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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Phosphine

Phosphine is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a colorless, toxic gas and is classed as a pnictogen hydride. Pure phosphine is odorless, but technical grade samples have a unpleasant odor like garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and diphosphane. With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously flammable in air. Phosphines are a group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P. Organophosphines are important in catalysts. Philippe Gengembre, a student of Lavoisier, first obtained phosphine in 1783 by heating phosphorus in an aqueous solution of potash; because of its strong association with elemental phosphorus, phosphine was once regarded as a gaseous form of the element, but Lavoisier recognised it as a combination of phosphorus with hydrogen and described it as phosphure d'hydrogène. In 1844, Paul Thénard, son of the French chemist Louis Jacques Thénard, used a cold trap to separate diphosphine from phosphine, generated from calcium phosphide, thereby demonstrating that P2H4 is responsible for spontaneous flammability associated with PH3, for the characteristic orange/brown color that can form on surfaces, a polymerisation product.

He considered diphosphine's formula to be PH2, thus an intermediate between elemental phosphorus, the higher polymers, phosphine. Calcium phosphide produces more P2H4 than other phosphides because of the preponderance of P-P bonds in the starting material; the name "phosphine" first appeared in combined form in 1857. The gas PH3 was named "phosphine" by 1865. PH3 is a trigonal pyramidal molecule with C3v molecular symmetry; the length of the P-H bond is 1.42 Å, the H-P-H bond angles are 93.5°. The dipole moment is 0.58 D, which increases with substitution of methyl groups in the series: CH3PH2, 1.10 D. In contrast, the dipole moments of amines decrease with substitution, starting with ammonia, which has a dipole moment of 1.47 D. The low dipole moment and orthogonal bond angles lead to the conclusion that in PH3 the P-H bonds are entirely pσ – sσ and phosphorus 3s orbital contributes little to the bonding between phosphorus and hydrogen in this molecule. For this reason, the lone pair on phosphorus may be regarded as predominantly formed by the 3s orbital of phosphorus.

The upfield chemical shift of the phosphorus atom in the 31P NMR spectrum accords with the conclusion that the lone pair electrons occupy the 3s orbital. This electronic structure leads to a lack of nucleophilicity in general and lack of basicity in particular, as well as an ability to form only weak hydrogen bonds; the aqueous solubility of PH3 is slight. Phosphine dissolves more in non-polar solvents than in water because of the non-polar P-H bonds, it is technically amphoteric in water. Proton exchange proceeds via a phosphonium ion in acidic solutions and via PH2− at high pH, with equilibrium constants Kb = 4 × 10−28 and Ka = 41.6 × 10−29. Phosphine burns producing a dense white cloud of phosphoric acid: PH3 + 2 O2 → H3PO4 Phosphine may be prepared in a variety of ways. Industrially it can be made by the reaction of white phosphorus with sodium or potassium hydroxide, producing potassium or sodium hypophosphite as a by-product. 3 KOH + P4 + 3 H2O → 3 KH2PO2 + PH3Alternatively the acid-catalyzed disproportioning of white phosphorus yields phosphoric acid and phosphine.

Both routes have industrial significance. The acid route requires pressurizing, it can be made by the hydrolysis of a metal phosphide, such as aluminium phosphide or calcium phosphide. Pure samples of phosphine, free from P2H4, may be prepared using the action of potassium hydroxide on phosphonium iodide, it is prepared in the laboratory by disproportionation of phosphorous acid 4 H3PO3 → PH3 + 3 H3PO4Phosphine evolution occurs around 200 °C. Alternative methods involve the hydrolysis of aluminium phosphide, calcium phosphide, trisphosphine. Phosphine is a constituent of the atmosphere at low and variable concentrations, it may contribute to the global phosphorus biochemical cycle. The most source is reduction of phosphate in decaying organic matter via partial reductions and disproportionations, since environmental systems do not have known reducing agents of sufficient strength to directly convert phosphate to phosphine. Organophosphines are compounds with the formula PRnH3−n; these compounds are classified according to the value of n: primary phosphines, secondary phosphines, tertiary phosphines.

All adopt pyramidal structures. Their reactivity is similar – they can be oxidized to the phosphorus level, they can be protonated and alkylated at phosphorus to give phosphonium salts, for primary and secondary derivatives, they can be deprotonated by strong bases to give organophosphide derivatives. Primary phosphines are prepared by alkylation of phosphine. Simple alkyl derivatives such as methylphosphine are prepared by alkylation of alkali metal derivatives MPH2. Another synthetic route involves treatment of the corresponding chlorophosphines with hydride reagents. For e

USC&GS Romblon

USC&GS Romblon was a steamer, owned by the Philippine Insular Government, that served in the Philippines. The ship was purchased by the Philippine Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation to support both government logistical and administrative travel needs as well as the usual functions of a coast guard vessel; the vessel was transferred to the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey serving as a survey ship from 1905 to 1932. Romblon and Marinduque were sister ships; the Philippine Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation shortly after creation 17 October 1901 and organizing with Captain A. Marix, USN, in charge had ten 148 ft single screw cutters under contract at Farnham, Boyd & Company, Shanghai and five twin screw cutters contracted at Uraga Dock Company, Japan. All vessels were to have both passenger and cargo capability as one purpose was to have official communication between isolated parts of the islands and administrative centers, they were to be steel framed with teak hull with copper sheathing with accommodation for about twelve passengers and 150 tons of cargo.

Those for the vessels constructed at Uraga Dock Company were for length overall 140 ft, 23 ft breadth, a maximum draft of 8 ft with a speed of 10 kn. The cutters delivered by Farnham, Boyd & Company were satisfactory. Romblon, arriving in Manila on 19 January 1903, Marinduque that arrived 18 April 1903 were did not meet specifications. Romblon had been accepted by the agent in Japan dismissed for neglect of duty, but was found on delivery to have a draft exceeding maximum by 1 ft to 1.5 ft and when loaded with coal and ready for sea was down by the bow. Further, the "material and workmanship on hull and engine were poor" as well as the vessel not meeting speed and sea keeping requirements; some corrections were made on Marinduque but on delivery the same poor workmanship and material quality was present along with some uncorrectable deficiencies. As a result, negotiations with a director of the builder summoned to Manila, a settlement was reached to cancel the remaining three ships but with a loss of about $30,000 to the government.

There is a discrepancy in the build date for the ships with the authoritative register having a 1901 date and it is that date used in the USC&GS dates of years. It is obvious from the fact the organization that ordered the vessels, the Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, only formed on 17 October 1901 and the delivery dates are January and April of 1903 that a 1901 date is not reasonable, it is possible, the contract date and the vessels were under construction in 1902 as the three hulls cancelled were still incomplete when the problems with the Uraga construction became evident. There is little record of service details; the cutters were commanded by American or European officers with Filipino petty officers and crewmen. The system was set so that vessels served particular routes serving communication and transportation functions with duties of coast guard in patrol and other typical duties of such a service being accomplished within that service. All vessels were armed, they acted as transports for both troops and law enforcement when necessary.

Romblon was transferred from the Philippine Commission to the Coast and Geodetic Survey for Philippine survey work on November 1, 1905. For operations in the Philippines the U. S. Government paid salaries, cost of travel to and from the Philippines and expenses for the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey officers aboard the ships; the insular government paid crew salaries and expenses as well as having ownership of the vessels excepting the Pathfinder. All crews were Filipino. On December 14, 1905, the ship departed Manila for work on the west coast of Luzon off Zambales province and, after a period back in Manila from April 14 through May 1, 1906, on the east coast of Luzon between Daet and Sogod. In 1913, tragedy struck Romblon when a seaman from her crew died on Culion Island in the Calamianes Islands in Palawan Province; the man was believed to have been murdered by Tagbanuas tribesmen. On more than once occasion, Romblon rendered assistance to mariners in distress. On 3 December 1916, Romblon searched for two men, blown offshore in a banca attempting to cross from Cuyo Island to Biscuay Island.

She found them on Capnoyan Island, rescued them, returned them to their homes on Cuyo Island. On 12 October 1918 she towed the disabled steamship SS Palawan from off the entrance to Manila Bay to Manila Harbor at Manila on Luzon. Romblon was in Manila preparing to sail on October 25, 1918, when the city and vessel were hit by the influenza pandemic infecting fifteen of the crew and spreading to all. Meanwhile, on November 8, Pathfinder at Puerto Princesa, Palawan had been stricken by a much more fatal epidemic infecting all and killing eight. By transfer of well crew from Fathomer the Romblon was able to go to the assistance of Pathfinder arriving November 14. On November 16 Romblon transferred five men from engineering to Pathfinder allowing that ship to get underway for Manila and hospitalization. At the request of the provincial governor the ship transported medical supplies to Brooke's Point. Romblon was in Manila during a typhoon that hit the city August 31, 1920, losing a whaleboat while Marinduque, which had just completed extensive repairs, was damaged by another ship that broke from moorings causing considerable damage, the Manila tide station was demolished.

Romblon was inactive July 1, 1920, through June 30, 1921, as "only two vessels were engaged in surveying work during this period" due to inability to furnish C&GS officers for the other ships and full reports only covering Pathfi

Michael Eisner

Michael Dammann Eisner is an American businessman. Eisner was the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The Walt Disney Company from September 1984 to September 2005. Prior to Disney, Eisner was President and CEO of rival film studio Paramount Pictures from 1976 to 1984, had brief stints at the major television networks NBC, CBS, ABC. Eisner was born to an secular Jewish family in Mount Kisco, New York, his mother, whose family founded the American Safety Razor Company, was the president of the Irvington Institute, a hospital that treated children with rheumatic fever. His father, Lester Eisner, Jr. was a lawyer and regional administrator of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. His great-grandfather, Sigmund Eisner, established a successful clothing company, one of the first uniform suppliers to the Boy Scouts of America and his great-grandmother, Bertha Weiss, belonged to an immigrant family that established the town of Red Bank, New Jersey, he was raised on Park Avenue in Manhattan.

He attended the Allen-Stevenson School kindergarten through ninth grade followed by The Lawrenceville School in 10th through his senior year and graduated from Denison University in 1964 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English. He is a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity and credits much of his accomplishments to his time at Keewaydin Canoe Camp for boys in Vermont. Eisner has Margot Freedman. After two brief stints at NBC and CBS, Barry Diller at ABC hired Eisner as Assistant to the National Programming Director. Eisner moved up the ranks becoming a senior vice president in charge of programming and development. In 1976, who had by moved on to become chairman of Paramount Pictures, recruited Eisner from ABC and made him president and CEO of the movie studio. During his tenure at Paramount, the studio produced films such as Saturday Night Fever, the Star Trek film franchise, Ordinary People, Raiders of the Lost Ark, An Officer and a Gentleman, Terms of Endearment, Beverly Hills Cop, Footloose, TV shows such as Happy Days, Laverne & Shirley and Family Ties.

Diller left Paramount on September 30, 1984, and, as his protégé, Eisner expected to assume Diller's position as studio chief. When he was passed over for the job, though, he left to look for work elsewhere and lobbied for the position of CEO of The Walt Disney Company. Following the death of founder Walt Disney in 1966, The Walt Disney Company narrowly survived several takeover attempts, its shareholders Sid Bass and Roy E. Disney brought in Eisner and former Warner Bros. chief Frank Wells to replace Ron W. Miller in 1984 and strengthen the company. Eisner brought in Jeffrey Katzenberg as Walt Disney Studios chairman. A couple years after becoming Chairman and CEO, Eisner became the presenter of The Wonderful World of Disney TV series, making him the public face of the company as well as its top executive. Although Eisner was not a performer by profession, studio management believed he could do the hosting job, after filming a test video with his wife Jane and a member of his executive team.

Eisner hired Michael Kay, a director of political commercials for then-U. S. Senator Bill Bradley, to help him improve his on-camera performance; as a result, Eisner was well recognized by children at the company's theme parks who asked him for autographs. During the second half of the 1980s and early 1990s, Eisner revitalized Disney. Beginning with the films Who Framed Roger Rabbit and The Little Mermaid, its flagship animation studio enjoyed a series of commercial and critical successes. Disney broadened its adult offerings in film when it acquired Miramax Films in 1993. Under Eisner, Disney acquired many other media sources, including ABC and ESPN; the ABC purchase in particular reunited Eisner with his former employer. In the early part of the 1990s, Eisner and his partners set out to plan "The Disney Decade", to feature new parks around the world, existing park expansions, new films, new media investments. While some of the proposals were completed, most were not; those completed included the Euro Disney Resort, Disney-MGM Studios, Disney's California Adventure Park, Disney-MGM Studios Paris, various film projects including a Who Framed Roger Rabbit franchise.

In 1993, Katzenberg had lobbied to become Eisner's second in command, which would have meant moving Frank Wells from president to vice chairman, to which Eisner'replied that Wells would feel "hurt" in that scenario'. Wells died in a helicopter crash in 1994; when Eisner did not appoint Katzenberg to Wells' now available post, this caused tensions between the two that led to Katzenberg being fired that year. Katzenberg went on to found DreamWorks SKG, with partners Steven David Geffen. Eisner recalled that "Roy E. Disney, who did not like him at all — I forget the reason, but Jeffrey did not treat him the way that Roy would have wanted to be treated — said to me,'If you make him the president, I will start a proxy fight.'"Eisner recruited his friend Michael Ovitz, one of the founders of the Creative Artists Agency, to be President, with minimal involvement from Disney's board of directors

Bill Brennan (activist)

William J. Brennan, known as Bill Brennan, is a former firefighter, lawyer and activist, he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor of New Jersey in the 2017 election. Brennan worked as a firefighter in Rochester, New Hampshire and became a Teaneck, New Jersey firefighter in April 1993, he was elected Secretary of Teaneck Firefighter's Association, Firemen's Mutual Benevolent Association, Local #42 in 1993 and president in 1994. Brennan filed numerous lawsuits against Teaneck's government and fire officials regarding firehouse closures and other budget cuts, among other things, including harassment. Brennan won a $3 million judgment against left its fire department in 2006. Brennan attended Seton Hall Law School, he is not a member of the New Jersey Bar. He has since been active in legal system. In 2010, he began producing "New Jersey Civil Circus," a program on a local public access TV channel broadcast by William Paterson University, cancelled by them, he was awarded damages.

In 2011 he made an unsuccessful bid to represent the 40th Legislative District in the New Jersey General Assembly, winning about 18% of the vote. On December 5, 2016, Brennan announced his intention to seek the nomination as Democratic candidate for the New Jersey gubernatorial election of 2017, the primary for which took place on June 6; the general election takes place on November 7. In June 2017, Governor Chris Christie said he had "admiration for everyone of them that's in the race, except for the knucklehead from, you know, where is he from, from Wayne, I think, or, whatever", referring to Brennan, who took the comment as an endorsement. Brennan garnered 2 %, of the vote. Increase state income tax by 2 percent on income over $750,000 to raise $600 million to $700 million in additional tax revenue. "Reduce dependence on public assistance" by raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour. Legalise marijuana to "generate revenue and reduce the burden on our criminal justice system while generating new employment opportunities."

Target municipal costs associated with public employees for reductions, including removing from federal Social Security program and divert these contributions to the state pension system and to an employee-controlled retirement accounts Support wind power development in NJ Proposes NJ Transit with a mix of additional funding sources such as marijuana sales tax revenue and what he calls a "CEO pay inequality surcharge" on executives making exponentially more than their lowest-paid employees. He wants to convert Madison Square Garden, which sits above New York's Penn Station, into an integrated Port Authority bus and train terminal by at the end of lease. Focus on "green" infrastructure, he says, "All new infrastructure will incorporate a renewable energy component. Bridges will harness hydro power from the rivers they cross, covered roadways will incorporate solar panels, high points on infrastructure will generate wind energy and deep borings will include geothermic capacity." Brennan filed a complaint in September 2016 in the Fort Lee municipal court, alleging official misconduct by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie in regard to the Fort Lee lane closure scandal.

The complaint said that Christie had failed to stop the closure in progress when, according to Wildstein's sworn testimony, Christie heard about it from Baroni and Wildstein on Wednesday, September 11, 2013, the third day of the closure. The complaint alleged that Fort Lee and its mayor "were deprived the benefit and enjoyment of their community as a consequence of this intentional evil minded act."On April 4, 2017 Brennan filed a citizen's complaint in Newark municipal court against David Samson, former Chairman of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey who resigned on March 28, 2014 in the aftermath of the lane closure scandal. And pleaded guilty to extortion and bribery charges, he stated that Samson's confession to extortion and bribery was "ancillary to official misconduct." Essex County Judge Marvin Adames said will decide on April 24 if there's probable cause to issue a criminal summons for Samson to face possible state official misconduct charges. On April 24, the complaint was dismissed because the presiding judge found that Brennan had no standing because he was far removed and suffered no direct damage.

List of people involved in the Fort Lee lane closure scandal Brennan 2017 "Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division State of New Jersey, Plaintiff-Respondent, v. William BRENNAN, Defendant-Appellant". Findlaw. September 28, 2001. "The Brian Lehrer Show NJ Governor's Race: Bill Brennan". WNYC. May 11, 2017

A Triumph of the Heart: The Ricky Bell Story

A Triumph of the Heart: The Ricky Bell Story is a 1991 CBS made-for-TV movie that recounts the life of Ricky Bell, a Tampa Bay Buccaneers running back sickened with dermatomyositis, Ryan Blankenship, a physically impaired child. The movie takes place during the 1981 Buccaneers season, including actual gameplay footage and a dramatized role played by Mario Van Peebles. Bell finds himself befriending an impaired child who inspire each other to become better in their own ways. Mario Van Peebles as Ricky Bell Lane R. Davis as Ryan Blankenship Polly Holliday as Ruth Weidner Lynn Whitfield as Natala Bell Susan Ruttan as Carol Blankenship James Zachary as Lee Roy Selmon John Schumacher as Charley Hannah Duriel Harris as Danny Reece Dennis Letts as Ed Warren Woody Watson as Larry Blankenship Marcus Allen as himself Jay Pennison as Steve Wilson Doug Williams as himself A Triumph of the Heart: The Ricky Bell Story on IMDb A Triumph of the Heart: The Ricky Bell Story at the TCM Movie Database A Triumph of the Heart: The Ricky Bell Story at AllMovie

FundaciĆ³n Vida Silvestre Argentina

Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina is a civil association founded on June 29, 1977, working on solving the main environmental issues of Argentina. Its mission is "to propose and implement solutions for conserving nature, promoting the sustainable use of natural resources and responsible behavior on the part of mankind in the context of climate change". To achieve this it develops actions based on the protection of natural areas, on consumption and on responsible production, environmental legislation and education. Since 1988 Vida Silvestre represents in Argentina the World Wildlife Fund the largest conservation entity in the world. Vida Silvestre's vision is "a world in which human beings develop in harmony with nature". At present, its work focuses on five priority eco-regions in Argentina for their rich biodiversity, endangered. Vida Silvestre has three offices, located in Puerto Iguazú and Mar del Plata, it has its own two nature reserves: Urugua-í in Misiones, San Pablo de Valdez in Chubut.

On April 28, 1976 Alix Reynal died, who in the words of her father Mike Reynal, "whenever she was in contact with nature she was happy". This led him to change his memory for a living memorial of his daughter, thus he created an organization dedicated to the conservation of the wildlife of Argentina. Reynal made contact with important people in conservation in the country such as Teodosio Brea, Felipe Lariviere and Francisco Erize. Miguel Reynal was backed by Jose Maria Gallardo, Director of the Argentine Natural History Museum, Maximo Gainza, Director Editor of La Prensa daily newspaper, who with thirty men of science, culture and the business community, joined up to face the challenge of founding an institution, their agreement was signed on June 1977 in the Argentine Museum of Natural History. From the start they worked with the intention of reaching tangible results, with scientific backing, it required the management to be overseen by the scientific sector, achieved by the creation of a committee of specialists who helped to choose programs and evaluate results.

In 1988 Vida Silvestre became the official representative of WWF in Argentina. Management is divided in two parts; the administrative council presided by Marina Harteneck. It has support from a scientific committee formed by a team of specialists; the management structure is a team made up of some 40 persons who include biologists, foresters, electrical engineers, museum specialists, teachers, environmental scientists, all working in three offices – Buenos Aires and Mar del Plata. As of 2017, Vida Silvestre's CEO is Manuel Jaramillo. Overuse of natural resources is the major topic of Vida Silvestre's work. At present human activity uses up more resources than our planet can provide; as a result, we need 1.3 planets to support human activity and conserve species and ecosystems that are in danger. Climate change is the most visible result of humanity's use of natural resources on a global scale. To face this situation Vida Silvestre defined four work strategies. Throughout its history Vida Silvestre has been involved in the creation and effective management of over twenty protected public areas, marine and on land, municipal and national thus contributing to the protection of over 7.5 million hectares destined for conservation and sustainable use of nature.

This has been achieved through various forms of participation – purchase of lands for donating to the state. In this sense different strategies are followed, such as the identification of valuable areas for conservation in priority eco-regions with the object of encouraging the creation of protected areas. In 1983 Vida Silvestre did a survey of the Urugua-í stream in Misiones, where a dam was planned, proposed measures to compensate the loss of natural areas which led to the creation of Islas Malvinas Provincial Reserve protecting ten thousand hectares of Atlantic rainforest and its subsequent increase to the 87 thousand hectares of the Uruguaí Provincial Park. In 1985 the Somuncura plateau in Patagonia was explored and from the report in which Vida Silvestre proposed its conservation in 1986 the Somuncura Plateau Provincial Reserve of one million hectares in northern Patagonia was created. Two years Vida Silvestre started the first complete evaluation of Patagonia's coastal areas and initiated the paper work for the creation of Cabo Blanco Provincial Park with the Isla Pinguino Complex – Oso Marino Bay, which in 2010 was declared an inter-jurisdictional marine park, Monte Leon Island a national park since 2004.

Vida Silvestre promotes the creation and management of protected areas with important precedents for Argentina and the region. In 2003 Vida Silvestre was awarded the Conservar el Futuro Prize by the National Parks Administration in recognition of its work on protected areas; some of the contributions include the first two private reserves in Argentina, today a fundamental system of conservation: in 1979 Laguna de los Escarchados in the province of Santa Cruz, the Campos del Tuyú, a wildlife reserve in the province of Buenos Aires, this last under an agreement with the land owners. In 2009 Campos del Tuyú was donated to the National Parks Administration, thus creating the first national park in the Pampas grasslands. In 1997 through an agreement with Alto Parana S. A. a reserve of 3243 hectares bordering the Urugua-í provinc