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Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation. When light is absorbed by a material such as a semiconductor, the number of free electrons and electron holes increases and raises its electrical conductivity. To cause excitation, the light that strikes the semiconductor must have enough energy to raise electrons across the band gap, or to excite the impurities within the band gap; when a bias voltage and a load resistor are used in series with the semiconductor, a voltage drop across the load resistors can be measured when the change in electrical conductivity of the material varies the current through the circuit. Classic examples of photoconductive materials include: the conductive polymer polyvinylcarbazole, used extensively in photocopying. S. Sidewinder and Soviet Atoll heat-seeking missiles; when a photoconductive material is connected as part of a circuit, it functions as a resistor whose resistance depends on the light intensity.

In this context, the material is called a photoresistor. The most common application of photoresistors is as photodetectors, i.e. devices that measure light intensity. Photoresistors are not the only type of photodetector—other types include charge-coupled devices and phototransistors—but they are among the most common; some photodetector applications in which photoresistors are used include camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, infrared detectors, nanophotonic systems and low-dimensional photo-sensors devices. Some materials exhibit deterioration in photoconductivity upon exposure to illumination. One prominent example is hydrogenated amorphous silicon in which a metastable reduction in photoconductivity is observable. Other materials that were reported to exhibit negative photoconductivity include molybdenum disulfide, indium arsenide nanowires, metal nanoparticles. In 2016 it was demonstrated. One prominent example is CH3NH3I3. In this material a light induced magnetization melting was demonstrated thus could be used in magneto optical devices and data storage.

Photodiode Photoresistor Photo conductive polymers Infrared detector Lead selenide Indium antimonide

It Shoulda Been You

It Shoulda Been You is a musical with music by Barbara Anselmi and book and lyrics by Brian Hargrove. The musical ran on Broadway from March 17, 2015 to August 9, 2015; the musical involves a wedding which brings together the families who are quite, comically, different. It Shoulda Been You premiered at the George Street Playhouse, New Brunswick, New Jersey, on October 4, 2011 and closed on November 4; the musical starred Tyne Daly, Lisa Howard and Harriet Harris. The book and lyrics are by Brian Hargrove with music by Barbara Anselmi, additional lyrics by Jill Abramovitz, Carla Rose Fisher, Michael Cooper, Ernie Lijoi and Will Randall; the musical ran at the Village Theatre, Issaquah and Everett, Washington from March 14, 2012 to May 20. The musical had a reading at the Village Theatre's Festival of New Musicals in 2010; the talkinbroadway reviewer wrote that "Lyricist Hargrove and composer Anselmi have created a pleasant score, if not one that offers many tunes you'll be humming as you exit."

He called the musical "highly entertaining."The musical premiered on Broadway at the Brooks Atkinson Theatre with previews from March 17, 2015 with an official opening on April 14, 2015. The production was directed by David Hyde Pierce with choreography by Josh Rhodes, sets by Anna Louizos, costumes by William Ivey Long, lighting by Ken Billington; the cast starred Tyne Daly, Sierra Boggess, Harriet Harris, Lisa Howard, David Burtka, Montego Glover, Chip Zien, Josh Grisetti, Adam Heller, Michael X. Martin, Anne L. Nathan, Nick Spangler and Edward Hibbert. On June 26, 2015, Tyne Daly made a curtain speech honoring the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States; the show closed August 2015 after 31 previews and 135 regular performances. The original Broadway production was nominated for six Outer Critics Circle Awards, three Drama League Awards and three Drama Desk Awards; the musical premiered in New South Wales at The Independent Theatre in March 2017. The musical was presented by the 4th Wall Theatre, New Jersey in June 2017.

The cast reunited for a one-night-only performance at the 92nd Street Y on March 5, 2018. At the St George Hotel, it is the morning of Rebecca Brian Howard's wedding. Jenny, Rebecca's sister, talks of her nerves before the wedding and how glad she is that she isn't the one having to have all the problems of a bride. Judy and Murray are Rebecca's parents. Judy, an overbearing, talkative Jewish mother, barks commands at Jenny to make sure things are organized. While trying to keep things together, Jenny accidentally calls Rebecca's ex, lets it slip the wedding is taking place that day. Marty is convinced that it is a sign that he needs to talk Rebecca out of it, he rushes to the hotel. The bride and groom fears. Things go well with a few comedic missteps, including the visible impact of the wedding on the groom's mother, who doesn't want to lose her son to another woman; when things seem to settle, the best man, comes in and announces that Rebecca wants to stop the wedding. Jenny rushes to her side, Rebecca says that there's a smudge on her wedding dress—it must be a sign.

Annie, the "co-maid of honor", tries to talk to her along with Brian and Greg, until Brian insinuates that Annie has been too controlling over the wedding. That triggers something in Annie, she runs off with Greg and Brian rushing after her to apologise. Jenny once again smoothes over the situation by getting the stain out of the dress. Rebecca and Jenny sing about how much they admire each other, both seeing qualities in the other that they respect. On the other side of the hotel, Marty arrives and is spotted by Murray, who expresses his joy over seeing him before. Murray admits, he is joined by Judy, the drunken Uncle Morty, flirtatious Aunt Sheila, who all echo this sentiment. When Jenny sees Marty, she tries to get him to leave. However, Marty appeals to their longtime friendship and all the times that he has been there for her. Jenny reminisces with him, it's revealed they did get together, but for some reason Marty stopped calling her and she never knew why, she reluctantly agrees to give him only a few short minutes with Rebecca.

Meanwhile, Brian is having a few moments with his father. George says that now that Brian is getting married, he wants to try to have a closer relationship with him—something he and his own father never had, he gives Brian a pre-nuptial agreement and tells him to consider signing it before the wedding unaware that Marty is hiding behind a plant and has heard their conversation. The bridal party gets their hair and makeup done, tensions between the conservative Christian Georgette and open Jewish Judy are running high. Rebecca and Jenny beg Judy to be polite. After Georgette, assuming a cheerful tone, takes a few back-handed jabs at her, Judy emulates her demeanor to hurl shots back at her, including pointing out Georgette's latest face lift. Marty arrives and throws everything into disarray when he announces the plans for the pre-nuptial agreement. Rebecca runs off. Everyone goes to find her. Jenny starts panicking, she is reassured by the wedding planner, that all will be well. He shares stories of all the weddings he's been involved in, pointing out that nothing has shocked him or prevented the ceremony from taking place.

Brian tries to confide in Georgette and tells her

Goh Soo Khim

Goh Soo Khim is a Singaporean ballerina and a respected doyen in Singapore’s dance scene. She is the co-founder / Artistic Director of Singapore Dance Theatre, as well as being the elder sister of late ballet maestro Goh Choo San, she is credited for the development of ballet in Singapore, for nurturing many successful dancers under her tutelage, to become successful dancers and choreographers over the years. Goh is born into a family of well-known dancers and teachers, received her early training at the Singapore Ballet Academy under the Academy’s her elder sister Goh Soo Nee, the other founding directors, Frances Poh and Vernon Martinus. In 1964 Goh furthered her professional training in Australia, as the first Asian to be admitted into the all-white Australian Ballet School. Returning to Singapore upon her graduation from Australian Ballet School, Goh joined her sister as a principal trainer at the Ballet Academy, she was a Principal dancer of the Academy, performed many solo performances.

In 1971, Goh assumed Principal of the Academy. In 1977, Goh represented Singapore in the 2nd ASEAN Radio and Television Cultural Exchange Programme, in 1978 choreographed the performance Temple Tone Poem, it was her maiden choreography, in 1980 choreographed again in the Goodbye Again. Her specially commissioned works and Five Emotions, were premiered at the 1982 Singapore Arts Festival. Goh was appointed Co-Artistic Director by the Ministry of Culture in 1984, to nurture the Ballet Group of the National Dance Company; the group performed her specially commissioned ballet, Environmental Phases, which won acclaim for its originality in the 5th ASEAN Festival of Performing Arts in 1985. Goh collaborated with Anthony Then to produce At The Ballet and Ballet Premiere for the Singapore Festival of Arts in 1984 and 1986, her first choreography for the SDT was Brahm’s Sentiments, which premiered in the company’s second season. In 1990, she restaged Environmental Phases for SDT in a celebratory concert for Singapore’s 25th Anniversary.

More Goh has been providing opportunities for dancers to develop their potential as choreographers. She had been invited to adjudicate ballet competitions in Malaysia, Indonesia and is on the international panel for the Asia Pacific Ballet Competition in Japan since 1991, she became the first Asian representative to be invited as a jury member for the prestigious Benois de la Danse Prix in Moscow in April 2003. Goh was awarded the prestigious Cultural Medallion in 1981 and the National Day Public Service Medal in 1989 for her outstanding contributions to the development of dance in Singapore. In 2002, she was awarded a Fellowship of LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts. Goh Choo San

Carlo Pianta

Carlo Machado Pianta is a Brazilian singer-songwriter and bassist best known for being a founding member of two of the most important rock bands from Rio Grande do Sul during the mid-1980s: DeFalla and Graforreia Xilarmônica. Carlo Pianta was born in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul in 1967, graduated in music from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. In 1985 he founded, alongside Edu K. and Biba Meira, the experimental rock group DeFalla, but left the group in 1987, before the release of their debut album. Shortly afterwards he teamed up with brothers Alexandre and Marcelo Birck, with then-Os Cascavelletes bassist Frank Jorge, to form Graforreia Xilarmônica. After a 5-year hiatus, Graforreia Xilarmônica reunited, with Pianta returning as their guitarist. In 1993, he was a guest musician on the debut demo tape by Aristóteles de Ananias Jr. a side project to Graforreia Xilarmônica founded by the Birck brothers in 1988. During Graforreia Xilarmônica's hiatus, Pianta was a live musician for Júlio Reny's band, formed the short-lived projects Ceres and Os Ascensoristas.

In 2016 he temporarily returned to DeFalla as a session member on their album Monstro, after being a live musician for them again in 2015. Pianta gave music lectures at the Colégio IPA in Porto Alegre. For a more comprehensive list, see Graforreia Xilarmônica#Discography Carlo Pianta on Facebook

Radar detector detector

A radar detector detector is a device used by police or law enforcement in areas where radar detectors are declared illegal. Radar detectors are built around a superheterodyne receiver, which has a local oscillator that radiates slightly, it is therefore possible to build a radar-detector detector. Some radar guns are equipped with such a device. However, like any device that detects stray emissions from electronic equipment, it is defeated by using adequate shielding; the VG-2 Interceptor was the first device developed for this purpose, although more current technology such as the Spectre III is now available. This form of "electronic warfare" cuts both ways and since detector-detectors use a similar superheterodyne receiver, many early "stealth" radar detectors were equipped with a radar-detector-detector-detector circuit, which shuts down the main radar receiver when the detector-detector's signal is detected, thus preventing detection by such equipment. In the early 1990s, BEL-Tronics, Inc. of Ontario, Canada found that the local oscillator frequency of the detector could be altered to be out of the range of the VG-2 Interceptor.

This resulted in a wave of detector manufacturers changing their local-oscillator frequency. Today every radar detector on the market is immune to the VG-2 Interceptor; the VG-2 is no longer in production. The Spectre III detected every radar detector certified for operation in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission as of December 2004; however counter technology has evolved so that by July 2008 budget radar detectors were able to avoid detection by the device. In late 2008, the Spectre IV was released, citing improved range and reliability over the Spectre III. Radar detector manufacturers produce some models undetectable by the Spectre Elite beyond a distance of a few inches, making them immune in real-world situations


Knowbility is an American non-governmental organization based in Austin, working to support the independence and empowerment of people with disabilities by promoting the use and improving the availability of accessible information technology. One of Knowbility's best known programs is its Accessibility Internet Rally, a web-building competition that brings together volunteer web designers and nonprofits; the seeds of Knowbility began in 1998 with a group of individuals in Austin, Texas representing various businesses and nonprofits, who felt that there was a broad lack of knowledge and skills among website designers and information technology developers about how to create web sites that are accessible to people with sight impairments, hearing impairments, or other disabilities. That same year, the US Congress enacted Section 508, an amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, requiring federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities.

The group in Austin created the Accessibility Internet Rally, a program produced by the Metropolitan Austin Interactive Network, the Central Texas chapter of the National Easter Seals Society, Goodwill Industries of Austin, with assistance from the virtual volunteering Project. It was held in September 1998 at the Infotec Training Center in Texas; the first AIR program was created in the style of MAIN's "web-raisings", where volunteers came together in one facility using multiple computers with Internet access and built web sites for nonprofit organizations in one day. The AIR program was different in that it was a competition, with web sites judged based on both their visual appeal and accessibility; each competing team was composed of one or two representatives of an Austin area nonprofit and four to six volunteer web developers. Altogether, more than 120 people were part of competing teams, representing 40 different not-for-profit, public sector and technology companies; the program proved so successful that organizers decided to create a nonprofit that would not only make AIR an annual event in Austin, but would create other programs and training for a national audience to promote accessibility in information technology.

In 1999, in addition to hosting another AIR-Austin, Knowbility staff and volunteers developed an Accessible Web Page Design Curriculum, distributed on its web site. By 2000, Knowbility had achieved a national profile: Knowbility was mentioned on an episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2000 dealing with technology issues. On September 21, 2000, the White House issued a press release to highlight programs across the country helping to bridge the digital divide for people with disabilities. AIR was one of three programs selected for recognition by the Drucker Foundation in October 2000; that same year, Knowbility received an awarded for Notable Achievement in the public service category of the Texas Interactive Media Awards. In 2000, Knowbility Board Chair Steve Guengerich and intern Josh Blakeley were featured guests of a panel discussion in Washington DC. at a National Labor Summit, where AIR activities were highlighted as a "best practice" in contributing to the employment of people with disabilities.

Knowbility was invited to ensure accessibility of the "ATSTAR" initiative. ATSTAR is an acronym that stands for "Assistive Technology – Strategies, Tools and Resources." It is a series of computer based teacher training modules to help teachers and parents understand the legal requirements and the best practices for assessing student need for assistive technology and implementing it in the classroom. The Texas Education Agency, through their Technology Integration in Education grant, awarded a grant to the Austin Independent School District to fund the development of ATSTAR. Collaborating on the initiative was Austin Community College, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin Harvard School, Sylvan Learning Center, Far South Community Schools, Region XIII Education Service Center. Knowbility managed the accessibility of the multi-media interface; the project produced a replicable CD and web-based assistive technology training model designed to prepare instructional staff at the campus level to conduct assessments, collect data, integrate assistive technology into the instructional setting.

As the project was completed, Knowbility assumed management of the program and ATSTAR is now being used by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology and many other educators and teachers in training. ATSTAR won recognition for outstanding community collaboration from the Texas State Legislature in May 2002. In April 2001, the San Francisico Women on the Web recognized Knowbility Executive Director Sharron Rush as one of their Top 25 Women of the Web for her work to raise awareness of the need and the societal benefits of greater Internet accessibility; the next year, Rush received the Dewey Winburne Community Service Award at the SXSW Interactive Media Conference because of her work with Knowbility. In 2002, Knowbility founder and executive director Sharron Rush, along with long-time Knowbility volunteer and trainer John M. Slatin, finished the book Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone, published by Addison-Wesley. In 2003, Knowbility received the TEC Champion Award for Outstanding Technology Leadership from the Washington DC based Education Technology Think Tank and CTCNet.

Sharron Rush has served since 2007 as an invited expert to the Education and Outreach Working Group of the Web Accessibility Initiative of the W3C. Since May 2009, she serves as liaison from WAI to the e-Government Interest Group as it deve