A beauty salon or beauty parlor, or sometimes beauty shop, is an establishment dealing with cosmetic treatments for men and women. Other variations of this type of business include hair spas. There is a distinction between a beauty salon and a hair salon and although many small businesses do offer both sets of treatments. Massage for the body is a popular beauty treatment, with various techniques offering benefits to the skin and for increasing mental well-being. Hair removal is offered at some beauty salons through treatments such as threading; some beauty salons style hair instead of going to a separate hair salon, some offer sun tanning. Other treatments of the face are known as facials. Specialized beauty salons known as nail salons offer treatments such as manicures and pedicures for the nails. A manicure is a treatment for the hands, incorporating the fingernails and cuticles and involving the application of nail polish, while a pedicure involves treatment of the feet, incorporating the toenails and the softening or removal of calluses.
Beauty salons have proven to be a recession-proof industry across United States. Although sales had declined from 2008 highs due to the Great Recession, they remain robust with long term positive forecast. Though during recessions, consumers tend to be more price conscious, spending continues to increase. With rising per capita incomes across the United States since 2015, beauty salons are booming with the industry generating $56.2 billion in the United States. Hair care is the largest segment with 86,000 locations. Skin care is expected to have revenue of $11 billion by 2018; this growth is being driven in part by a increasing awareness of the importance of skin care among American woman, but specifically due to an increase in the market for men. The market is distributed across America, with a concentration in the Northeast and Midwest. There is a growing trend in boutique salons popping up and leveraging online marketing to gain customers and compete with the franchise chains; the US Labor Department estimates employment in the United States will increase 20% between 2008–2014, with greatest employment growth from skin care specialists.
Beauty Barber Hair coloring Hair straightening Turban training centre
Geography of Taiwan
Taiwan known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia. It has an area of 36,104 km2; the East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. The island makes up 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China, known as "Taiwan". Taiwan is a tilted fault block, characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, the flat to rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 metres, making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island; the tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them destructive. There are many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits; the climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, is governed by the East Asian Monsoon.
The island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year. The eastern mountains are forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive; the total area of the island is 36,104 km2, making it intermediate in size between Belgium and the Netherlands. It has a coastline of 1,139 km; the ROC claims a territorial sea of 12 nmi. The main island of the archipelago is the island of Taiwan, 394 km long, 144 km wide and has an area of 35,887 km2; the shape of the main island is similar to a sweet potato oriented in a south-to-north direction, therefore Taiwanese the Min Nan speakers call themselves "children of the Sweet Potato". The northernmost point of the island is Cape Fugui in New Taipei's Shimen District; the central point of the island is in Nantou County. The southernmost point on the island is Cape Eluanbi in Pingtung County; the island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km at its widest point to 130 km at its narrowest.
Part of the continental shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep, has become a land bridge during glacial periods. To the south, the island of Taiwan is separated from the Philippine island of Luzon by the 250 km -wide Luzon Strait; the South China Sea lies to the southwest, the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east. Smaller islands of the archipelago include the Penghu islands in the Taiwan Strait 50 km west of the main island, with an area of 127 km2, the tiny islet of Xiaoliuqiu off the southwest coast, Orchid Island and Green Island to the southeast, separated from the northernmost islands of the Philippines by the Bashi Channel; the islands of Kinmen and Matsu near the coast of Fujian across the Taiwan Strait have a total area of 180 km2. The island of Taiwan was formed 4 to 5 million years ago at a complex convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In a boundary running the length of the island and continuing southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, the Eurasian Plate is sliding under the Philippine Sea Plate.
Most of the island comprises a huge fault block tilted to the west. The western part of the island, much of the central range, consists of sedimentary deposits scraped from the descending edge of the Eurasian Plate. In the northeast of the island, continuing eastwards in the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc, the Philippine Sea Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate; the tectonic boundary remains active, Taiwan experiences 15,000 to 18,000 earthquakes each year, of which 800 to 1,000 are noticed by people. The most catastrophic recent earthquake was the magnitude-7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred in the center of Taiwan on 21 September 1999, killing more than 2,400 people. On 4 March 2010 at about 01:20 UTC, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit southwestern Taiwan in the mountainous area of Kaohsiung County. Another major earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016, with a magnitude of 6.4. Tainan was damaged the most, with 117 deaths, most of them caused by the collapse of a 17-story apartment building; the terrain in Taiwan is divided into two parts: the flat to rolling plains in the west, where 90% of the population lives, the rugged forest-covered mountains in the eastern two-thirds.
The eastern part of the island is dominated by five mountain ranges, each running from north-northeast to south-southwest parallel to the east coast of the island. As a group, they extend 330 km from north to south and average about 80 kilometres from east to west, they include more than two hundred peaks with elevations of over 3,000 m. The Central Mountain Range extends from Su'ao in the northeast to Eluanbi at the southern tip of the island, forming a ridge of high mountains and serving as the island's principal watershed; the mountains are predominantly composed of hard rock formations resistant to weathering and erosion, although heavy rainfall has scarred the sides with gorges and sharp valleys. The relative relief of the terrain is extensive, and
The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, founded in 1911, is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan. The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China; the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan; this government retained China's UN seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986, political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power.
The KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, in the 2016 general and presidential election the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan, as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely; the KMT holds to a "One China Principle": it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus.
In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou: no unification, no independence and no use of force. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy, who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu, on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy; the party sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915.
While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers.
Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern – arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorgan
Politics of the Republic of China
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier is head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in with the parliament and limited by government; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The party system is dominated by the Kuomintang, which favors closer links to mainland China, the Democratic Progressive Party, which favors Taiwanese independence; the ROC consists of Taiwan and Penghu as well as portions of the Fujian Province and several smaller islands. Taiwan's six major cities, New Taipei, Tainan and Taoyuan, are special municipalities; the rest of the territories are divided into 13 counties. The ROC is governed under the Constitution of the Republic of China, drafted in 1947 before the fall of the Chinese mainland to the Communist Party of China and outlined a government for all of China. Significant amendments were made to the Constitution in 1991, there have been a number of judicial interpretations made to take into account the fact that the Constitution covers a much smaller area than envisioned.
The government in Taipei asserts to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, which it defined as including Taiwan, mainland China, outer Mongolia. In keeping with that claim, when the KMT fled to Taipei in 1949, they re-established the full array of central political bodies, which had existed in mainland China in the de jure capital of Nanjing. While much of this structure remains in place, the President Lee Teng-hui in 1991 unofficially abandoned the government's claim of sovereignty over mainland China, stating that they do not "dispute the fact that the Communists control mainland China." However, the National Assembly has not changed the national borders, as doing so may be seen as a prelude to formal Taiwanese independence. The People's Republic of China has several times threatened to start a war if the government of Taiwan formalizes independence, it should be noted that neither the National Assembly nor the Supreme Court has defined what the term "existing national boundaries," as stated in the constitution means.
The latter refused to do so claiming that it is a "major political issue". The original founding of the Republic centered on the Three Principles of the People: nationalism and people's livelihood. Nationalism meant the Han Chinese race standing up against Manchu rule and Japanese and Western interference, democracy meant elected rule modeled after Japan's parliament, people's livelihood or socialism, meant government regulation of the means of production. Another lesser known principle that the Republic was founded upon was five races under one union", which emphasized the harmony of the five major ethnic groups in China as represented by the colored stripes of the original Five-Colored Flag of the Republic. However, this five races under one union principle and the corresponding flag were abandoned in 1927. In reality these three principles were left unrealized. Republican China was marked by warlordism, foreign invasion, civil war. Although there were elected legislators, from its inception, it was a one-party dictatorship apart from some minor parties, including the Chinese Youth Party, the National Socialist Party and the Rural Construction Party, with suppression of dissent within the KMT of communists.
As the central government was quite weak, little could be done in terms of land reform or redistribution of wealth either. Politics of this era consisted of the political and military struggle between the KMT and the Communist Party of China in between bouts of active resistance against Japanese invasion; the first national government of the Chinese Republic was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, they also formed the first parliament; the power of this national government was both limited and short-lived, with generals controlling all of central and northern China. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. Shortly after the rise of Yuan Shikai, the parliament's authority became nominal. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those in power.
Foreign powers came to recognize Yuan's power as well: when Japan came to China with Twenty-One Demands, it was Yuan that submitted to them, on 25 May 1915. After the death of Yuan in 1916, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders. Still, the powerless government had its use—when World War I began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on Germany, in order to liquidate the latter's holdings there. From the beginning to the end of Republican China, political power was exercised through both legal and non-legal means. Yuan ruled as a dictator.
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Economy of Taiwan
The national economy of Taiwan, is the 7th largest economy in Asia, is included in the advanced economies group by the International Monetary Fund and gauged in the high-income economies group by the World Bank, ranked 15th in the world by the Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum, has a developed capitalist economy that ranks as the 22nd-largest in the world by purchasing power parity, ranks as 18th in the world by gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita, 24th in nominal GDP of investment and foreign trade by the Republic of China government referred to as Taiwan. As of 2018, telecommunication, financial services and utility services are three highest individuals paid sectors in Taiwan; the economy of Taiwan ranks the highest in Asia for 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Index for specific strengths. Most large government-owned banks and industrial firms have been privatized, now family owned businesses are the streamlined economic factors in Taiwan. With the technocracy-centered economic planning under martial law until 1987, real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades.
Exports have grown faster and since World War II, have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are low. Agriculture contributes 3% to GDP, down from 35% in 1952, the service sector makes up 73% of the economy. Traditional labor-intensive industries are being moved off-shore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries in the pre-mature stage of the manufacturing industry in the global economic competitions on labor cost, product design realization, technology commercialization, scientific materialization, scientific discovery, growing from the over-reliance from the original equipment manufacturer and original design manufacturer models, in which there is no single University from Taiwan entering Reuter's Global Top Innovative 100 University ranking, the economy of Taiwan may need international collaboration on University and Industrial cooperation on spin-off opportunities. Economy of Taiwan is an indispensable partner in the Global Value Chains of Electronics Industry.
Electronic components and personal computer are two areas of international strength of Taiwan's Information Technology industry, which means the economy of Taiwan has the competitive edge on having the learning curve from advanced foreign technologies with lower cost to be produced and sold abroad. Institute for Information Industry with its international recognitions is responsible for the development of IT industry and ICT industry in Taiwan. Industrial Technology Research Institute with its global partners is the advanced research center for applied technology for the economy of Taiwan. Directorate-General of Budget and Statistics and Ministry of Economic Affairs release major economic indicators of the economy of Taiwan. Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research provides economic forecast at the forefront for the economy of Taiwan and authoritatively researches on the bilateral economic relations with ASEAN by The Taiwan ASEAN Studies Center. Taiwan Stock Exchange is the host to the listed companies of local industries in Taiwan with weighted financial exposures to the FTSE Taiwan Index and MSCI Taiwan Index.
International Trade is assisted by Taiwan External Trade Development Council. Taiwanese investors and businesses have become major investors in mainland China, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia; because of the conservative and stable financial policy by the Central Bank of the Republic of China and the entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little from the financial crisis of 1997-1999 compared to many economies in the region. Two major banks in Taiwan are Bank of Taiwan and Mega International Commercial Bank, but financial industry is not the major international industry in Taiwan. Unlike the neighboring Japan and South Korea and medium-sized businesses make up a significant proportion of the businesses in Taiwan. Taiwan is characterized as one of the Newly industrialized economy in the wake of the Ten Major Construction Projects since 1970's. Since 1990's, the economy of Taiwan has adopted economic liberalization with the successive regulatory reforms. London Metal Exchange, the largest metal stock exchange in the world, approved Kaohsiung, Taiwan as a good delivery point for primary aluminium, aluminium alloy, lead, nickel and zinc and as the LME’s ninth location in Asia on 17 June 2013, for future contracts on metals and industrial production of the global integration of the economy of Taiwan.
The economy of Taiwan has the world's highest modern convenience store concentration density. The Indirect tax system of the economy of Taiwan comprises Gross Business Receipts Tax and Value-added tax; the economy of Taiwan is ranked 15th overall in the Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors by the MasterCard 2014 Global Destination Cities Index. Bubble Tea originated in Taiwan. Taiwan is a member of the Asian Development Bank, the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Taiwan is an observer at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development under the name of "Chinese Taipei", a member of International Chamber of Commerce as "Chinese Taipei". Taiwan signed Economic Cooperation Framework Agre
The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s commonly known as Formosa, was under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662. In the context of the Age of Discovery, the Dutch East India Company established its presence on Formosa to trade with the Chinese and Japanese, to interdict Portuguese and Spanish trade and colonial activities in East Asia; the time of Dutch rule saw economic development in Taiwan, including both large-scale hunting of deer and the cultivation of rice and sugar by imported Han labour from the Ming Empire. The Dutch attempted to convert the aboriginal inhabitants to Christianity, suppress aspects of traditional culture that they found disagreeable, such as head hunting, forced abortion and public nakedness; the Dutch were not universally welcomed, uprisings by both aborigines and recent Han arrivals were quelled by the Dutch military on more than one occasion. With the rise of the Qing dynasty in the early 17th century, Dutch East India Company cut ties with the Ming dynasty and allied with the Qing instead, in exchange for the right to unfettered access to their trade and shipping routes.
The colonial period was brought to an end after the 1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia by the Koxinga's army who promptly dismantled the Dutch colony, expelled the Dutch and established the Ming loyalist, anti-Qing Kingdom of Tungning. At the beginning of the 17th century, the forces of Catholic Spain and Portugal were in opposition to those of the Netherlands and England, both Protestant resulting in open warfare in Europe and in their possessions in Asia; the Dutch first attempted to trade with China in 1601 but were rebuffed by the Chinese authorities, who were engaged in trade with the Portuguese at Macau from 1535. In a 1604 expedition from Batavia, Admiral van Warwijk set out to attack Macau, but his force was waylaid by a typhoon, driving them to the Pescadores, a group of islands 30 miles west of Formosa. Once there, the admiral attempted to negotiate trade terms with the Chinese on the mainland, but was asked to pay an exorbitant fee for the privilege of an interview. Surrounded by a vastly superior Chinese fleet, he left without achieving any of his aims.
The Dutch East India Company tried to use military force to make China open up a port in Fujian to trade and demanded that China expel the Portuguese, whom the Dutch were fighting in the Dutch–Portuguese War, from Macau. The Dutch raided Chinese shipping after 1618 and took junks hostage in an unsuccessful attempt to get China to meet their demands. In 1622, after another unsuccessful Dutch attack on Macau, the fleet sailed to the Pescadores, this time intentionally, proceeded to set up a base there at Makung, they built a fort there with forced labour recruited from the local Chinese population. Their oversight was so severe and rations so short that 1,300 of the 1,500 Chinese enslaved died in the process of construction; the same year a ship named the Golden Lion was wrecked at Lamey just off the southwest coast of Formosa. The following year, 1623, Dutch traders in search of an Asian base first arrived on the island, intending to use the island as a station for Dutch commerce with Japan and the coastal areas of China.
The Dutch demanded. China refused; the Chinese Governor of Fujian, Shang Zhouzuo, demanded that the Dutch withdraw from the Pescadores to Formosa, where the Chinese would permit them to engage in trade. This led to a war between the Dutch and China between 1622-1624 which ended with the Chinese being successful in making the Dutch abandon the Pescadores and withdraw to Formosa; the Dutch threatened that China would face Dutch raids on Chinese ports and shipping unless the Chinese allowed trading on the Pescadores and that China not trade with Manila but only with the Dutch in Batavia and Siam and Cambodia. However, the Dutch found out that, unlike tiny Southeast Asian Kingdoms, China could not be bullied or intimidated by them. After Shang ordered them to withdraw to Formosa on 19 September 1622, the Dutch raided Amoy on October and November; the Dutch intended to "induce the Chinese to trade by force or from fear." By raiding Fujian and Chinese shipping from the Pescadores. Long artillery batteries were erected at Amoy in March 1622 by Colonel Li-kung-hwa as a defence against the Dutch.
On the Dutch attempt in 1623 to force China to open up a port, five Dutch ships were sent to Liu-ao and the mission ended in failure for the Dutch, with a number of Dutch sailors taken prisoner and one of their ships lost. In response to the Dutch using captured Chinese for forced labor and strengthening their garrison in the Pescadores with five more ships in addition to the six there, the new Governor of Fujian, Nan Juyi, was permitted by China to begin preparations to attack the Dutch forces in July 1623. A Dutch raid was defeated by the Chinese at Amoy on October 1623, with the Chinese taking the Dutch commander Christian Francs prisoner and burning one of the four Dutch ships. Yu Zigao began an offensive in February 1624 with warships and troops against the Dutch in the Pescadores with the intent of expelling them; the Chinese offensive reached the Dutch fort on 30 July 1624, with 5,000 Chinese troops and 40-50 warships under Yu and General Wang Mengxiong surrounding the fort commanded by Marten Sonck, the Dutch were forced to sue for peace on August 3 and folded before the Chinese demands, withdrawing from the Pescadores to Formosa.
The Dutch admitted that their attempt