Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
The red-eye effect in photography is the common appearance of red pupils in color photographs of the eyes of humans and several other animals. It occurs when using a photographic flash close to the camera lens in ambient low light. In flash photography the light of the flash occurs too fast for the pupil to close, so much of the bright light from the flash passes into the eye through the pupil, reflects off the fundus at the back of the eyeball and out through the pupil; the camera records. The main cause of the red color is the ample amount of blood in the choroid which nourishes the back of the eye and is located behind the retina; the blood in the retinal circulation is far less than in the choroid, plays no role. The eye contains several photostable pigments that all absorb in the short wavelength region, hence contribute somewhat to the red eye effect; the lens cuts off deep blue and violet light, below 430 nm, macular pigment absorbs between 400 and 500 nm, but this pigment is located in the tiny fovea.
Melanin, located in the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid, shows a increasing absorption towards the short wavelengths. But blood is the main determinant of the red color, because it is transparent at long wavelengths and abruptly starts absorbing at 600 nm; the amount of red light emerging from the pupil depends on the amount of melanin in the layers behind the retina. This amount varies between individuals. Light-skinned people with blue eyes have low melanin in the fundus and thus show a much stronger red-eye effect than dark-skinned people with brown eyes; the same holds for animals. The color of the iris itself is of no importance for the red-eye effect; this is obvious because the red-eye effect is most apparent when photographing dark-adapted subjects, hence with dilated pupils. Photographs taken with infrared light through night vision devices always show bright pupils because, in the dark, the pupils are dilated and the infrared light is not absorbed by any ocular pigment; the role of melanin in red-eye effect is demonstrated in animals with heterochromia: only the blue eye displays the effect.
The effect is still more pronounced in animals with albinism. All forms of albinism involve abnormal production and/or deposition of melanin. Red-eye effect is seen in photographs of children because children's eyes have more rapid dark adaption: in low light a child's pupils enlarge sooner, an enlarged pupil accentuates the red-eye effect. Theatrical followspot operators, positioned nearly coincidentally with a bright light and somewhat distant from the actors witness red-eye in actors on stage; the effect is not visible to the rest of the audience because it is reliant on the small angle between the followspot operator and the light. Similar effects, some related to red-eye effect, are of several kinds: In many flash photographs those without perceptible red-eye effect, the tapetum lucidum of many animals' pupils creates an "eyeshine" effect. Although eyeshine is an unrelated phemonenon, animals with blue eyes may display the red-eye effect in addition to it. A related effect, red reflex, is seen in fundoscopy.
In photographs recorded with infrared-sensitive passive equipment, the eyes appear bright. This is due not to radiation of core body heat in the form of infrared light; the red-eye effect can be prevented in a number of ways. Using bounce flash in which the flash head is aimed at a nearby pale colored surface such as a ceiling or wall or at a specialist photographic reflector; this both changes the direction of the flash and ensures that only diffused flash light enters the eye. Placing the flash away from the camera's optical axis ensures that the light from the flash hits the eye at an oblique angle; the light enters the eye in a direction away from the optical axis of the camera and is refocused by the eye lens back along the same axis. Because of this the retina will not be visible to the camera and the eyes will appear natural. Taking pictures without flash by increasing the ambient lighting, opening the lens aperture, using a faster film or detector, or reducing the shutter speed. Using the red-eye reduction capabilities built into many modern cameras.
These precede the main flash with a series of short, low-power flashes, or a continuous piercing bright light triggering the pupil to contract. Having the subject look away from the camera lens. Increase the lighting in the room so that the subject's pupils are more constricted. If direct flash must be used, a good rule of thumb is to separate the flash from the lens by 1/20 of the distance of the camera to the subject. For example, if the subject is 2 meters away, the flash head should be at least 10 cm away from the lens. Professional photographers prefer to use ambient light or indirect flash, as the red-eye reduction system does not always prevent red eyes — for example, if people look away during the pre-flash. In addition, people do not look natural with small pupils, direct lighting from close to the camera lens is considered to produce unflattering photographs. Red-eye removal is built into many popular consumer graphics editing software packages, or is supported through red-eye reduction plug-ins.
NET and Microsoft Windows Photo Gallery. Some can automatically find eyes in the i
Coffee table book
A coffee table book is an oversized hard-covered book whose purpose is for display on a table intended for use in an area in which one entertains guests and from which it can serve to inspire conversation. Subject matter is predominantly pictorial. Pages consist of photographs and illustrations, accompanied by captions and small blocks of text, as opposed to long prose. Since they are aimed at anyone who might pick up the book for a light read, the analysis inside is more basic and with less jargon than other books on the subject; because of this, the term "coffee table book" can be used pejoratively to indicate a superficial approach to the subject. In the field of mathematics, a coffee table book is a notebook containing a number of mathematical problems and theorems contributed by a community meeting in a particular place, or connected by a common scientific interest. One of the most famous was the Scottish Book created by mathematicians at Lviv University in the 1930s and 1940s; the concept of a book intended for display over perusal was mentioned by Michel de Montaigne in his 1581 essay "Upon Some Verses of Virgil": "I am vexed that my Essays only serve the ladies for a common movable, a book to lay in the parlor window..."
Two centuries Laurence Sterne in his 1759 comic novel The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman advanced the more lighthearted view that "As my life and opinions are to make some noise in the world, and... be no less read than the Pilgrim's Progress itself- and, in the end, prove the thing Montaigne dreaded his Essays should turn out, that is, a book for a parlour window..."In Britain, the term "coffee table book" has been used at least since the 19th century, was still in current usage in the mid-1950s. David Brower is sometimes credited with inventing the "modern coffee table book". While serving as executive director of the Sierra Club, he had the idea for a series of books that combined nature photography and writings on nature, with, as he put it, "a page size big enough to carry a given image’s dynamic; the eye must be required to move about within the boundaries of the image, not encompass it all in one glance." The first such book, "This is the American Earth", with photographs by Ansel Adams and others and text by Nancy Newhall, was published in 1960.
They have found uses in propaganda, such as a book on the life of East German leader Walter Ulbricht and another on Albanian leader Enver Hoxha. As of 2011, Madonna's book Sex remained the most searched for out-of-print coffee table book
Cropping is the removal of unwanted outer areas from a photographic or illustrated image. The process consists of the removal of some of the peripheral areas of an image to remove extraneous trash from the picture, to improve its framing, to change the aspect ratio, or to accentuate or isolate the subject matter from its background. Depending on the application, this can be performed on a physical photograph, artwork, or film footage, or it can be achieved digitally by using image editing software; the process of cropping is common to the photographic, film processing, graphic design, printing businesses. In the printing, graphic design and photography industries, cropping is the removal of unwanted areas from the periphery of a photographic or illustrated image. Cropping is one of the most basic photo manipulation processes, it is carried out to remove an unwanted object or irrelevant noise from the periphery of a photograph, to change its aspect ratio, or to improve the overall composition.
In telephoto photography, most in avian and aviation photography, an image is cropped to magnify the primary subject and further reduce the angle of view -- when a lens of sufficient focal length to achieve the desired magnification directly was not available. It is considered one of the few editing actions permissible in modern photojournalism along with tonal balance, color correction and sharpening. A cropping made by trimming off the top and bottom margins of a photograph, or a film, produces an view that mimics the panoramic format or the widescreen format in cinematography and broadcasting. Neither of these formats is cropped as such, but rather they are products of specialized optical configurations and camera designs. Cropping in order to emphasize the subject: Cropping in order to remove unwanted details/objects: In certain circumstances, film footage may be cropped to change it from one aspect ratio to another, without stretching the image or filling the blank spaces with letterbox bars.
Concerns about aspect ratios are a major issue in filmmaking. Rather than cropping, the cinematographer uses mattes to increase the latitude for alternative aspect ratios in projection and broadcast. Anamorphic optics produce a full-frame, horizontally compressed image from which broadcasters and projectionists can matte a number of alternative aspect ratios without cropping relevant image detail. Without this, widescreen reproduction for television broadcasting, is dependent upon a variety of soft matting techniques such as letterboxing, which involves varying degrees of image cropping Since the advent of widescreen television, a similar process removes large chunks from the top & bottom to make a standard 4:3 image fit a 16:9 one, losing 25 percent of the original image; this process has become standard in the United Kingdom, for television programs in which many archive clips are used. This gives them a zoomed-in, cramped image with reduced??. Another option is a process called pillarboxing, where black bands are placed down the sides of the screen, allowing the original image to be shown full-frame within the wider aspect ratio.
See this article for a fuller description of the problem. Typical cropping in cinematographic and broadcast applications Various methods may be used following cropping or may be used on the original image. Vignetting is the accentuation of the central portion of an image by blurring, lightening, or desaturation of peripheral portions of the image The use of nonrectangular mat or picture frame may be used for selection of portions of a larger image It is not possible to "uncrop" a cropped image unless the original still exists or undo information exists: if an image is cropped and saved, it cannot be recovered without the original. However, using texture synthesis, it is possible to artificially add a band around an image, synthetically "uncropping" it; this is effective if the band smoothly blends with the existing image, easy if the edge of the image has low detail or is a chaotic natural pattern such as sky or grass, but does not work if discernible objects are cut off at the boundary, such as half a car.
An uncrop plug-in exists for the GIMP image editor
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, packaging, decorating, a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in non-legal documentation; the pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century CE as early as the year 105 CE, by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading its production and the United States right behind it; the oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. The pulp paper-making process is ascribed to a 2nd-century CE Han court eunuch. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe, where the first water powered paper mills were built.
Because paper was introduced to the West through the city of Baghdad, it was first called bagdatikos. In the 19th century, industrialization reduced the cost of manufacturing paper. In 1844, the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and the German F. G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres. Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags; the rags were from hemp and cotton. A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. Today this method is called deinking, it was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος, the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant, used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe.
Although the word paper is etymologically derived from papyrus, the two are produced differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres; this is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose. Paper made from chemical pulps are known as wood-free papers–not to be confused with tree-free paper; the pulp can be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. There are three main chemical pulping processes: the sulfite process dates back to the 1840s and it was the dominant method extent before the second world war; the kraft process, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp straws and hardwoods with high silicate content. There are two major mechanical pulps: groundwood pulp. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is high, >95%, however it causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. Paper recycling processes can use mechanically produced pulp.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality. There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:. Mill broke or internal mill waste – This incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill itself, which goes back into the manufacturing system to be re-pulped back into paper; such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre, however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular. Preconsumer waste – This is offcut and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste.
In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, other directories. On many computers, directories are known as folders, or drawers, analogous to a workbench or the traditional office filing cabinet. Files are organized by storing related files in the same directory. In a hierarchical file system, a directory contained inside another directory is called a subdirectory; the terms parent and child are used to describe the relationship between a subdirectory and the directory in which it is cataloged, the latter being the parent. The top-most directory in such a filesystem, which does not have a parent of its own, is called the root directory, and on some modern embedded systems, the file systems either had no support for directories at all, or only had a "flat" directory structure, meaning subdirectories were not supported. In modern systems, a directory can contain a mix of subdirectories. A reference to a location in a directory system is called a path.
In many operating systems, programs have an associated working directory. File names accessed by the program are assumed to reside within this directory if the file names are not specified with an explicit directory name; some operating systems restrict a user's access to only their home directory or project directory, thus isolating their activities from all other users. In early versions of Unix the root directory was the home directory of the root user, but modern Unix uses another directory such as /root for this purpose. In keeping with Unix philosophy, Unix systems treat directories as a type of file; the name folder, presenting an analogy to the file folder used in offices, used in a hierarchical file system design for the Electronic Recording Machine, Accounting Mark 1 published in 1958 as well as by Xerox Star, is used in all modern operating systems' desktop environments. Folders are depicted with icons which visually resemble physical file folders. There is a difference between a directory, a file system concept, the graphical user interface metaphor, used to represent it.
For example, Microsoft Windows uses the concept of special folders to help present the contents of the computer to the user in a consistent way that frees the user from having to deal with absolute directory paths, which can vary between versions of Windows, between individual installations. Many operating systems have the concept of "smart folders" or virtual folders that reflect the results of a file system search or other operation; these folders do not represent a directory in the file hierarchy. Many email clients allow the creation of folders to organize email; these folders have no corresponding representation in the filesystem structure. If one is referring to a container of documents, the term folder is more appropriate; the term directory refers to the way a structured list of document files and folders is stored on the computer. The distinction can be due to the way. Operating systems that support hierarchical filesystems implement a form of caching to RAM of recent path lookups. In the Unix world, this is called Directory Name Lookup Cache, although it is called dcache on Linux.
For local filesystems, DNLC entries expire only under pressure from other more recent entries. For network file systems a coherence mechanism is necessary to ensure that entries have not been invalidated by other clients. Definition of directory by The Linux Information Project