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Phutball

Phutball is a two-player abstract strategy board game described in Elwyn Berlekamp, John Horton Conway, Richard K. Guy's Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays. Phutball is played on the intersections of a 19×15 grid using one white stone and as many black stones as needed. In this article the two players are named Eks; the board is labeled A through P from left to right and 1 to 19 from bottom to top from Ohs' perspective. Rows 0 and 20 represent "off the board" beyond rows 19 respectively; as specialized phutball boards are hard to come by, the game is played on a 19×19 Go board, with a white stone representing the football and black stones representing the men. The objective is to score goals by using the men to move the football onto or over the opponent's goal line. Ohs tries to move the football to rows 19 or 20 and Eks to rows 1 or 0. At the start of the game the football is placed on the central point, unless one player gives the other a handicap, in which case the ball starts nearer one player's goal.

Players alternate making moves. A move is either to move the ball. There is no difference between men played by Ohs and those played by Eks; the football is moved by a series of jumps over adjacent men. Each jump is to the first vacant point in a straight line horizontally, vertically, or diagonally over one or more men; the jumped men are removed from the board. This process repeats for as long as the player desires. Jumping is optional: there is no requirement to jump. In contrast to checkers, multiple men in a row are removed as a group; the diagram on the right illustrates a jump. Ohs moves the football from K6–G9–G11–J11; the men on J7, H8, G10, H11 are removed. The jump from K6 -- G9 -- J9 -- G7 would not be legal. If the football ends the move on or over the opponent's goal line a goal has been scored. If the football passes through a goal line, but ends up elsewhere due to further jumps, the game continues. Set-up sequences of jumps can be "spoiled" by extending them at critical moments. A jump to the left or right edge can be blocked by leaving no vacant points.

When jumping, it is bad to leave an used return path for the opponent to "undo" one's progress. The game is sufficiently complex, it is not known whether any player has both players have a drawing strategy. Given an arbitrary board position, with a black stone placed in the center, determining whether the current player has a winning strategy is PSPACE-hard. Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 112–14. ISBN 978-0471536215. Dariusz Dereniowski: Phutball is PSPACE-hard Demaine, Erik D.. "Phutball endgames are hard". More Games of No Chance. MSRI Publications 42, Cambridge Univ. Press. Pp. 351–360. Grossman, J. P.. "One-Dimensional Phutball". More Games of No Chance. MSRI Publications 42, Cambridge Univ. Press. Pp. 361–367. A program written in Java, with 5 AI to play with

Erkki Nghimtina

Colonel Erkki Nghimtina is a Namibian politician and former military officer in the Namibia Defence Force. A member of the South West Africa People's Organization, Nghimtina has been a member of the National Assembly of Namibia since 1995 and the Minister of Mines and Energy since 20 March 2005; as of 2013 he is the Minister of Transport. Erkki Nghimtina was born in Eembidi in Ovamboland in September 1948 to Meriam Shopati and Johannes Nghimtina, he began working in 1970 as a clerk in Oshakati and from 1972–73 in the postal services of South West Africa. He has 13 children. Nghimtina went into exile with SWAPO in 1974 to Zambia. From Zambia, he left to the Soviet Union, where he trained as a military radio specialist until 1976. Returning to Zambia, Nghimtina became instructor and supervisor for the eastern front of the Namibian War of Independence until 1979. From 1979–1982, the Eembidi native was the Director of Communications at Shilumbaba in Zambia while earning a diploma from the University of Rostock in the German Democratic Republic.

From 1983–1989, he was the director of communications for the People's Liberation Army of Namibia wing of SWAPO. Nghimtina returned to Namibia for the first time in 15 years in 1989, he entered the Namibia Defence Force wuth the rank of Colonel and was appointed as Assistant Director of Communications in the NDF and lasted in that post until retirement from active duty in 1995. While in the Namibian military, Nghimtina worked extensively with Southern African Development Community and African Union on regional and continental security measures. Upon retirement from the military in 1995, Nghimtina was selected to the position of deputy Minister of Defence which lasted until his promotion to Defence Minister in 1997. In 1997, he was selected to the SWAPO Central Committee. On Heroes' Day 2014 he was conferred the Most Brilliant Order of the Sun, Second Class. In 2001, while speaking in the Kavango Region as Minister of Defence, Nghimtina denounced and threatened Namibian collaborators with the Angolan rebel group UNITA while the Angolan Civil War was coming to a close.

He said that the Military of Namibia would not allow people to die because collaborators were Namibians. Nghimtina opposed the Iraq War, slamming it both prior to and a year into it as a move by powerful nations to impose their will on weaker ones. In September 2008, Nghimtina was accused of aiming a firearm at a young relative and firing a shot in his direction, he did this because the teenager had joined the opposition Rally for Democracy and Progress. At a press conference held by RDP following the events, Jesaya Nyamu, acting secretary of the party, called it an attempted murder. Following the press conference, President Hifikepunye Pohamba called Nghimtina into the State House to discuss the matter, which led to Nghimtina's forced resignation from both the National Assembly of Namibia and his Ministerial position. However, following a meeting of high-level government and party officials including SWAPO secretary Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana, the Minister was recalled to the State House and reprimanded, allowing him to retain his office.

However, shortly thereafter, Nghimtina was interrogated by Namibian police concerning the shooting. Infuriated by the interrogation, he resigned again. On 2 September, Nghimtina told The Namibian newspaper that he had not resigned and other party officials called his resignation just speculation. President Pohamba left for Zambia for the state funeral of President Levy Mwanawasa and was unable to clear up the confusion; the next day, it was reported that Nghimtina had withdrawn his letter of resignation and returned to his post after prominent SWAPO leadership other than President Pohamba over-ruled Pohamba's dismissal. Cabinet of Namibia

Sandrine Bérubé

Sandrine Bérubé is a Canadian 4.5 point wheelchair basketball player who has represented Quebec at both the junior and senior levels. In 2018, she was part of the Canadian national women's team for the 2018 Wheelchair Basketball World Championship in Hamburg. Sandrine Bérubé was born in LaSalle, Quebec, on February 5, 1999, she played ice hockey, soccer and baseball, is a brown belt in karate. In March 2014 she suffered a serious fall while playing ice hockey that left her with plates and screws in her left leg. Unable to play sports that involved running any more, she took up sledge hockey, she began playing wheelchair basketball, joining the Valleyfield Mini-Eagles. From there Bérubé progressed to the CIVA team, has represented Quebec at both the junior and senior levels. Team Quebec came third at the CWBL Women’s National Championship in Burlington, Ontario in 2017, second in the CWBL Women's National Championship in Richmond, British Columbia, in 2018. In 2018, she was part of the Canadian national women's team for the 2018 Wheelchair Basketball World Championship in Hamburg.

The Canadian team came fifth. Bérubé is a graduate of the École secondaire des Patriotes, she was awarded a $2,000 scholarship by the Quebec Foundation for Athletic Excellence in 2017, was one of 14 recipients of a scholarship in 2018, this time for $3,000. As of 2018, she is studying physiotherapy technology at Cégep Marie-Victorin

Sunbury earth rings

The Sunbury Earth Rings are prehistoric aboriginal sites located on the hills to the west of Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, Australia. Sometimes referred to as Bora rings, they were formed by scraping off grass and topsoil, piling it in a circular ridge around the outside, they measure between 10 – 25 m diameter. Three of the rings are in close proximity and two others several kilometres away. All are on sloping sites, they are somewhat different from the Bora Rings found in New South Wales and southeast Queensland, which tend to be located in hidden, flat sites, in connected pairs. The Sunbury Earth Rings first came to public attention, first were investigated and described in the early 1970s, when archaeologist Dr. David Frankel undertook a test excavation on one of the rings to determine their origin. Excavations revealed the remains of two small stone cairns, one in the centre and one on the edge of the circle, a number of sharp stone plades or knives, which may have been used in ritual scarification or circumcision ceremonies.

The rings have been interpreted as Aboriginal ceremonial sites, although there are no historical or ethnographic accounts of them being used as such. Members of the Wurundjeri Tribe Council have suggested the rings may be more than 1000 years old, based on the results of archaeological investigations, that the group of three may have related to separate male and female ceremonies and initiation rituals. However, Elder Auntie Annette Xibberas acknowledged that the Aboriginal people of the Melbourne area, "...lost a lot of our knowledge with European colonisation, we only found out about these about 30 years ago". Some of the Rings have been put under the management of the Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council, have been included on the Register of the National Estate. There are ongoing pressures on the sites from development; as a result of housing development along Reservoir Road, one ring is now encircled by the back fences of adjoining houses, while another is subject to residential subdivision plans which will see it surrounded by roads.

A past proposal considered incorporating one of the rings in the middle of a traffic round-about. The Canterbury Hills housing estate has submitted plans for residential development around the Riddells Road ring. In October 2009, the Sunbury Maribyrnong Valley Green Wedge Defenders made a Submission to the Parliamentary, Legislative Council regarding their inquiry into the impact of the state government’s decision to change the Urban Growth Boundary, citing the Aboriginal ring as a significant element of the threatened Bundanoon woodlands and grasslands, being encroached upon by housing. Riddells Road Ring 37.553419°S 144.703165°E / -37.553419.

Kenner Products

Kenner Products was an American toy company founded in 1946. Throughout its history the Kenner brand produced several recognizable toys and merchandise lines, including action figures like the original series of Star Wars, Jurassic Park and Batman, as well as die cast models; the company was closed by its corporate parent Hasbro in 2000. Founded in 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, by brothers Albert and Joseph L. Steiner; the company was named after the street where the original corporate offices were located, just north of Cincinnati Union Terminal. It was a pioneer in the use of television advertisement for the marketing of merchandise across the United States, beginning in 1958. In the early 1960s, Kenner introduced its corporate mascot, The Kenner Gooney Bird, which would be used in both its company logo and TV ads, in both animated form and puppetry. One commercial was produced by Muppets creator Jim Henson, featured a puppet that would become the Sesame Street character Little Bird; the Bird was phased out by 1974.

The company was purchased by General Mills in 1967. In 1970, General Mills merged its Rainbow Crafts division into Kenner Products, bringing Play-Doh into the Kenner product line. In 1985, General Mills would spin-off both its Kenner and Parker Brothers toy divisions to form Kenner Parker Toys, Inc; the following year Kenner Parker sold off its Lionel Trains division. Kenner Parker was acquired by Tonka in 1987. Under Tonka management, Kenner Products was reconstituted as a division. Tonka was purchased by the toy company Hasbro in mid-1991. Hasbro closed the Cincinnati offices of Kenner in 2000, Kenner's product lines were merged into Hasbro's. One of Kenner's original products was the "Bubble-Matic," a toy gun. An "updated" version was available at least as late as the mid-1960s. Kenner introduced its popular Girder and Panel building sets construction toy in 1957, the Give-a-Show projector in 1959, the Easy-Bake Oven in 1963, the Electric Mold Master in 1963, the Spirograph drawing toy in 1966, the Starting Lineup sports action figure collectible line in 1988.

Kenner Products obtained the rights to produce Star Wars action figures and playsets for the Star Wars trilogy from 1976 through 1985. After Kenner acquired the license to produce Star Wars toys when the Mego Corporation rejected it in 1976, Kenner popularized the 3.75 inch action figure that became an industry standard that continues to dominate the action figure toy market. Kenner produced toys related to the popular 1970s TV series The Six Million Dollar Man and the 1979 sci-fi movie Alien. In 1981, Kenner belatedly entered the diecast toy car market, with a short-lived range called Fast 111's; the 1980s saw the release of the "Fashion Star Fillies" line of model horses, a product discontinued by the end of the decade. One of Kenner's most acclaimed lines was the Super Powers Collection, produced from 1984 to 1986; these action figures were based on the famed superheroes of DC Comics. What made the line so successful was that the characters were modeled exactly from the style guide of the company.

For example, if Superman's legs are squeezed, he would throw a punch. Furthermore, Kenner was able to commission some of the characters' creators like Jack Kirby for his New Gods characters and George Perez for Cyborg to design the action figures. In 1985, DC Comics named Kenner as one of the honorees in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great for its work on the Super Powers Collection. One of the more popular action figure lines in the late 1980s was Kenner's The Real Ghostbusters, based on the 1986-1991 animated series adaptation of the 1984 feature film Ghostbusters; the toy line continued production through most of its run. Although the initial releases resembled The Real Ghostbusters cartoon designs, unlike Super Powers, the toy line soon stopped attempting to be faithful to the existing source material. Instead, original costumes and ghost characters were designed by Kenner, many of them centered on unique action features, similar to those popularized by Mattel's competing Masters of the Universe toy line as well as Kenner's earlier Super Powers toy line.

This idea of basing a toy line on well-known characters but coming up with original designs that were not based on any published storylines represented a major shift in the design approach to action figure toy lines at the time. In previous years, one major approach to producing toy lines was to base them on popular, well-known characters from properties like Star Wars, Marvel Comics, or DC Comics; the other major approach was for the toy companies to invent their own original characters and help produce comic books and cartoons that promoted those exact designs. In a departure from this, Kenner did not have any arrangement to incorporate their new concepts and designs into The Real Ghostbusters cartoons or comic books; this looser approach to the source material of licensed toy lines continued with Kenner's Dark Knight Collection, launched in 1990 and the first of their numerous lines based on the Batman character. This initial set was created to capitalize on the phenomenal success of the cinematic version of the character.

Toy lines expanded beyond the movie series and took inspiration from Batman's animated series and comic book incarnations. Kenner went on to develop lines other DC Comics characters as well; as with The Real Ghostbusters, most of these DC Comics lines incorporated multi-colored costumes and action features which were not based directly

Styllou Christofi

Styllou Pantopiou Christofi was a Greek Cypriot woman hanged in Britain for murdering her daughter-in-law. She was the penultimate woman to be executed in Britain, followed in 1955 by Ruth Ellis. Styllou Christofi was born in Cyprus a British protectorate, to a Greek Cypriot family, she received no formal education. According to British historian and crime author Philip Jones, the insularity of Cypriot villages such as the one Christofi was from meant that personal disagreements and arguments among residents were seen as local matters, could lead to "levels of behaviour or resolutions that the wider world might consider improper or unreasonable, but which to the village itself were seen as acceptable". Christofi gave birth to a son, Stavros, her husband was one of the poorest men in the village, the family's income came from a tiny olive grove they owned. In 1925, Christofi was arrested and charged with murdering her mother-in-law by ramming a lighted torch down her throat, after the two women had extensively bickered.

According to varying accounts, she was either found not guilty, or the court found that she had been provoked to such an extent that a criminal penalty was inappropriate. Her son Stavros left the village for Nicosia to work as a waiter. In 1941, after having saved up enough money, he moved to Britain, settled in London, found a job as a wine waiter at Café de Paris, a prestigious nightclub on London's West End, he married Hella Bleicher, a German-born fashion model, the couple had three children. In 1953, Christofi came to London to reunite with Stavros, she had trouble adapting to her new lifestyle, began extensively arguing with her daughter-in-law. In particular, Christofi resented the fact that her grandchildren were being raised as typical English children with no regard for their Greek heritage, she would criticise Hella's parenting and fly into tantrums. In July 1954, Stavros and Hella agreed. Hella planned to take the children on a visit to Germany, during which Stavros would try to persuade his mother to return to Cyprus.

Christofi, who became aware of the plan, soon resolved to murder Hella so she could raise the children her own way. On the evening of 29 July 1954, after Stavros had left for work and the children had been put to bed, Christofi went to the kitchen, where Hella was going about her chores, knocked her unconscious with a blow to the back of the head with an ash pan from the boiler, she strangled Hella to death with a scarf, removed the wedding ring from her finger, dragged the body into the back garden and attempted to cremate it by pouring paraffin over it and setting it on fire. The flames caught the attention of next-door neighbour John Young, passing by the house walking his dog, he saw Christofi burning Hella's body over the fence. However, he believed that the article being burnt was a mannequin, seeing that Christofi was attending to the fire, believed there was no cause for alarm; the fire soon got out of control, Christofi, who spoke little English, ran into the street to raise the alarm.

She found help from a couple in a car parked outside a railway station, to whom she explained "Please come. Fire burning. Children sleeping"; when they arrived, they called the fire brigade, who summoned the police after finding Hella's body in the garden. Police opened an investigation, found incriminating evidence against Christofi. Hella's body was found to show signs of strangulation, hastily cleaned bloodstains and paraffin-soaked rags and newspapers were discovered on the kitchen floor. Furthermore, John Young, the neighbour who had witnessed Christofi setting the fire over what he had believed was a mannequin, soon came forward and told police what he had seen. Hella's wedding ring was found to have been removed: it was found in Christofi's bedroom, Christofi could offer no reasonable explanation. Christofi was arrested on suspicion of murder. During her interrogation, she offered an explanation: "I wake up, smell burning, go downstairs. Hella burning. Throw water, touch her face. Not move.

Run out, get help." Christofi remanded to HM Prison Holloway soon afterwards. Her trial began at the Old Bailey on 28 October 1954, her counsel offered a defence of insanity but the jury rejected it. Christofi was sentenced to death. There was a limited campaign to no avail, her executioner, Albert Pierrepoint claimed in his autobiography, Executioner: Pierrepoint, that Christofi failed to attract much media attention or sympathy because, unlike the pretty Ruth Ellis, she was less glamorous. A "blonde night-club hostess" was much more alluring than "a grey-haired and bewildered grandmother who spoke no English." While on death row, she requested that a Greek Christian Orthodox Cross be put on the wall of the execution chamber, granted. It remained there until the room was dismantled in 1967, she was shunned by her son Stavros, who did not make any requests for clemency, said "I cannot find it in my heart to forgive my mother. The word'mother' has become a mockery to me". Christofi was hanged at Holloway Prison by Albert Pierrepoint on 15 December 1954.

Pathologist Francis Camps examined the body. The body of Christofi was buried in an unmarked grave within the walls of Holloway Prison, as was customary. In 1971, the prison underwent an extensive programme of rebuilding, during which the bodies of all the executed women were exhumed. With the exception of Ruth Ellis, the remains of the four other women executed at Holloway were sub