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A phugoid or fugoid is an aircraft motion in which the vehicle pitches up and climbs, pitches down and descends, accompanied by speeding up and slowing down as it goes "downhill" and "uphill". This is one of the basic flight dynamics modes of an aircraft, a classic example of a negative feedback system; the phugoid has a nearly constant angle of attack but varying pitch, caused by a repeated exchange of airspeed and altitude. It can be excited by an elevator singlet resulting in a pitch increase with no change in trim from the cruise condition; as speed decays, the nose drops below the horizon. Speed increases, the nose climbs above the horizon. Periods can vary from under 30 seconds for light aircraft to minutes for larger aircraft. Microlight aircraft show a phugoid period of 15–25 seconds, it has been suggested that birds and model airplanes show convergence between the phugoid and short period modes. A classical model for the phugoid period can be simplified to about seconds, but this only works for larger aircraft.

Phugoids are demonstrated to student pilots as an example of the speed stability of the aircraft and the importance of proper trimming. When it occurs, it is considered a nuisance, in lighter airplanes it can be a cause of pilot-induced oscillation; the phugoid, for moderate amplitude, occurs at an constant angle of attack, although in practice the angle of attack varies by a few tenths of a degree. This means that the stalling angle of attack is never exceeded, it is possible to fly at speeds below the known stalling speed. Free flight models with badly unstable phugoid stall or loop, depending on thrust. An unstable or divergent phugoid is caused by a large difference between the incidence angles of the wing and tail. A stable, decreasing phugoid can be attained by building a smaller stabilizer on a longer tail, or, at the expense of pitch and yaw "static" stability, by shifting the center of gravity to the rear; the term "phugoid" was coined by Frederick W. Lanchester, the British aerodynamicist who first characterized the phenomenon.

He derived the word from the Greek words φυγή and εἶδος to mean "flight-like" but recognized the diminished appropriateness of the derivation given that φυγή meant flight in the sense of "escape" rather than vehicle flight. In 1972, an Aero Transporti Italiani Fokker F-27 Friendship, en route from Rome Fiumicino to Foggia, climbing through 13,500 feet, entered an area of poor weather with local thunderstorm activity. At 15,000 feet the aircraft lost 1200 feet of altitude and its speed dropped, it developed phugoid oscillations from. The aircraft struck the ground at a speed of 340 knots. Three crew and fifteen passengers on board were all killed. In the 1975 Tan Son Nhut C-5 accident, USAF C-5 68-0218 with flight controls damaged by failure of the rear cargo/pressure door, encountered phugoid oscillations while the crew was attempting a return to base, crash-landed in a rice paddy adjacent to the airport. Of the 328 people on board, 153 died, making it the deadliest accident involving a US military aircraft.

In 1985, Japan Airlines Flight 123 lost all hydraulic controls and its vertical stabiliser, went into phugoid motion. While the crew were able to maintain near-level flight through the use of engine power, the plane lost height over a mountain range northwest of Tokyo before crashing into Mount Takamagahara. With 520 deaths, it remains the deadliest single-aircraft disaster in history. In 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 suffered an uncontained engine failure in the #2 engine, which caused total hydraulic system failure; the crew flew the aircraft with throttle only. Suppressing the phugoid tendency was difficult; the pilots crashed during the landing attempt. All four cockpit crewmembers and a majority of the passengers survived. Another aircraft that lost all hydraulics was a DHL operated Airbus A300B4, hit by a surface-to-air missile fired by the Iraqi resistance in the 2003 Baghdad DHL attempted shootdown incident; this was the first time that a crew landed an air transport aircraft safely by only adjusting engine thrust.

The 2003 crash of the Helios solar-powered aircraft was precipitated by reacting to an inappropriately diagnosed phugoid oscillation that made the aircraft structure exceed design loads. Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger, Captain of US Airways Flight 1549 that ditched in the Hudson River on January 15, 2009, said in a Google talk that the landing could have been less violent had the anti-phugoid software installed on the Airbus A320-214 not prevented him from manually getting maximum lift during the four seconds before water impact. Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System Analysis of phugoid motion

Sarah Dyer Hobart

Sarah Dyer Hobart was an American author of poetry and songs. Some of her more notable poems included, “The Record of Company B”, “The Legend of St. Freda”, “Hector's Recompense”. Sarah Dyer was born in Otsego, Wisconsin Territory, September 20, 1845, or 1846, her father, Wayne B. Dyer, was the first man to make a home in the town, having arrived in Otsego in May 1844, her parents were among the earliest settlers in that part of the State of Wisconsin, her early life was that of a pioneer. Her parents were intelligent and ambitious for her, gave her all the assistance in their power, she became a well-educated person. She commenced her literary career at the age of eighteen, was a contributor to the periodical press since, her poems soon made her name well known, her sketches added to her popularity. Hobart's sonnets are her best work. For nearly fifty years, she wrote for the press using various pseudonyms, her poems appeared in the leading magazines, including the Century, Lippincott's Magazine and others.

She was a regular contributor for a number of years to Harper's Bazar. As a regular prose contributor to the Toledo Blade, she wrote over the nom de plume of “Floyd Bentley.” By 1880, she had turned her attention exclusively to writing melodies. In 1866, she married Colonel Martin C. Hobart, who had just returned from the American Civil War, they lived in Fountain Prairie, Wisconsin. Hobart died in November 1, 1921, was buried at Fall River Cemetery, Fall River, Wisconsin; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Butterfield, Consul Willshire. The History of Columbia County, Wisconsin: Containing an Account of Its Settlement... Its War Record, Biographical Sketches... the Whole Preceded by a History of Wisconsin, Statistics of the State, an Abstract of Its Laws and Constitution and of the Constitution of the United States. Western Historical; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Henry. The Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers.

Writer Publishing Company. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Willard, Frances Elizabeth. A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of Leading American Women in All Walks of Life. Moulton. P. 382. Works by or about Sarah Dyer Hobart at Internet Archive

The Thirteen Chairs

The Thirteen Chairs is a 1969 comedy film directed by Nicolas Gessner and Luciano Lucignani and starring Sharon Tate, Vittorio Gassman, Orson Welles, Vittorio De Sica, Tim Brooke-Taylor. It was based on the 1928 satirical novel The Twelve Chairs by Soviet authors Ilf and Petrov, adapted many times. Mario Beretti is a young Italian-American barber, he runs a barber shop located near a construction site. His life reaches a turning point when he is notified of the death of his aunt living in England, who named him her sole heir. Mario learns that his inheritance consists of not much, he sells them in order to cover his transportation costs, but soon learns from his aunt Laura's last message that inside one of the chairs is a fortune in jewels. He is unsuccessful in doing so. With the help of lovely American antiques dealer Pat, working in the antiques shop in front of Aunt Laura's house, where he sold the chairs, the two set out on a bizarre quest to track down the chairs that takes them from London to Paris and to Rome.

Along the way, they meet a bunch of bizarre characters, including the driver of a furniture moving van named Albert. The bizarre chase ends in Rome, where the chair containing the jewels finds its way into a truck and is collected by nuns who auction it off to charity. With nothing much left to do as a result of the failure of his quest, Mario travels back to New York City by ship as Pat sees him off and waves goodbye to him; the film ends with Mario returning to his barber shop. His friends over at the other shop join him, as do two construction workers and his last customer Randomhouse, it is there that Mario makes a strange discovery: shortly before his departure for Europe, he invented a way to make hair regrow miraculously. He laughs ecstatically over his discovery. Sharon Tate as Pat Vittorio Gassman as Mario Beretti Orson Welles as Maurice Markau Vittorio De Sica as Carlo Di Seta – The Commendatore Tim Brooke-Taylor as Jackie Terry-Thomas as Albert Mylène Demongeot as Judy Ottavia Piccolo as Stefanella Di Seta Claude Berthy as Francois Catana Cayetano as Veronique Grégoire Aslan as Psychiatrist John Steiner as Stanley Duncan William Rushton as Lionel Bennett Lionel Jeffries as Randomhouse Marzio Margine as Pasqualino Alfred Thomas as Mbama Antonio Altoviti as Greenwood Michele Borelli as Rosy The Thirteen Chairs was filmed from February–May 1969.

Orson Welles and Tim Brooke-Taylor had their scenes filmed during a break from shooting Welles' comedic film One Man Band. Brooke-Taylor recalled, Because the script for Sharon Tate's scenes called for several semi-nude scenes, the director arranged to film those scenes first; as filming progressed, the director obscured Tate's stomach with large scarves. This is most apparent in the scene following her ride in the furniture mover's van; the Thirteen Chairs was Sharon Tate's final film, with many people saying that she had a knack for comedy and were excited for her next film contract. The film was released through rental only by Force Video in 1986 under the Thirteen Chairs name, again a year by Continental Video, under the original 12 + 1 name. On 12 March 2008 the film was released on DVD in Italy by 01 Distribution; this version is in Italian, lacks English subtitles, doesn't include an English audio track. The Thirteen Chairs on IMDb The Thirteen Chairs at AllMovie The Thirteen Chairs at Rotten Tomatoes

2007 OFC Champions League Final

The final of the 2007 OFC Champions League were played between Waitakere United of New Zealand and Ba F. C. of Fiji. The first leg was played in the Govind Park, Ba, Fiji on the April 21, 2007; the home team won 2–1. The second leg was played in the Mt Smart Stadium, New Zealand on the April 29, 2007. Waitakere United won 1–0, Allan Pearce scored the away goal that the home team needed to win the Champions League and qualify for the 2007 FIFA Club World Cup. Referee: Job Ponis Minan Assistant referees: Mahit Chilia Michael Joseph Fourth official: Lencie Fred OceaniaFootball

Frank Lionel Watts

Frank Lionel Watts, CMG, MBE, known as Lionel Watts, was an Australian disability advocate and founder of Australian disability service provider, House with No Steps. House with No Steps is now known as Aruma. In 1956, Watts contracted chronic bulbar poliomyelitis. Having been unable to re-enter the workforce after contracting polio, Watts formed the Wheelchair & Disabled Association of Australia in 1962 renamed House with No Steps. Watts was the organisation's first president and Executive Director. Watt's early work with the organisation focused on establishing workshops which provided jobs for people with a disability, a wheelchair factory, independent living accommodation. In 1968, Watts was invited by U. S. President Richard Nixon to attend the President's Committee on Rehabilitation in Washington, D. C, he attended similar seminars on five other occasions over the next eight years. In 1969, Watts was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Australian Council for the Rehabilitation of Disabled, now known as National Disability Services.

In September 1970, Watts was elected Chairman of ACROD's Architectural Barriers Committee. As Chairman, Watts established committees in all states and headed deputations which led to the provision of amenities such as parking permits for people with a physical disability. In 1979, Watts was elected President of ACROD, the first person with a physical disability to hold this position. Watts remained Executive Director of House with No Steps until 1989. After resigning, Watts still remained involved with the organisation as an Executive Committee Member until his death. Watts died September 2000 after a long illness. Watts was survived by his wife, Dorothy Watts, two daughters. In July 1965, the Warringah Shire Council named a 20-acre reserve located opposite the House with No Steps head office in Frenchs Forest, NSW, after Watts. In January 1968, Watts was awarded a Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire - Civil in the Queen's New Year's Honours List for his work on physical disability.

In June 1982, Watts received the Order of St Michael and St George – Companion in the Queen's Birthday Honours List for his work in rehabilitation


Carlsten is a stone fortress located at Marstrand, on the western coast of Sweden. The fortress was built on the orders of King Carl X of Sweden following the Treaty of Roskilde, 1658 to protect the newly acquired province of Bohuslän from hostile attacks; the site of Marstrand was chosen because of its access to an ice free port. The fortress was decommissioned as a permanent defense installation in 1882, but remained in military use until the early 1990s. After peace in Roskilde in 1658, Bohuslän and thus Marstrand became Swedish; the city has long been a major trading place. Since the harbor never freezes, part of the Swedish Navy was stationed here. To defend Marstrand, Karl X Gustav decided to build a fortress on the island. On July 23, 1677, after a attack on the fortifications in Marstrand Carlsten was conquered by Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, the Danish military commander in Norway. In 1719 fortress was attacked and besieged second time in it history by the Norwegian Vice-Admiral Tordenskjold and again it fell into enemy hands.

Once again the fortress was returned to Swedish control through treaties. In 1658, under the leadership of Johan Wärnschöld, a makeshift fortification was built in the form of a wooden Wahlen skans, at the top of the mountain above the city "big weather mill"; this fortification was of great use in the fall of 1659 to fight back the attack carried out by Norwegian forces. In 1666, the construction of a replacement building for the wooden edging, which "struck", began; this new fortress was in the form of a Roman tower building with four small ravelins. In 1671–73 the tower, called Karlsten, was built on one floor and was equipped with a roof battery. A square stone tower was constructed, but in 1681, the construction of a large round shaped tower began, following the commander Carl Gustaf Frölich design, but otherwise new construction followed drawing created by Erik Dahlbergh, approved in general in 1685, as early as 1689 the fortress itself was completed and consisted of a brick redoubt and a high multi-storey tower, which included the former square.

The work was carried out by prisoners sentenced to penal labour. Successive additions to the fortress were carried out, by the inmates sentenced to hard labor, until 1860 when it was completed. Carlsten was a prison for men, Metta Fock in 1806-1809 was the only female prisoner to have been kept there; the most famous prisoner of Carlsten was arguably Lasse-Maja, imprisoned here in 1813-1838. Bohus Fortress Fredriksten Pater Noster Lighthouse