Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light. As a medical symptom, photophobia is not a morbid fear or phobia, but an experience of discomfort or pain to the eyes due to light exposure or by presence of actual physical sensitivity of the eyes, though the term is sometimes additionally applied to abnormal or irrational fear of light such as heliophobia; the term photophobia comes from the Greek φῶς, meaning "light", φόβος, meaning "fear". Photophobia is a common symptom of visual snow. Severe or chronic photophobia, such as in migraine or seizure disorder, may result in a person not feeling well with eye ache, headache and/or neck ache; these symptoms may persist for days after the person is no longer exposed to the offensive light source. Further, once the eyes have become sensitized to the offensive light source, they may become more photosensitive with extreme pain occurring upon exposure to light. Chronic photophobia may adversely impact a person's ability to interact in social settings and the work place.
Bright overhead lighting may make shopping a painful experience for example, or render the patient dysfunctional in the work place. Office lighting intended to allow employees to get their work done may prevent one with photophobia from getting the job done and lead to such person getting fired; the physical and psychological effects of being in constant pain and overwhelmed with bright light that co-workers cannot perceive stacks the deck against one with photophobia having a successful career or making a living. As such, photophobia can be a cruel, yet invisible disorder. Cultural factors associating darkness with evil, lack of interest or training among general practitioners or specialists, a historical lack of medical research interest/support in the area have tended to stigmatize and isolate photophobia patients, leaving them vulnerable to workplace discrimination or unfair treatment/job loss. Patients may develop photophobia as a result of several different medical conditions, related to the eye, the nervous system, genetic, or other causes.
Photophobia may manifest itself in an increased response to light starting at any step in the visual system, such as: Too much light entering the eye. Too much light can enter the eye if it is damaged, such as with corneal abrasion and retinal damage, or if its pupil is unable to constrict. Due to albinism, the lack of pigment in the colored part of the eyes makes them somewhat translucent; this means that the irises can't block light from entering the eye. Overstimulation of the photoreceptors in the retina Excessive electric impulses to the optic nerve Excessive response in the central nervous system Elevated trigeminal nerve tone. Elevated trigeminal tone causes elevated substance P. Due to jaw misalignment. Common causes of photophobia include migraine headaches, TMJ, cataracts, Sjögren syndrome, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, or severe ophthalmologic diseases such as uveitis or corneal abrasion. A more extensive list follows: Causes of photophobia relating directly to the eye itself include: Neurological causes for photophobia include: The best treatment for light sensitivity is to address the underlying cause, whether it be an eye, nervous system or other cause.
Notwithstanding recent progress in understanding light sensitivity of the eye, much more research is needed to better understand and treat photophobia where it relates to migraine or other nervous system disorders. Genetic research into photophobia-related disorders is needed. If the triggering factor or underlying cause can be identified and treated, photophobia may disappear. People with photophobia may feel eye pain from moderate levels of artificial light and avert their eyes from artificial light sources. Ambient levels of artificial light may be intolerable to persons afflicted with photophobia such that they dim or remove the light source, or go into a dimmer lit room, such a one lit by refraction of light from outside the room. Alternatively, they may wear dark sunglasses, sunglasses designed to filter peripheral light, and/or wide-brimmed sun hat or a baseball caps; some types of photophobia may be helped with the use of precision tinted lenses which block the green-to-blue end of the light spectrum without blurring or impeding vision.
Other strategies for relieving photophobia include the use of tinted contact lenses and/or the use of prescription eye drops that constrict the pupil, thus reducing the amount of light entering the eye. Such strategies may be limited by the amount of light needed for proper vision under given conditions, however. Dilating drops may help relieve eye pain from muscle spasms or seizure triggered by lighting/migraine, allowing a person to "ride out the migraine" in a dark or dim room. A paper by Stringham and Hammond, published in the Journal of Food Science, reviews studies of effects of consuming Lutein and Zeaxanthin on visual performance, notes a decrease in sensitivity to glare. Photophobia may preclude or limit a person from working in places where offensive lighting is ubiquitous, unless the person is able to obtain a reasonable accommodation; some people with photophobia may be better able to work at night, or be more accommodated in the work place at night. Outdoor night lighting may be offensive for persons wit
Barom Reachea IV or Barom Reachea VII known as Srei Soriyopear, was the Cambodian king who ruled from 1603 to 1618. He was appointed the ouparach by his elder brother Satha I in 1579. In 1594, when Cambodia was attacked by Siam, Chey Chettha I and Satha I fled the capital, leaving Soriyopear to defend against the Siamese. Soriyopear was granted the title Uprayorach, the title borne by kings who had abdicated but retained executive powers, he was assisted by Spanish and Portuguese mercenaries, but in the same year Lovek was captured by Siamese, he was taken to Ayutthaya along with 90,000 Cambodians. Srei Soriyopear was released and returned to Cambodia in 1600. With the help of the Siamese, his nephew Kaev Hua I was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of him. Cambodia became a vassal of Siam. Soriyopear built the new capital Oudong in 1601, he died in 1619, succeeded by his eldest son Chey Chettha II. Siamese–Cambodian War
United Nations Security Council resolution 1446, adopted unanimously on 4 December 2002, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone resolutions 1132, 1171, 1299, 1306 and 1385, the Council extended prohibitions relating to the import of rough diamonds not under the control of the Sierra Leonean government until 5 June 2003. The Security Council began by welcoming the end of the civil war in the country and significant progress in the peace process and security situation, it urged the government to extend its authority throughout the country, including the diamond-producing areas. The Council noted that the illicit trade in diamonds had fuelled the conflict in Sierra Leone and welcomed international efforts to combat the link between the illegal trade in diamonds and armed conflict by the World Diamond Council. Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the resolution extended restrictions against the import of diamonds from Sierra Leone not controlled by a certificate of origin regime until 5 June 2003, though they would be terminated if appropriate.
It welcomed a report indicating. The Secretary-General Kofi Annan was called upon to publicise the provisions and obligations of the current resolution. Blood diamonds List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1401 to 1500 Sierra Leone Civil War Special Court for Sierra Leone Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1446 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org