Founded in 1947 by Jean Vilar, it is the oldest extant festival in France and one of the worlds greatest. Alongside the official festival, the In one, a number of shows are presented in Avignon at the time of the year and are known as the Off. In 2008, some 950 shows were performed during three weeks, art critic Christian Zervos and poet René Char organized a modern art exhibition held in the main chapel of the Popes Palace in Avignon. In that setting, they asked Jean Vilar, director, theater director, the Off festival is organised by a non-profit organisation composed mostly of theatre companies and is performed in theaters schools and all places suitable for performing. The Festival dAvignon was founded by Jean Vilar in 1947-1984, Jean Vilar was invited to present his first great successful play - Murder in the Cathedral by T. S. Eliot in the Popes Palace. At the same moment and at the place, an exhibition of contemporary paintings and sculptures was organised by Christian Zervos, an art critic and collector, and by René Char.
Vilar initially refused the invitation as for him the Cour dHonneur of the Popes Palace was too vast and shapeless, the very first Festival dAvignon in September 1947 set the scene as a showcase for unknown work and modern scripts. Upon obtaining initial success, the festival begins enjoying the contribution of young talents. The festivals success grows, in spite of criticisms, which are at times virulent, Vilards idea of a popular theatre moves critics to refer to Vilard variably as stalinist, populist, or cosmopolitan. On the other hand, Vilards conception of the theatre remains conservative with respect to competing conceptions developed especially in the course of the 1960s, the following year, Benedettos theatre is joined by other kindred theatrical companies. In response to the Off challenge, in 1967 Jean Vilar gives rise to the festival of the Court of Honor of the Popes Palace, numerous further sites will be chosen to stage the festivals theatrical representations. Vilar will direct the festival until his death, in 1971, on that year, Vilards Inn festival includes thirty-eight shows.
Due to the anti-authoritarian protest movements of May 1968, the 22nd edition of the Festival of Avignon hosted virtually no French shows, halving the number of planned shows down from a total of 83. Béjarts July 19 show in the Court of Honnor was disrupted by Saul Gottlieb, towards the end of the show, the comedians of the Théâtre du Chêne Noir, from the Off festival, erupt on the scene, forcing Béjarts dancers to improvise around them. In 2003, a total of 750 shows were anticipated, prior to the festivals being cancelled for the due to strikes by the show businesss casual workers protesting to reform indemnation laws. Approximately one hundred of the Off festivals shows were cancelled, as well, on July 3,2014, the festival committee voted by a 224-110 margin in favor of a strike during the event in support of the recent claims of the intermittent workers about their unemployment insurance. The Maison houses most notably a library, videotheque and database
Rue des Rosiers
The Rue des Rosiers, which means street of the rosebushes, is a street in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France. It begins at Rue Malher and proceeds northwest across Rue Pavée, Rue Ferdinand Duval, Rue des Écouffes, Rue des Rosiers lies at the center of the Jewish quarter unofficially called the Pletzl. During the last ten years, the Rue des Rosiers has become notable for fashion, the quaint boutiques of days-gone-by have given way to gleaming minimalist showrooms for some of Europe’s trendiest labels. Not following the Western holiday schedules, Rue des Rosiers shops have become the point for Parisians who want to eat out and shop on Sunday, Christmas. The Rue des Rosiers is, LAs du Fallafel - a popular Kosher Middle Eastern restaurant known for its falafel sandwich
Nord (French department)
Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders, Nord is the countrys most populous department. It contains the region of Lille, the fifth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Marseille. Within the department is located the part of France where the French Flemish dialect of Dutch is still spoken as a native language, tribes of the Belgae, such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area known as Nord. In effect, the area known as Nord became an isogloss between the Germanic and Romance languages and this has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, during the 14th Century, much of the area came under the control of the Duchy of Burgundy and in subsequent centuries was therefore part of the Habsburg Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands.
Areas that constituted Nord were ceded to France by treaties in 1659,1668, and 1678, becoming the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut, on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, Nord became one of the original 83 departments created to replace the counties. Nord is part of the current Hauts-de-France region and is surrounded by the French departments of Pas-de-Calais and Aisne, as well as by Belgium, situated in the north of the country along the western half of the Belgian frontier, the department is unusually long and narrow. Other important cities are Valenciennes and Dunkirk. The principal rivers are the following, Lys, Scarpe, Sambre Nord is the most heavily populated department, with a population of 2,617,939, the President of the Departmental Council is the unaffiliated right-winger Jean-René Lecerf. The first President of the Fifth Republic, General Charles de Gaulle, was born in Lille in the department on 22 November 1890, until recently, the department was dominated economically by coal mining, which extended through the heart of the department from neighbouring Artois into central Belgium
He was widely considered a master of the modern chanson. In French-speaking countries, Brel was an actor, appearing in ten films. He directed two films, one of which, Le Far West, was nominated for the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival in 1973, having sold over 25 million records worldwide, Brel is the third best-selling Belgian recording artist of all time. Brel married Thérèse Miche Michielsen in 1950 and the couple had three children and he had a romantic relationship with actress and dancer Maddly Bamy from 1972 until his death in 1978. Jacques Romain Georges Brel was born on 8 April 1929 in Schaerbeek, Brussels, to Élisabeth Lisette and he came from a family of Flemish descent, who had adopted the French language, part of his family originated in Zandvoorde, near Ypres. His father worked for Cominex, a firm, and became co-director of a company that manufactured cardboard. Jacques and his older brother Pierre grew up in an austere household, in Brussels, the family lived at 138 Avenue du Diamant in Schaerbeek, moved to 26 Boulevard Belgica–Belgicalaan in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, and finally settled at 7 Rue Jacques-Manne in Anderlecht.
Jacques was close to his mother, fascinated by her generosity and sense of humour, in September 1941, his parents enrolled Jacques at the Institut Saint-Louis at rue du Marais near the Botanical Garden of Brussels. Although he did poorly in many subjects, he did well in history and French and he helped set up the schools drama club, taking on his first stage roles with great enthusiasm. He wrote short stories and essays, in 1944, at the age of 15, Jacques began playing the guitar. The following year he formed his own group with friends. In the spring of 1947, during his year at Saint-Louis. Published pseudonymously, the story is about a man on his death bed who encourages his grandson to run away while the rest of the family makes arrangements for his funeral. Despite his growing talent for writing, Jacques was never a good student, with an academic career not in his future, the 18-year-old Jacques went to work at his fathers cardboard factory in August 1947. His job at Vanneste and Brel was predictable and uninspiring—a routine that involved fixing prices, apart from joining the company football team, he showed little interest in the companys social activities and events.
Perhaps to offset the boredom of his office routine, he joined a local Catholic youth organisation La Franche Cordée. Dedicated to philanthropic work, the group organised religious retreats, fundraising events, Jacques supported these activities with great enthusiasm and believed strongly in FCs mission. His parents were pleased with their sons dedication, and provided him with the company van and family car to support his FC activities
Parade (1974 film)
Parade is a French comedy film and was the final film directed by Jacques Tati. It was made for television and featured Tati as a clown in a circus, the film was screened at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival, but wasnt entered into the main competition. It was released on Blu-ray in 2014 as part of the Criterion Collections The Complete Jacques Tati box-set, parade at the Internet Movie Database
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
Serge Gainsbourg was a French singer, pianist, film composer, painter, writer and director. His lyrical work incorporated a vast amount of word play to hoodwink the listener, often for humorous, provocative. Common types of play in his songs include mondegreen, rhyme, dysphemism, paraprosdokian. Through the course of his career, Gainsbourg wrote over 550 songs, since his death, Gainsbourgs music has reached legendary stature in France. He has gained a following in the English-speaking world. Born in Paris, Gainsbourg was the son of Jewish Ukrainian migrants, Joseph Ginsburg and Olga, who fled to Paris after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Joseph Ginsburg was a trained musician whose profession was playing the piano in cabarets and casinos, he taught his children - Gainsbourg. Gainsbourgs childhood was affected by the occupation of France by Germany in World War II. The identifying yellow star Jews were required to wear haunted Gainsbourg, during the occupation, the Jewish Ginsburg family was able to make their way from Paris to Limoges, traveling under false papers.
Limoges was in the Zone libre under the administration of the collaborationist Vichy government, after the war, Gainsbourg obtained work teaching music and drawing in a school outside of Paris, in Mesnil-Le-Roi. The school was set up under the auspices of local rabbis, here Gainsbourg heard the accounts of Nazi persecution and genocide, stories that resonated for Gainsbourg far into the future. Before he was 30 years old, Gainsbourg was a disillusioned painter, Gainsbourg changed his first name to Serge, feeling that this was representative of his Russian background and because, as Jane Birkin relates, Lucien reminded him of a hairdressers assistant. He chose Gainsbourg as his last name, in homage to the English painter Thomas Gainsborough and he married Elisabeth Lize Levitsky on 3 November 1951 and divorced in 1957. He married a second time on 7 January 1964, to Françoise-Antoinette Béatrice Pancrazzi and he divorced Béatrice in February 1966. In late 1967 he had a short but ardent love affair with Brigitte Bardot, to whom he dedicated the song, in mid-1968 Gainsbourg fell in love with the younger English singer and actress Jane Birkin, whom he met during the shooting of the film Slogan.
Their relationship lasted over a decade, in 1971 they had a daughter, the actress and singer Charlotte Gainsbourg. Although many sources state that they were married, according to their daughter Charlotte this was not the case. Birkin remembers the beginning of her affair with Gainsbourg, he first took her to a nightclub, to a transvestite club, Birkin left Gainsbourg when pregnant with her third daughter Lou by the film director Jacques Doillon
Kurt Julian Weill was a German composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his years in the United States. He was a composer for the stage who was best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed such as his best-known work The Threepenny Opera. Weill held the ideal of writing music that served a useful purpose. He wrote works for the concert hall. He became a United States citizen on August 27,1943, Weill was born on March 2,1900, the third of four children to Albert Weill and Emma Weill. He grew up in a religious Jewish family in the Sandvorstadt, the Jewish quarter in Dessau, where his father was a cantor. At the age of twelve, Weill started taking lessons and made his first attempts at writing music. In 1915, Weill started taking lessons with Albert Bing, Kapellmeister at the Herzogliches Hoftheater zu Dessau, who taught him piano, music theory. Weill performed publicly on piano for the first time in 1915, and attended philosophy lectures by Max Dessoir and Ernst Cassirer.
The same year, he wrote his first string quartet, from May to September 1920, Weill spent a couple of months in Leipzig, where his father had become the new director of a Jewish orphanage. Before he returned to Berlin, in September 1920, he composed Sulamith, a fantasy for soprano, female choir. Back in Berlin, Weill had an interview with Ferruccio Busoni in December 1920, after examining some of Weills compositions, Busoni accepted him as one of five master students in composition at the Preußische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. From January 1921 to December 1923, Weill studied music composition with him, during his first year he composed his first symphony, Sinfonie in einem Satz, as well as the lieder Die Bekehrte and two Rilkelieder for voice and piano. To support his family in Leipzig, he worked as a pianist in a Bierkeller tavern. In spring of 1922, Weill joined the November Groups music faction and that year he composed a psalm, a divertimento for orchestra, and Sinfonia Sacra, Fantasia and Hymnus for Orchestra.
On November 18,1922, his childrens pantomime Die Zaubernacht premiered at the Theater am Kurfürstendamm, out of financial need, Weill taught music theory and composition to private students from 1923 to 1925. Among his students were Claudio Arrau, Maurice Abravanel, Heinz Jolles, in December 1923, Weill finished his studies with Busoni