The major scale is one of the most used musical scales in Western music. It is one of the diatonic scales. Like many musical scales, it is made up of seven notes: the eighth duplicates the first at double its frequency so that it is called a higher octave of the same note; the simplest major scale to write is C major, the only major scale not requiring sharps or flats: The major scale had a central importance in Western music in the common practice period and in popular music. In Carnatic music, it is known as Dheerasankarabharanam. In Hindustani classical music, it is known as Bilaval. A major scale is a diatonic scale; the sequence of intervals between the notes of a major scale is: whole, half, whole, halfwhere "whole" stands for a whole tone, "half" stands for a semitone. A major scale may be seen as two identical tetrachords separated by a whole tone; each tetrachord consists of two whole tones followed by a semitone. The major scale is maximally even; the scale degrees are: 1st: Tonic 2nd: Supertonic 3rd: Mediant 4th: Subdominant 5th: Dominant 6th: Submediant 7th: Leading tone8th: Tonic The triads built on each scale degree follow a distinct pattern.
The roman numeral analysis is shown in parentheses. 1st: Major triad 2nd: minor triad 3rd: minor triad 4th: Major triad 5th: Major triad 6th: minor triad 7th: diminished triad If a piece of music is in a major key the notes in the corresponding major scale are considered diatonic notes, while the notes outside the major scale are considered chromatic notes. Moreover, the key signature of the piece of music will reflect the accidentals in the corresponding major scale. For instance, if a piece of music is in E♭ major the seven pitches in the E♭ major scale are considered diatonic pitches, the other five pitches are considered chromatic pitches. In this case, the key signature will have three flats; the figure below shows all 12 relative major and minor keys, with major keys on the outside and minor keys on the inside arranged around the circle of fifths. The numbers inside the circle show the number of sharps or flats in the key signature, with the sharp keys going clockwise, the flat keys counterclockwise from C major The circular arrangement depends on enharmonic relationships in the circle reckoned at six sharps or flats for the major keys of F♯ = G♭ and D♯ = E♭ for minor keys.
Seven sharps or flats make major keys that may be more conveniently spelled with five flats or sharps. The term "major scale" is used in the names of some other scales whose first and fifth degrees form a major triad; the harmonic major scale has a minor sixth. It differs from the harmonic minor scale only by raising the third degree. There are two scales that go by the name melodic major scale: The first is the fifth mode of the jazz minor scale, which can be thought of as the major scale with a lowered sixth and seventh degree or the natural minor scale with a raised third; the second is the combined scale that goes as Ionian ascending and as the previous melodic major descending. It differs from melodic minor scale only by raising the third degree to a major third; the double harmonic major scale has a minor sixth. It is the fifth mode of the Hungarian minor scale. Ionian mode Major and minor Listen to and download harmonised Major scale piano MP3s
Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours.
His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul."
Johann von Staupitz, his superior, pointed
Ambrosian chant is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Ambrosian rite of the Roman Catholic Church, related to but distinct from Gregorian chant. It is associated with the Archdiocese of Milan, named after St. Ambrose much as Gregorian chant is named after Gregory the Great, it is the only surviving plainchant tradition besides the Gregorian to maintain the official sanction of the Roman Catholic Church. The history of Milan as a center for religious music goes back to St. Ambrose. Ambrose is not known to have composed any of the Ambrosian chant repertory, much as Gregory the Great is not known to have composed any Gregorian chant. However, during his fourth-century tenure as Bishop of Milan, he is credited with introducing hymnody from the Eastern Church into the West. Ambrose composed original hymns as well, four of which still survive, along with music which may not have changed too much from the original melodies. Two methods of singing psalms or other chants are antiphonal. In responsorial singing, the soloist sings a series of verses, each one followed by a response from the choir.
In antiphonal singing, the verses are sung alternately by soloist and choir, or by choir and congregation. In the Western Church where the responsorial method seems to have been used alone, the antiphonal method was introduced by St. Ambrose. Over time, the Milanese liturgy developed into the Ambrosian rite, which shares more in common with the Gallican and Mozarabic rites than with the Roman. Ambrosian chant developed to meet the particular needs of the Ambrosian liturgy. Although the Ambrosian rite is liturgically related to other rites and Ambrosian chant is musically related to other plainchant traditions, different categories of chant, different chant texts, different musical styles make Ambrosian chant a distinct musical repertory. By the 8th century, this chant was attested to be normative across northern Italy reaching into southern Italy as well. Between the 8th and 13th centuries, the Carolingian chant commissioned by Charlemagne developed into what we now know as Gregorian chant, which began to influence and replace most of the other Western plainchant traditions.
By the 12th century, the Mozarabic, Celtic, Old Roman, Beneventan chant traditions had all been superseded by Gregorian chant. Ambrosian chant alone survived, despite the efforts of several Popes over a period of several centuries to establish Gregorian hegemony. A chronicle by the Milanese historian Landolphus from around the year 1000 recounts a legend that two Sacramentaries, one Gregorian and one Ambrosian, were placed on an altar to see which chant had divine acceptance. Ambrosian chant did not wholly escape Gregorian influence; the earliest 8th-century fragments, the more complete chantbooks from the 11th and 12th centuries that preserve the first recorded musical notation, show marked differences between the Gregorian and Ambrosian repertories. Additions to the Ambrosian repertory, whose style differs from the earlier chants, may reflect Gregorian influence. Although St. Charles Borromeo fought to keep the Ambrosian rite intact during Spanish occupation, a contemporary edition of Ambrosian chant, published by Perego in 1622, attempts to categorize the Ambrosian chants into the eight Gregorian modes, not accepted as an accurate reflection of the actual musical practice of the time.
Ambrosian chant has survived to the present day, although its use is now limited to the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan and environs, parts of Lombardy, parts of the Swiss Diocese of Lugano. Most it survived the changes to the liturgy established by Vatican II, in part due to the prior tenure of Pope Paul VI as Archbishop of Milan. Ambrosian chant is defined by its role in the liturgy of the Ambrosian rite, more related to the northern "Gallic" liturgies such as the Gallican rite and the Mozarabic rite than the Roman rite. Musically, Ambrosian chant is related to the Gregorian and Old Roman chant traditions. Many chants are common with musical variation. Like all plainchant, Ambrosian chant is monophonic and a cappella. In accordance with Roman Catholic tradition, it is intended to be sung by males, many Ambrosian chants specify, to sing them, using phrases such as cum Pueris and a Subdiaconis. Stylistically, the Ambrosian chant repertoire is not as musically uniform as the Gregorian.
Ambrosian chants are more varied in length and structure. Within individual categories of chant, Ambrosian chants vary from short and formulaic to prolix and melismatic, may be composed or show significant internal melodic structure, its most distinctive feature compared with other plainchant repertories is a higher amount of stepwise motion, which gives Ambrosian melodies a smoother undulating feel. In manuscripts with musical notation, the neume called the climacus dominates, contributing to the stepwise motion. More ornamental neumes such as the quilisma are nearly absent from the notated scores, although it is unclear whether this reflects actual performance practice, or is a consequence of the late musical transcription; the Gregorian system of modes does not apply to Ambrosian chant. Although there are no b-flats indicated in the musical notation, it seems that they were understood, based on Guido d'Arezzo's description of the "more perdulcis Ambrosii." Nearly all of the texts used in Ambrosian chant are biblical prose, not metrical po
Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76 in Leipzig for the second Sunday after Trinity of the liturgical year and first performed it on 6 June 1723. Bach composed the cantata at a decisive turning point in his career. Moving from posts in the service of churches and courts to the town of Leipzig on the first Sunday after Trinity, 30 May 1723, he began the project of composing a new cantata for every occasion of the liturgical year, he began his first annual cycle of cantatas ambitiously with Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, in an unusual layout of 14 movements in two symmetrical parts, to be performed before and after the sermon. Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, performed a week has the same structure; the unknown poet begins his text with a quotation from Psalm 19 and refers to both prescribed readings from the New Testament, the parable of the great banquet as the Gospel, the First Epistle of John. Bach scored Part I with a trumpet as a symbol of God's Glory.
In Part II, performed after the sermon and during communion, he wrote chamber music with oboe d'amore and viola da gamba, dealing with "brotherly devotion". Both parts are closed with a stanza of Martin Luther's hymn "Es woll uns Gott genädig sein". Johann Sebastian Bach had served in several churches as Kantor and organist, at the courts of Weimar and Köthen, when he applied for the post of Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he had a reputation as an organist and organ expert. He had composed church cantatas, notably the funeral cantata Actus tragicus around 1708. In Weimar, he had begun a project to cover all occasions of the liturgical year by providing one cantata a month for four years, including works such as Weinen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61. Bach composed the cantata for the Second Sunday after Trinity and first performed it in a service in the Thomaskirche in Leipzig on 6 June 1723, a week after he took up the position as cantor in Leipzig with Die Elenden sollen essen.
The cantata is similar in many respects to the earlier work. While BWV 75 was begun in Köthen, this cantata may have been composed in Leipzig, according to a manuscript with many corrections; the two cantatas mark the beginning of Bach's first "annual cycle": he started to compose one cantata for each Sunday and holiday of the liturgical year, a project described by Christoph Wolff as "an artistic undertaking on the largest scale". The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the First Epistle of John, "Whoever doesn't love, remains in Death", from the Gospel of Luke, the parable of the great banquet; the unknown poet was the same as for the first cantata for Leipzig in 14movements arranged in two symmetrical parts to be performed before and after the sermon. Again the cantata begins with words from a Psalm, Psalms 19:1,3, "The heavens declare the glory of God, the firmament shows His handiwork. There is no speech or language, where their voice is not heard", connecting the Gospel to the Old Testament.
The poet first expands in movements 3 the thought of the Universe praising God's creation. In the following two movements he deplores, following the Gospel, that nonetheless people did not follow the invitation of God, therefore he had to invite "von allen Straßen" and bless those, as movement 6 says. Part I closes with the first stanza of Luther's chorale "Es woll uns Gott genädig sein", a paraphrase of Psalm 67. Part I was to be performed before Part II after the sermon and during communion. Part II talks about the duties of those who follow God's invitation, to pass the love of Christ in order to achieve heaven on earth, a thought expressed in the Epistle reading; the third stanza of Luther's chorale closes the work. John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted the Bach Cantata Pilgrimage with the Monteverdi Choir in 2000, evaluated the work, connected to Bach's first cantata for Leipzig: this cantata is more than just a sequel to the previous Sunday's Die Elenden sollen essen... together they form a diptych revealing a thematic continuity extended over two weeks, with plentiful cross-referencing between the two set Gospels and Epistles beyond the obvious parallels between the injunction to give charitably to the hungry and of brotherly love manifested in action.
He described the works as featuring "a characteristically Lutheran interpretation" of the First Epistle of John. He noted the depth of metaphorical uses of "eating and drinking", highlighting "the rich man's table, from which Lazarus tried to gather fallen crumbs, standing in opposition to the "great supper" and God's invitation through Christ to the banquet of eternal life". Summarising both pieces, Gardiner wrote: evidently a lot of thought and pre-planning had gone on while Bach was still in Köthen, as well as discussions with his unknown librettist and with representatives of the Leipzig clergy, before he could set the style and narrative shaping of these two impressive works; the cantata is structured in two parts of seven movements each, to be performed before and after the sermon. It is scored for four vocal soloists, a four-part choir SATB, two oboes, oboe d'amore, two violins, viola da gamba and basso continuo; the two parts of seven movements each are composed as the same arrangement of alternating recitatives and arias with a concluding chorale, only Part II is opened by a sinfonia instead of a chorus.
The duration is given as 35 minutes. In the following table of the movements, the scoring fol
Pange lingua, WAB 33
Pange lingua, WAB 33, is a sacred motet composed by Anton Bruckner in 1868. It is a setting of the Latin hymn Pange lingua for the celebration of Corpus Christi. Bruckner composed the motet on 31 January 1868 at the end of his stay in Linz. Bruckner’s original intention was to have it performed at the same time as the first performance of his Mass in E minor for the dedication of the votive chapel in Linz, the first part of the New Cathedral. Bruckner heard his work only twenty years later; the first performance occurred on 18 August 1890 in the Stadtpfarrkiche of Steyr. The manuscript of the motet is archived at the'Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Franz Xaver Witt was a leader of the Cecilian Movement, aiming to restore Catholic church music "to the purity and comparative simplicity of the Palestrinian style". In 1885 he asked Bruckner for a composition to be included in Musica sacra, the movement's journal, in which he issued a transcription of the motet. Witt modified the alto part without Bruckner's agreement, removing "some of the work's more daring harmonies".
Ten years in 1895, the motet was published in its original setting by Johann Groß, Innsbruck. The motet, which Bruckner called his Lieblings-Tantum ergo, is put in Band XXI/22 of the Gesamtausgabe; the work is a setting of 38 bars in Phrygian mode of the first and last two verses of the Pange lingua for mixed choir a cappella. A 3-bar Amen was added later; the work, composed in the old church mode, begins in unison and evolves via an empty fifth to perfect chords. Max Auer commented: The whole work has much mystic atmosphere and, despite its great simplicity, I would regard it as one of Bruckner's best sacred compositions; the first recording occurred in 1965: Giulio Bertola, Coro Polifonico Italiano – LP: Angelicum LPA 5989A selection among the about 30 recordings of the work: Eugen Jochum, Chor des Bayerischen Rundfunks, Messe Nr. 2 e-Moll, 2 Motetten – LP: LP: DG 2530 139, 1966 Joachim Martini, Junge Kantorei, Geistliche Chormusik der Romantik – LP: Schwarzwald MPS 13004, 1970 George Guest, St. John's College Choir Cambridge, The World of St. John's 1958–1977 – LP: Argo ZRG 760, 1973 Hans-Christoph Rademann, NDR Chor Hamburg, Anton Bruckner: Ave Maria – Carus 83.151, 2000 Dan-Olof Stenlund, Malmö Kammarkör, Bruckner: Ausgewählte Werke – CD: Malmö Kammarkör MKKCD 051, 2004 Stephen Layton, Polyphony Choir, Bruckner: Mass in E minor & Motets – CD: Hyperion CDA 67629, 2007 Marcus Creed, SWR Symphony Orchestra and Stuttgart-Radio Vocal Ensemble, Mass in E minor and Motets – CD: Hänssler Classic SACD 93.199, 2007 Erwin Ortner, Arnold Schoenberg Chor, Anton Bruckner: Tantum ergo – CD: ASC Edition 3, issue of the choir, 2008 Duncan Ferguson, Choir of St. Mary's Cathedral of Edinburgh, Bruckner: Motets – CD: Delphian Records DCD34071, 2010 Max Auer, Anton Bruckner als Kirchenmusiker, G. Bosse, Regensburg, 1927 Anton Bruckner – Sämtliche Werke, Band XXI: Kleine Kirchenmusikwerke, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Hans Bauernfeind and Leopold Nowak, Vienna, 1984/2001 Cornelis van Zwol, Anton Bruckner 1824–1896 – Leven en werken, uitg.
Thoth, Netherlands, 2012. ISBN 978-90-6868-590-9 Crawford Howie, Anton Bruckner – A documentary biography, online revised edition John Williamson: The Cambridge Companion to Bruckner Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-00878-6 Pange lingua, WAB 33: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores for Pange lingua, WAB 33 in the Choral Public Domain Library Pange lingua et Tantum ergo phrygisch, WAB 33 Critical discography by Hans Roelofs A live performance by the Concordia Chamber Choir can be heard on YouTube: Pange lingua, WAB 33
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character", used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions and morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way; the word's use in rhetoric is based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion. Ethos is a Greek word meaning "accustomed place", "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos, meaning "moral, showing moral character"; as an adjective in the neuter plural form ta ethika, used for the study of morals, it is the origin of the modern English word ethics. In modern usage, ethos denotes the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a specific person, corporation, culture, or movement. For example, the poet and critic T. S. Eliot wrote in 1940 that "the general ethos of the people they have to govern determines the behaviour of politicians".
The historian Orlando Figes wrote in 1996 that in Soviet Russia of the 1920s "the ethos of the Communist party dominated every aspect of public life". Ethos may change in response to new forces. For example, according to the Jewish historian Afrie Krampf, ideas of economic modernization which were imported into Palestine in the 1930s brought about "the abandonment of the agrarian ethos and the reception of...the ethos of rapid development". In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion discussed by Aristotle in'Rhetoric' as a component of argument. Speakers must establish ethos from the start; this can involve "moral competence" only. Ethos is limited, by what the speaker says. Others however contend that a speaker's ethos extends to and is shaped by the overall moral character and history of the speaker—that is, what people think of his or her character before the speech has begun. According to Aristotle, there are three categories of ethos: phronesis – useful skills & wisdom arete – virtue, goodwill eunoia – goodwill towards the audienceIn a sense, ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience.
Thus, it is the audience. Violations of ethos include: The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate. Dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is an informal fallacy; the argument may indeed be suspect. For Aristotle, a speaker's ethos was a rhetorical strategy employed by an orator whose purpose was to "inspire trust in his audience". Ethos was therefore achieved through the orator's "good sense, good moral character, goodwill", central to Aristotelian virtue ethics was the notion that this "good moral character" was increased in virtuous degree by habit. Aristotle links virtue and ethos most succinctly in Book II of Nichomachean Ethics: "Virtue being of two kinds and moral, intellectual virtue in the main owes both its birth and its growth to teaching while moral virtue comes about as a result of habit, whence its name ethike is one, formed by a slight variation from the word ethos". Discussing women and rhetoric, scholar Karlyn Kohrs Campbell notes that entering the public sphere was considered an act of moral transgression for females of the nineteenth century: "Women who formed moral reform and abolitionist societies, who made speeches, held conventions, published newspapers, entered the public sphere and thereby lost their claims to purity and piety".
Crafting an ethos within such restrictive moral codes, meant adhering to membership of what Nancy Fraser and Michael Warner have theorized as counterpublics. While Warner contends that members of counterpublics are afforded little opportunity to join the dominant public and therefore exert true agency, Nancy Fraser has problematized Habermas's conception of the public sphere as a dominant "social totality" by theorizing "subaltern counterpublics", which function as alternative publics that represent "parallel discursive arenas where members of subordinated social groups invent and circulate counterdiscourses, which in turn permit them to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities and needs". Though feminist rhetorical theorists have begun to offer more nuanced ways to conceive of ethos, they remain cognizant of how these classical associations have shaped and still do shape women's use of the rhetorical tool. Johanna Schmertz draws on Aristotelian ethos to reinterpret the term alongside feminist theories of subjectivity, writing that, "Instead of following a tradition that, it seems to me, reads ethos somewhat in the manner of an Aristotelian quality proper to the speaker's identity, a quality capable of being deployed as needed to fit a rhetorical situation, I will ask how ethos may be dislodged from identity and read in such a way as to multiply the positions from which women may speak".
Rhetorical scholar and professor Kate Ronald's claim that "ethos is the appeal residing in