU "month" KAM, numerals KI, in some placenames KU6 "fish" KUR "land" KUŠ "hide, fur" LÚ "man" MEŠ, plural MEŠ ḪI. A, plural MUL "star" MUNUS "woman", female personal name MUŠ "serpent" MUŠEN "bird" NA4 "stone" NINDA "bread" PÚ "source" SAR "plant" SI "horn" SÍG "wool" TU7 "soup" TÚG "garment" Ú "plant" URU "city" URUDU "copper" UZU "meat" E. Forrer, Die Keilschrift von Boghazköi, Leipzig J. Friedrich, Hethitisches Keilschrift-Lesebuch, Heidelberg Chr. Rüster, E. Neu, Hethitisches Zeichenlexikon, Wiesbaden Gillian R. Hart, Some Observations on Plene-Writing in Hittite, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Gordin, Shai. Hittite Scribal Circles: Scholarly Tradition and Writing Habits, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz FreeIdgSerif includes Unicode cuneiform for Hittite
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, mathematics and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador; this region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages; the Preclassic period saw the establishment of the first complex societies in the Maya region, the cultivation of the staple crops of the Maya diet, including maize, beans and chili peppers. The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades.
Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates; this period saw the Maya civilization develop a large number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful; the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a widespread political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities, a northward shift of population; the Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, the expansion of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.
Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the "divine king", who acted as a mediator between mortals and the supernatural realm. Kingship was patrilineal, power would pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a closed system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had increased, resulting in the corresponding reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king; the Maya civilization developed sophisticated artforms, the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, obsidian, sculpted stone monuments and finely painted murals. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, surrounded by an irregular sprawl of residential districts. Different parts of a city would be linked by causeways; the principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, structures aligned for astronomical observation.
The Maya elite were literate, developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing, the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, of which only three uncontested examples remain, the rest having been destroyed by the Spanish. There are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics; the Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars, employed mathematics that included one of the earliest instances of the explicit zero in the world. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice; the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide; the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems. The set of traits shared by Mesoamerican cultures included astronomical knowledge and human sacrifice, a cosmovision that viewed the world as divided into four divisions aligned with the cardinal directions, each with different attributes, a three-way division of the world into the celestial realm, the earth, the underworld.
By 6000 BC, the early inhabitants of Mesoamerica were experimenting with the domestication of plants, a process that led to the establishment of sedentary agricultural societies. The diverse climate allowed for wide variation in available crops, but all regions of Mesoamerica cultivated the base crops of maize and squashes. All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology. Mesoamerica lacked draft animals, did not use the wheel, possessed few domesticated animals. Mesoamericans viewed the world as hostile and governed by unpredictable deities; the ritual Mesoamerican ballgame was played. Mesoamerica is linguistically diverse, with most languages falling within a small number of language families—the major families are Mayan, Mixe–Zoquean and Uto-Aztecan.
Maya script known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system, deciphered. The earliest inscriptions found which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BCE in San Bartolo, Guatemala. Maya writing was in continuous use throughout Mesoamerica until the Spanish conquest of the Maya in the 16th and 17th centuries. Maya writing used logograms complemented with a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. Maya writing was called "hieroglyphics" or hieroglyphs by early European explorers of the 18th and 19th centuries who did not understand it but found its general appearance reminiscent of Egyptian hieroglyphs, to which the Maya writing system is not at all related. Modern Mayan languages are written using the Latin alphabet rather than Maya script. Evidence suggests that codices and other classic texts were written by scribes—usually members of the Maya priesthood—in Classic Maya, a literary form of the extinct Chʼoltiʼ language.
It is possible that the Maya elite spoke this language as a lingua franca over the entire Maya-speaking area, but texts were written in other Mayan languages of the Petén and Yucatán Yucatec. There is some evidence that the script may have been used to write Mayan languages of the Guatemalan Highlands. However, if other languages were written, they may have been written by Chʼoltiʼ scribes, therefore have Chʼoltiʼ elements. Mayan writing consisted of a elaborate set of glyphs, which were laboriously painted on ceramics and bark-paper codices, carved in wood and stone, molded in stucco. Carved and molded glyphs were painted, but the paint has survived. In 2008, the sound of about 80% of Maya writing could be read and the meaning of about 60% could be understood with varying degrees of certainty, enough to give a comprehensive idea of its structure. Maya texts were written in blocks arranged in columns two blocks wide, with each block corresponding to a noun or verb phrase; the blocks within the columns were read left to right, top to bottom, would be repeated until there were no more columns left.
Within a block, glyphs were arranged left-to-right. Glyphs were sometimes conflated into ligatures, where an element of one glyph would replace part of a second. In place of the standard block configuration, Maya was sometimes written in a single row or column, or in an'L' or'T' shape; these variations most appeared when they would better fit the surface being inscribed. The Maya script was a logosyllabic system with some syllabogramatic elements. Individual glyphs or symbols could represent either a morpheme or a syllable, the same glyph could be used for both; because of these dual readings, it is customary to write logographic readings in ALL CAPS and phonetic readings in italics. For example, a calendaric glyph can be read as the syllable chi. Glyphs used as syllabograms were logograms for single-syllable words those that ended in a vowel or in a weak consonant such as y, w, h, or glottal stop. For example, the logogram for'fish fin'—found in two forms, as a fish fin and as a fish with prominent fins—was read as and came to represent the syllable ka.
These syllabic glyphs performed two primary functions: as phonetic complements to disambiguate logograms which had more than one reading. For example, bʼalam'jaguar' could be written as a single logogram, BʼALAM. In addition, some syllable glyphs were homophones, such as the 6 different glyphs used to write the common third person pronoun u-, it is possible, but not certain, that these conflicting readings arose as the script was adapted to new languages. Phonetic glyphs stood for simple vowel-only syllables. However, Mayan phonotactics is more complicated than this. Most Mayan words end with consonants, there may be sequences of two consonants within a word as well, as in xolteʼ, CVCCVC; when these final consonants were sonorants or gutturals they were sometimes ignored. More final consonants were written, which meant that an extra vowel was written as well; this was an "echo" vowel that repeated the vowel of the previous syllable. For example, the word ` fish fin' would be written in full as ka-ha.
However, there are many cases where some other vowel was used, the orthographic rules for this are only understood. Lacadena & Wichmann proposed the following conventions: A CVC syllable was written CV-CV, where the two vowels were the same: yo-po'leaf' A syllable with a long vowel was written CV-Ci, unless the long vowel was, in which case it was written CiCa: ba-ki'captive', yi-tzi-na'younger brother' A syllable with a glottalized vowel was written with a final a if the vowel was, or with a final u if the vowel was or: hu-na'paper', ba-tzʼu'howler monkey'. Preconsonantal is not indicated. In short, if the vowels are the same, a simple vowel is intended. If the vowels
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Siniatic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.
The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing would only be accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".
There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionnary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.
These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secre
Ruby characters are small, annotative glosses that are placed above or to the right of Chinese characters when writing languages with logographic characters such as Chinese, Japanese or Korean to show the pronunciation. Called just ruby or rubi, such annotations are most used as pronunciation guides for characters that are to be unfamiliar to the reader. Here is an example of Japanese ruby characters for Tokyo: Most furigana are written with the hiragana syllabary, but katakana and romaji are occasionally used. Alternatively, sometimes foreign words are printed with furigana implying the meaning, vice versa. Textbooks write on-readings with katakana and kun-readings with hiragana. Here is an example of the Bopomofo ruby characters for Beijing: In Taiwan, the syllabary used for Chinese ruby characters is Zhuyin fuhao. Unlike the example shown above, zhuyin is used with a vertical traditional writing and zhuyin is written on the right side of the characters. In mainland China, horizontal script is used and ruby characters are written above the Chinese characters.
Books with phonetic guides are popular with foreigners learning Chinese. Here is an example of the Korean ruby characters for Korea: Romaja is used in foreign textbooks until Hangul is introduced. Ruby characters can be quite common on signs in certain parts of South Korea. Ruby may be used for different reasons: because the character is rare and the pronunciation unknown to many—personal name characters fall into this category. Ruby may be used to show the meaning, rather than pronunciation, of a possibly-unfamiliar or slang word; this is used with spoken dialogue and applies only to Japanese publications. The most common form of ruby is called furigana or yomigana and is found in Japanese instructional books, newspapers and books for children. In Japanese, certain characters, such as the sokuon that indicates a pause before the consonant it precedes, are written at about half the size of normal characters; when written as ruby, such characters are the same size as other ruby characters. Advancements in technology now allow certain characters to render accurately.
In Chinese, the practice of providing phonetic cues via ruby is rare, but does occur systematically in grade-school level text books or dictionaries. The Chinese have no special name for this practice. In Taiwan, it is known as "zhuyin", from the name of the phonetic system employed for this purpose there, it is always used vertically, because publications are in a vertical format, zhuyin is not as easy to read when presented horizontally. Where zhuyin is not used, other Chinese phonetic systems like pinyin are employed. In academic settings, Vietnamese text written in chữ Hán or chữ Nôm may be glossed with quốc ngữ ruby for modern readers. Sometimes interlinear glosses are visually similar to ruby, appearing above or below the main text in smaller type. However, this is a distinct practice used for helping students of a foreign language by giving glosses for the words in a text, as opposed to the pronunciation of lesser-known characters. Ruby annotation can be used in handwriting. In British typography, ruby was the name for type with a height of 5.5 points, which printers used for interlinear annotations in printed documents.
In Japanese, rather than referring to a font size, the word became the name for typeset furigana. When transliterated back into English, some texts rendered the word as rubi. However, the spelling "ruby" has become more common since the W3C published a recommendation for ruby markup. In the US, the font size had been called "agate", a term in use since 1831 according to the Oxford English Dictionary; this information is out of date and has been superseded by the inclusion of Ruby support in HTML5. For more information visit w3 ruby markup reference. In 2001, the W3C published the Ruby Annotation specification for supplementing XHTML with ruby markup. Ruby markup is not a standard part of HTML 4.01 or any of the XHTML 1.0 specifications, but was incorporated into the XHTML 1.1 specification, is expected to be a core part of HTML5 once the specification becomes finalised by the W3C. Support for ruby markup in web browsers is limited, as XHTML 1.1 is not yet implemented. Ruby markup is supported by Microsoft Internet Explorer for Windows and Macintosh, supported by Chrome, but is not supported by Konqueror or Opera.
The WebKit nightly builds added support for Ruby HTML markup in January 2010. Safari has included support in version 5.0.6. It is supported in Mozil
Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside katakana; the Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi. Chinese characters first came to Japan on official seals, swords, coins and other decorative items imported from China; the earliest known instance of such an import was the King of Na gold seal given by Emperor Guangwu of Han to a Yamato emissary in 57 AD. Chinese coins from the first century AD have been found in Yayoi period archaeological sites. However, the Japanese of that era had no comprehension of the script, would remain illiterate until the fifth century AD. According to the Nihon Shoki and Kojiki, a semi-legendary scholar called Wani was dispatched to Japan by the Kingdom of Baekje during the reign of Emperor Ōjin in the early fifth century, bringing with him knowledge of Confucianism and Chinese characters.
The earliest Japanese documents were written by bilingual Chinese or Korean officials employed at the Yamato court. For example, the diplomatic correspondence from King Bu of Wa to Emperor Shun of Liu Song in 478 has been praised for its skillful use of allusion. Groups of people called fuhito were organized under the monarch to read and write Classical Chinese. During the reign of Empress Suiko, the Yamato court began sending full-scale diplomatic missions to China, which resulted in a large increase in Chinese literacy at the Japanese court. In ancient times paper was so rare that people stenciled kanji onto thin, rectangular strips of wood; these wooden boards were used for communication between government offices, tags for goods transported between various countries, the practice of writing. The oldest written kanji in Japan discovered so far was written in ink on wood as a wooden strip dated to the 7th century, it is a record of trading for salt. The Japanese language had no written form at the time Chinese characters were introduced, texts were written and read only in Chinese.
During the Heian period, however, a system known as kanbun emerged, which involved using Chinese text with diacritical marks to allow Japanese speakers to restructure and read Chinese sentences, by changing word order and adding particles and verb endings, in accordance with the rules of Japanese grammar. Chinese characters came to be used to write Japanese words, resulting in the modern kana syllabaries. Around 650 AD, a writing system called man'yōgana evolved that used a number of Chinese characters for their sound, rather than for their meaning. Man'yōgana written in cursive style evolved into hiragana, or onna-de, that is, "ladies' hand," a writing system, accessible to women. Major works of Heian-era literature by women were written in hiragana. Katakana emerged via a parallel path: monastery students simplified man'yōgana to a single constituent element, thus the two other writing systems and katakana, referred to collectively as kana, are descended from kanji. In comparison to kana kanji are called mana.
In modern Japanese, kanji are used to write parts of the language such as nouns, adjective stems, verb stems, while hiragana are used to write inflected verb and adjective endings and as phonetic complements to disambiguate readings and miscellaneous words which have no kanji or whose kanji is considered obscure or too difficult to read or remember. Katakana are used for representing onomatopoeia, non-Japanese loanwords, the names of plants and animals, for emphasis on certain words. In 1946, after World War II and under the Allied Occupation of Japan, the Japanese government, guided by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, instituted a series of orthographic reforms, to help children learn and to simplify kanji use in literature and periodicals; the number of characters in circulation was reduced, formal lists of characters to be learned during each grade of school were established. Some characters were given simplified glyphs, called shinjitai. Many variant forms of characters and obscure alternatives for common characters were discouraged.
These are guidelines, so many characters outside these standards are still known and used. The kyōiku kanji are 1,006 characters; the list only contained 881 characters. This was expanded to 996 characters in 1977, it was not until 1982 the list was expanded to its current size. The grade-level breakdown of these kanji is known as the gakunen-betsu kanji haitōhyō, or the gakushū kanji; the jōyō kanji are 2,136 characters consisting of all the Kyōiku kanji, plus 1,130 additional kanji taught in junior high and high school. In publishing, characters outside this category are given furigana; the jōyō kanji were introduced in 1981, replacing an older list of 1,850 characters known as the tōyō kanji, introduced in 1946. Numbering 1,945 characters, the jōyō kanji list was extended to 2,136 in 2010; some of the new characters were Jinmeiyō kanji. Since September 27, 2004, the jinmeiyō k
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; the use of logograms in writing is called logography, a writing system, based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts; these characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing. Logographic systems include the earliest writing systems. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages, none is known, apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona, a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. All logographic scripts used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values, either consonantal or syllabic.
The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Logographic writing systems include: Logoconsonantal scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian was used to write both sȝ'duck' and sȝ'son', though it is that these words were not pronounced the same apart from their consonants; the primary examples of logoconsonantal scripts are:Hieroglyphs and demotic: Ancient Egyptian Logosyllabic scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes represent morphemes polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables. They include:Anatolian hieroglyphs: Luwian Cuneiform: Sumerian, other Semitic languages, Hittite, Luwian and Urartian Maya glyphs: Chorti and other Classic Maya languages Han characters: Chinese, Japanese, Zhuang Derivatives of Han characters: Chữ nôm: Vietnam Dongba script written with Geba script: Naxi language Jurchen script: Jurchen Khitan large script: Khitan Sawndip: Zhuang languages Shui script: Shui language Tangut script: Tangut language Yi: various Yi languagesNone of these systems is purely logographic.
This can be illustrated with Chinese. Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: some morphemes are composed of more than one character. For example, the Chinese word for spider, 蜘蛛 zhīzhū, was created by fusing the rebus 知朱 zhīzhū with the "bug" determinative 虫. Neither *蜘 zhī nor *蛛 zhū can be used separately; this is incorrect. In Archaic Chinese, one can find the reverse: a single character representing more than one morpheme. An example is Archaic Chinese 王 hjwangs, a combination of a morpheme hjwang meaning king and a suffix pronounced /s/. In modern Mandarin, bimorphemic syllables are always written with two characters, for example 花儿 huār'flower'. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period; these logograms, called hozwārishn, were dispensed with altogether after the Arab conquest of Persia and the adoption of a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words.
In addition, the numerals and mathematical symbols are logograms – 1'one', 2'two', +'plus', ='equals', so on. In English, the ampersand & is used for'and' and for Latin et, % for'percent', # for'number', § for'section', $ for'dollar', € for'euro', £ for'pound', ° for'degree', @ for'at', so on. All historical logographic systems include a phonetic dimension, as it is impractical to have a separate basic character for every word or morpheme in a language. In some cases, such as cuneiform as it was used for Akkadian, the vast majority of glyphs are used for their sound values rather than logographically. Many logographic systems have a semantic/ideographic component, called "determinatives" in the case of Egyptian and "radicals" in the case of Chinese. Typical Egyptian usage was to augment a logogram, which may represent several words with different pronunciations, with a determinate to narrow down the meaning, a phonetic component to specify the pronunciation. In the case of Chinese, the vast majority of characters are a fixed combination of a radical that indicates its nominal category, plus a phonetic to give an idea of the pronunciation.
The Mayan system used logograms