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Photokeratitis

Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet rays from either natural or artificial sources. Photokeratitis is akin to a sunburn of the cornea and conjunctiva, is not noticed until several hours after exposure. Symptoms include a feeling of pain, likened to having sand in the eyes; the injury may be prevented by wearing eye protection that blocks most of the ultraviolet radiation, such as welding goggles with the proper filters, a welder's helmet, sunglasses rated for sufficient UV protection, or appropriate snow goggles. The condition is managed by removal from the source of ultraviolet radiation, covering the corneas, administration of pain relief. Photokeratitis is known by a number of different terms including: snow blindness, arc eye, welder's flash, bake eyes, corneal flash burns, sand man's eye, flash burns, potato eye, or keratoconjunctivitis photoelectrica. Common symptoms include pain, intense tears, eyelid twitching, discomfort from bright light, constricted pupils.

Any intense exposure to UV light can lead to photokeratitis. Common causes include welders who have failed to use adequate eye protection such as an appropriate welding helmet or welding goggles; this is termed arc eye, while photokeratitis caused by exposure to sunlight reflected from ice and snow at elevation, is called snow blindness. It can occur due to using tanning beds without proper eyewear. Natural sources include bright sunlight reflected from snow or ice or, less from sea or sand. Fresh snow reflects about 80 % of the UV radiation compared to a sandy beach or sea foam; this is a problem in polar regions and at high altitudes, as with every thousand feet of elevation, the intensity of UV rays increases by four percent. Fluorescein dye staining will reveal damage to the cornea under ultraviolet light. Photokeratitis can be prevented by using sunglasses or eye protection that transmits 5–10% of visible light and absorbs all UV rays. Additionally, these glasses should have large lenses and side shields to avoid incidental light exposure.

Sunglasses should always be worn when the sky is overcast, as UV rays can pass through clouds. The Inuit and other Arctic peoples carved snow goggles from materials such as driftwood or caribou antlers to help prevent snow blindness. Curved to fit the user's face with a large groove cut in the back to allow for the nose, the goggles allowed in a small amount of light through a long thin slit cut along their length; the goggles were held to the head by a cord made of caribou sinew. In the event of missing sunglass lenses, emergency lenses can be made by cutting slits in dark fabric or tape folded back onto itself; the SAS Survival Guide recommends blackening the skin underneath the eyes with charcoal to avoid any further reflection. The pain may be temporarily alleviated with anaesthetic eye drops for the examination. Cool, wet compresses over the eyes and artificial tears may help local symptoms when the feeling returns. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug eyedrops are used to lessen inflammation and eye pain, but have not been proven in rigorous trials.

Systemic pain medication is given. Healing is rapid if the injury source is removed. Further injury should be avoided by isolation in a dark room, removing contact lenses, not rubbing the eyes, wearing sunglasses until the symptoms improve. Actinic conjunctivitis Albedo Glare Over-illumination Health effects of sun exposure Selective yellow Eye black Solar Retinopathy

Copyright Agency Ltd

Copyright Agency Ltd is an Australian company incorporated under the Corporations Act 2001 for the purpose of providing institutions—especially educational institutions the use of copyright material, in print or electronic form. Educational institutions may claim a Statutory Educational license under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 by: publishing a notice in the Commonwealth Government Gazette. An annual fee is payable by participating educational institutions based on estimated usage of copyright material determined by student numbers. CAL centrally manages the reproduction rights of thousands of authors, surveyors, visual artistsm and publishers. Membership of CAL is free to all Australian copyright owners. CAL collects the copying fees, deducts its administrative expenses, distributes the balance annually to copyright owners based on the results of copying surveys. CAL has been appointed by the Commonwealth Attorney-General to administer the licences; some commentators, such as Nicholas Gruen have been critical of the vigour with which CAL has pursued revenue, for instance collecting fees from schools for the photocopying of websites that are available to all to view on the internet or fees from decades old surveyors maps held in land registries for which surveyors have been paid.

Australian Copyright Council Copyright agency Copyright law of Australia Official website Copying Rights for Educational Institutions

Geoff Dymock

Geoffrey Dymock is a former Australian and Queensland cricketer. He played in 21 Test matches and 15 One Day Internationals between 1974 and 1980. On his debut, he took five wickets in the second innings against New Zealand in Adelaide in 1974, he was the third bowler to dismiss all eleven opposition players in a Test match, remains one of only six bowlers to have achieved this. Dymock captained the Queensland cricket team for 9 matches between 1980 and 1982. In the words of Gideon Haigh Geoff Dymock would have played more Tests for Australia in an era less blessed with fast-bowling talent; as it was, he exceeded his own expectations when, sporting a bushranger's beard at the age of 34 in 1979-80, he wheeled down his left-arm seamers manfully in India, against England and West Indies at home. No bowler, was so tireless a trier in the years when Queensland seemed likelier to win the FA Cup than the Sheffield Shield. Dymock made his first class debut in 1971-72. A highlight was 4-34 against South Australia.

The following season he took 24 wickets at 26.08. He had a strong domestic season in 1973-74 with 51 wickets at 19.88. He made his test debut that summer against New Zealand, in the third test in Adelaide, replacing Tony Dell. Australia's selectors were trialling many new players and Dymock debuted alongside Alan Hurst and Ashley Woodcock. Dymock was picked on the 1974 tour of New Zealand. In the first test he took 3-77. Things were harder in the second test, Dymock going for 3-59 and 0-84. Dymock was dropped for the third test. Dymock began the 1974-75 season as a front-runner for test selection, he took 20 wickets at 16.8 early in the summer including five wickets against the touring English side. However the selectors preferred Jeff Thomson and Max Walker. Dymock took 46 first class wickets at 23.95 that summer. He was picked for the 6th test. Dymock went for 1-130. Dymock had a slower season in 1975-76 with 22 wickets at 31.86, could not force his way into the test team past Lillee, Thomson and Gary Gilmour.

However the following summer he took 34 wickets at 24.65, including 5-24 against South Australia, earning him a spot on the 1977 Ashes in place of Gilmour. While in England, it was revealed he was one of our four tour members who had not been offered a spot with World Series Cricket, he was offered the chance to play cricket in Tasmania but turned it down when he was offered sponsorship from radio station 4IP. Dymock took 15 first wickets at 31.20 on tour but was the only pace bowler who did not play a test.. Dymock was ignored for national selection during the 1977-78 summer, not picked to play any tests against the touring Indian side and overlooked for the tour of the West Indies; however he began the 1978-79 series well, with 5-45 against Victoria. Dymock was picked to play for Australia for the second test, he took 1-72 and 1-53. He had a better game in the third, taking 2-37 in a rare Australian victory; the fourth test brought him returns of 0-34 and 0-35. He lost his spot for the fifth test.

He did replace Rodney Hogg for the ODIs against England. In the second one his 2-21 won Dymock a Man of the Match award, he scored 67, in a Shield game. He was back in the test team for the second test against Pakistan, taking 3-65 and 1-72 in an Australian victory, he was selected on the 1979 World Cup and the following tour of India. He took 0-65 in the first test and his batting helped Australia escape with a draw, he was dropped for the second but in the third took 5-99 and 7-67. He became the third bowler in Test cricket’s history to dismiss all 11 opposition batsmen after Jim Laker and second being Srinivas Venkataraghavan. In the fourth test he made 31 not out, he took 32 first class wickets at 23.06 in India. Dymock was expected to lose his spot in the Australian side to returning World Series bowlers like Denis Lillee, Jeff Thomson and Len Pascoe; however good domestic form saw Dymock back in the national side for the first test against the West Indies. He was made 12th man but played in the first test against England, taking 3-52 and 6-34.

He was kept on for the second test against the West Indies, taking 4-106. The second test against England brought him 4-42 and 3-38 and the third test against the West Indies, 2-74 and 5-104; the third test against England he took 1-54 and 0-30. Dymock was picked on the 1980 tour of Pakistan, he only bowled seven overs on the spin friendly wicket in the first test, took 1-49 in the second and 0-66 in the third. It was the last test he played for Australia - he was picked on the 1980 tour of England for the Centenary test but did not play in the game - Australia went for two spinners; however he did play in ODIs. Dymock was 35 years old at the start of the 1980-81 season, he took 33 first class wickets that summer at 33.60 but was overlooked at test level in favour of Lillee, Geoff Lawson and Len Pascoe. He was Queensland's captain in the absence of Greg Chappell, he signed for a private cricket tour of South Africa under apartheid rule, but the Australian Cricket Board objected and the tour was cancelled.

Dymock was one of 18 players under contract to the ACB at the time. Dymock said, "I get upset when people in other States or overseas criticise the way Aborigines in Queensland are treated because the critics are speaking without any knowledge of the subject... I was disappointed