Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
The Motorola 6809 is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola. It was designed by Terry Ritter and Joel Boney and introduced in 1978, it was a major advance over both its predecessor, the Motorola 6800, the related MOS Technology 6502. Among the systems to use the 6809 are the Dragon home computers, TRS-80 Color Computer, the Vectrex home console, early 1980s arcade machines including Defender, Robotron: 2084, Gyruss. Unlike the 6800 and 6502, the 6809 allowed position-independent code and reentrant code in a simple and straightforward way, without using difficult programming tricks. Along with the 8086, it was one of the first microprocessors to implement a hardware multiplication instruction, it features full 16-bit arithmetic and an fast interrupt system. Among the significant enhancements introduced in the 6809 were the use of two 8-bit accumulators, two 16-bit index registers and two 16-bit stack pointers; the index and stack registers allowed advanced addressing modes.
Program counter relative addressing allowed for the easy creation of position-independent code, while a user stack pointer facilitated the creation of reentrant code. The 6809 was assembler source-compatible with the 6800, though the 6800 had 78 instructions to the 6809's 59; some instructions were replaced by more general ones which the assembler translated into equivalent operations and some were replaced by addressing modes. The instruction set and register complement were orthogonal, making the 6809 easier to program than the 6800 or 6502. Like the 6800, the 6809 included an undocumented address bus test instruction which came to be nicknamed Halt and Catch Fire. Unlike contemporary processors that used a microcoded architecture, the 6809's internal design was more similar to early simple CPU designs. Like most 8-bit microprocessors, the 6809 implementation could in large parts be viewed as a register-transfer level machine, using a central PLA to implement much of the instruction decoding as well as parts of the sequencing.
Just like the 6800 and 6502, the 6809 uses a two-phase clock to gate the latches. This two phase clock cycle is used as a full machine cycle in these processors. Simple instructions could therefore execute in as little as two or three such cycles, although this means that these cycles must be pretty slow; as a comparison, the higher resolution state machine of a CPU like the Z80 allowed clock frequencies 3-5 times as high with the same speed memory chips, the limiting factor. This is because the Z80 combines two full clock cycles into a long memory access period compared to the clock, while the more asynchronous 6809 instead has short memory access times: depending on version and speed grade 40-60% of a single clock cycle was available for memory access in a 6800, 6502 or 6809; the 6809 had an internal two-phase clock generator whereas the 6809E needed an external clock generator. There were variants such as the 68A09 and 68B09; the Motorola 6809 was produced in 1 MHz, 1.5 MHz and 2 MHz speed ratings.
Faster versions were produced by Hitachi. With little to improve, the 6809 marks the end of the evolution of Motorola's 8-bit processors. A micro-controller version with a modified instruction set, the 6811, was discontinued as late as the second decade of the 21st century; the 6809 is sometimes considered to be the conceptual precursor of the Motorola 68000 family of processors, though this is a misunderstanding: the 6809 and 68000 design projects ran in parallel, the two CPUs have quite differing architectures as well as radically different implementation principles. However, there is a certain amount of design philosophy similarity and some assembly language syntax resemblance as well as opcode mnemonic similarity. Notwithstanding the common elements, the 6809 is a derivative of the 6800, whereas the 68000 was a new design; the 6809 design team believed that future system integrators would look to off-the-shelf code in ROMs to handle common tasks. In order to speed time to market, common code modules would be purchased, rather than developed in-house, integrated into systems with code from other manufacturers.
An example of standard ROM code might be binary floating point arithmetic, a common requirement in many systems. Drawing routines for graphics primitives, Lempel-Ziv data compression and decompression, string searching are other potential content for standard ROM modules. For yet another example, Motorola's official programming manual contains the full listing of assist09, a so-called monitor, a miniature operating system intended to be burned in ROM. Since the programmer of a common code module could hardly guarantee where this code would be located in a future system, the 6809 design focused on support of position-independent code that can be located anywhere in the memory map without modification; the 6809 design focused on supporting reentrant code, code that can be called from various different programs concurrently without concern for coordination between them, or that can recursively call
Central processing unit
A central processing unit called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more to its processing unit and control unit, distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry; the form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit chip. An IC that contains a CPU may contain memory, peripheral interfaces, other components of a computer; some computers employ a multi-core processor, a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources. Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is defined as a device for software execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer; the idea of a stored-program computer had been present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was omitted so that it could be finished sooner.
On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions of various types; the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, was not the first stored-program computer. Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a sometimes distinctive computer. However, this method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the development of multi-purpose processors produced in large quantities; this standardization began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit.
The IC has allowed complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles to cellphones, sometimes in toys. While von Neumann is most credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, the design became known as the von Neumann architecture, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas; the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, completed before EDVAC used a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory. The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
Most modern CPUs are von Neumann in design, but CPUs with the Harvard architecture are seen as well in embedded applications. Relays and vacuum tubes were used as switching elements; the overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the Harvard Mark I failed rarely. In the end, tube-based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded outweighed the reliability problems. Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were common at this time, limited by the speed of the switching de
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
Dig Dug is an arcade video game developed and published by Namco in Japan in 1982. It runs on Namco Galaga hardware, was published in North America and Europe by Atari, Inc.. Gakken made a tabletop handheld game of Dig Dug in 1982, it was one of magnifying Fresnel lens. The player of the game progresses through multiple rounds by eliminating enemies that live under the ground; the player makes their own passages. They eliminate enemies by pumping them up with air until they explode; the objective of Dig Dug is to eliminate underground-dwelling monsters, either by inflating them with an air pump until they explode or by dropping rocks on them. There are two kinds of enemies in the game: "Pookas" and "Fygars"; the player's character is the eponymous Dig Dug, dressed in red and blue and able to dig tunnels through dirt. Dig Dug will be killed if he is caught by either a Pooka or a Fygar, burned by a Fygar's fire, or crushed by a rock, it takes four ` pumps' with the player's action button to inflate a monster.
A inflated monster will deflate and recover after a few seconds, but half-inflating is a useful way to stun an enemy for a few moments to make sure it remains in the path of a falling rock. The player can pass through the enemy while it is deflating. In some versions, deflating is slow enough that the player can execute rapid, partial inflate actions and pop a monster much more than just holding the'pump' button down; the monsters move horizontally on the surface and both horizontally and vertically through the tunnels in the dirt. While in the tunnels they can turn into ghostly eyes which slows their movement but gives them the added advantage of diagonal travel through the solid dirt and rock; the last remaining enemy in each round will attempt to escape to the surface and off the top left side of the screen. More points will be awarded for exploding an enemy further down in the dirt. Additionally, Fygars are worth double points if exploded horizontally, since they can only breathe fire horizontally in the direction they are facing.
Extra points are awarded for dropping rocks on enemies in order to eliminate them rather than inflating them. If one enemy is killed by the rock, it is worth 1000 points; the next two add 1500 points each, any after that add 2000. The act of mining is itself worth points—giving 10 points for each block mined—so some players will do as much of it as possible when the threat from the remaining monsters is minimal. After the player drops two rocks, a bonus item appears at the center of the screen, awarding points if the player can collect it before it disappears; these items consist of various fruits and vegetables, as well as the flagship from the Namco game Galaxian, appear if either of the dropped rocks fails to crush any enemies. In the original arcade version, the most points attainable from a single bonus item is 8000 from the pineapple, which appears in round 18 and every round thereafter. If the player should drop a rock on a foe at the same time he pumps it to death, a glitch will occur whereupon all enemies will promptly disappear, but the game will not progress and the player will be free to dig through all dirt.
Attaining the next level of play will remain impossible, but the glitch can be resolved by forcing a rock to drop. The current round's number is represented by flowers in the top right of the screen, each new round is noted at the beginning of each round. After every fourth round, the colors of the dirt layers will alternate. In successive rounds more monsters appear on each screen, they move more quickly. A round is completed when the last monster escapes or is dispatched. In the coin-operated version the game will end on round 256, since the board is an unplayable kill screen; when the round starts, a Pooka will be placed directly on top of where the player starts, will kill Dig Dug instantly. There is no way to kill it. No tunnels are drawn. Strangely, a couple of Pookas and Fygars appear, but they don't have a tunnel to be placed in, so they are just overlaid onto the dirt. After round 99, the game has difficulties processing 3-digit numbers, causing possible strange glitches to happen, such as in the name entry, when the first two digits of the 3-digit number are represented as "A", a strange black figure shortly appears and disappears onto one of the round flowers, etc.
Although Namco has given the character of the original Dig Dug the name Dig Dug, in other games where he makes an appearance, the protagonist goes by the name Taizo Hori, is the father of Susumu Hori, the main character in the Mr. Driller series, he is the ex-husband of Toby "Kissy" Masuyo, the heroine of Baraduke. His name is a pun on the Japanese phrase "Horitai zo" or "I want to dig!" – a similar pun might be rendered in English as "Will Dig" or "Wanda Dig". His real name was revealed outside Japan in the Nintendo DS game Mr. Driller Drill Spirits, where he is a playable character, he is additionally featured in an unlockable gallery of Mr. Driller items in Mr. Driller 2. In the Mr. Driller series, Hori is known as the "Hero of the Dig Dug Incident". In Japan, he is the Hero of the South Island incident and is the honorary chairman of the Driller Council to whom most of the characters answer
Kaitei Takara Sagashi
Kaitei Takara Sagashi is a 1980 arcade game, developed by K. K. Tokki as a prototype and sold to Namco, where it was rewritten; the title of the game translates into English as "Undersea Treasure Hunting". Use the 2-way joystick to direct the boat across the surface of the ocean press the button to lower the diver down to the bottom of the ocean while watching out for the sharks swimming across the screen. During this time, you can hold the button to pause the diver's descent and push the joystick in either direction to fire a harpoon at the sharks for 30-300 points apiece. Once the diver has reached the bottom of the ocean, push the joystick in either direction to make him walk towards either of the two treasure caches that are closest to him; when the diver is directly over a treasure cache, the boat will lower him into it. The amount of points you will receive when you make it back onto the surface of the ocean, which can range from 50-250, will appear on the screen, the boat will raise the diver back up to the surface of the ocean.
Once again, you can hold the button to pause the diver's ascent, push the joystick in either direction to fire a harpoon at the sharks. Once you have made it back up to the surface of the ocean, you will have to repeat the entire process for each of the four remaining treasure caches before the game proceeds to the next round. Kaitei Takara Sagashi at GameFAQs
An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine installed in public businesses such as restaurants and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost; the first popular "arcade games" included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person's fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks provided the inspiration and atmosphere for arcade games.
In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their electronic cousins in that they were made of wood, they lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring. In 1966 Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope - an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine, it became an instant success in Japan and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. In 1967 Taito released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers.
Sega produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. The first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt, appeared in 1969; that same year, Sega released an electro-mechanical arcade racing game, Grand Prix, which had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a racing wheel and accelerator, a forward-scrolling road projected on a screen. Another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen, it was the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which formed part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen.
In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S. A. M. I.. In the same year, Sega released Jet Rocket, a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. In the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong in 1972, electronic video-games replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. In 1972, Sega released an electro-mechanical game called Killer Shark, a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film Jaws. In 1974, Nintendo released Wild Gunman, a light-gun shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was F-1, a racing game developed by Namco and distributed by Atari in 1976; the 1978 video game Space Invaders, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games. In 1971 students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the video game Spacewar.
This ranks as the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game. In the same year, Nolan Bushnell created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space, for Nutting Associates. In 1972, Atari was formed by Ted Dabney. Atari created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong, the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market. Taito's Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game, its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game arcades sprang up in shopping malls, small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores and movie theaters all over the United States and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Battlezone and Bosconian were popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion. During the late 1970s and 1980s, chains such as Chuck E.
Cheese's, Ground Round and Busters, ShowBiz Pizza Place and Gatti's Pizza combined