Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier.
The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonial
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
George Catlin was an American painter and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin was the first white man to depict Plains Indians in their native territory, George Catlin was born in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. As a child growing up in Pennsylvania, Catlin had spent many hours hunting and his fascination with Native Americans was kindled by his mother, who told him stories of the western frontier and how she was captured by a tribe when she was a young girl. Years later, a group of Native Americans came through Philadelphia dressed in their colorful outfits and his early work included engravings, drawn from nature, of sites along the route of the Erie Canal in New York State. St. Louis became Catlin’s base of operations for five trips he took between 1830 and 1836, eventually visiting fifty tribes. He visited eighteen tribes, including the Pawnee and Ponca in the south and the Mandan, Cheyenne, Assiniboine, there he produced the most vivid and penetrating portraits of his career.
Catlin traveled with his Indian Gallery to major cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and he hung his paintings salon style—side by side and one above another. Visitors identified each painting by the number on the frame, as listed in Catlins catalogue, soon afterward, he began a lifelong effort to sell his collection to the U. S. government. The touring Indian Gallery did not attract the paying public Catlin needed to stay financially sound, in 1839 Catlin took his collection across the Atlantic for a tour of European capitals. As a showman and entrepreneur, he initially attracted crowds to his Indian Gallery in London, the French critic Charles Baudelaire remarked on Catlin’s paintings, He has brought back alive the proud and free characters of these chiefs, both their nobility and manliness. Catlin wanted to sell his Indian Gallery to the U. S. government to have his life’s work preserved intact and his continued attempts to persuade various officials in Washington, D. C. to buy the collection failed.
In 1852 he was forced to sell the original Indian Gallery, now 607 paintings, the industrialist Joseph Harrison acquired the paintings and artifacts, which he stored in a factory in Philadelphia, as security. Catlin spent the last 20 years of his trying to re-create his collection. This second collection of paintings is known as the Cartoon Collection, in 1841 Catlin published Manners and Condition of the North American Indians, in two volumes, with approximately 300 engravings. Three years he published 25 plates, entitled Catlin’s North American Indian Portfolio, from 1852 to 1857 he traveled through South and Central America and returned for further exploration in the Far West. The record of years is contained in Last Rambles amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains. Paintings of his Spanish American Indians are published, in 1872, Catlin traveled to Washington, D. C. at the invitation of Joseph Henry, the first secretary of the Smithsonian. Until his death that year in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1879 Harrison’s widow donated the original Indian Gallery, more than 500 works, along with related artifacts, to the Smithsonian
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Grand Rapids Hotel
The hotel was located on the Wabash River next to the Grand Rapids Dam on land that was originally purchased by Thomas S. Hinde. Frederick Hinde Zimmerman was the founder and owner of the hotel, the hotel had 36 rooms and one large assembly room that served as a dining room, meeting hall, and was used for weddings, exhibitions and other important occasions. During its nine-year existence the hotel established a reputation for luxury, on July 29,1929 Glenn Goodart burned the Grand Rapids Hotel to the ground by dropping a blowtorch in the basement shop. Three months before Goodart burned the hotel down, the United States Senate Committee on Commerce had decided to remove the Grand Rapids Dam by revoking funding, due to the onset of the Great Depression shortly after the hotel was burned down it was not rebuilt. The same year Goodart burned the hotel down he was elected as Finance Commissioner for Wabash County, the land the hotel was built on was formerly part of a Piankeshaw Indian summer campground.
Thomas S. Hinde purchased the property in 1815 from the United States Government and quickly with other Methodist ministers founded the city of Mount Carmel, after the Grand Rapids Dam was completed the dam and Hanging Rock drew large amounts of tourists in the decades that followed. Frederick Hinde Zimmerman, the grandson of Thomas S. Hinde, construction of the hotel began in the early 1920s and was announced as being officially completed on August 2,1922. According to the article described the hotel it had 36 rooms, boating, various other amusements. The August 1925 edition of Outdoor Recreation Magazine described the fishing at Grand Rapids as where the. choicest table fish to be found in the river. Some people claim that gangsters referred to as the Chicago Outfit associated with Al Capone would take the train from Chicago and it is not known if the men were smuggling liquor in violation of Prohibition or merely vacationing. Other commentators have suggested that the fire started by manager Glenn Goodart may have actually been a cover for an alcohol still explosion in the basement.
No matter the cause of the explosion it has been proven that alcohol was served at the hotel in violation of prohibition. One source states that design was partially based on the Hotel del Coronado in San Diego. Captain Hinde was a man who was an investor in the Hotel del Coronado with John D. Spreckels. It has been suggested, but has not yet proven that the Reid Brothers designed the Grand Rapids Hotel because of Hindes close relationship to the brothers while he lived in Evansville. Moreover, the Reid Brothers designed Hindes house and church in Coronado, the Grand Rapids Hotel was the first major hotel in the region and had a nine-hole golf course and a baseball diamond on the grounds. During the hotels operation it was managed by O. L, rapson managed the hotel from 1922 until 1924, and Goodart managed the hotel from 1924-1929. Many of the social organizations of the time had meetings or other social events at the hotels restaurant
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the states western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,785. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the capital of the Wabash Valley. The city is home to higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College. Terre Haute is notable for being the home of Socialist Party of America leader and five-time presidential nominee and the Federal Correctional Complex. Terre Haute is located alongside the bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana. The city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis, according to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the geography of the city, forming its western border. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the northern and southern sections of the city, in the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city.
That well produced oil into the 1920s, Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways, U. S.40 from California to Maryland and US41 from Copper Harbor, Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis, Climate is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Dfa, Terre Hautes name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning Highland. It was likely named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River, at the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village already existed near the fort, and the orchards, the village of Terre Haute, a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816.
Growth really began when the founders won the bid to make it the county seat when Vigo County was formed in March 1818. When the villages 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, Terre Haute became a town, early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing
Embarras River (Illinois)
The Embarras River is a 195-mile-long tributary of the Wabash River in southeastern Illinois in the United States. The waters of the Embarras reach the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash, the river drains a watershed around 1,566,450 acres in an agricultural region. The name comes from French explorers, who used the term embarras for river obstacles and difficulties relating to logjams, the Embarras River rises in Champaign County. The Embarras flows generally southward through Douglas, Cumberland, in Jasper County, it turns southeast for the remainder of its course through Richland and Lawrence Counties. Portions of the lower course have been straightened and channelized. It joins the Wabash River 6 miles southwest of Vincennes, along its course, the Embarras passes the towns of Villa Grove, Charleston, Newton, Ste. 39°53′25″N 88°10′50″W In Coles County, the Embarras collects the Little Embarras River, 39°34′26″N 88°04′28″W In Jasper County, the Embarras collects the North Fork Embarras River,64.0 miles long, which rises in Edgar County and flows southwardly through Clark and Crawford Counties.
38°55′00″N 87°59′18″W The United States Board on Geographic Names settled on Embarras River as the official name in 1964. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has known as the Ambraw River. The only population of harlequin darters in Illinois is found in the Embarras River, in the 18th century, the Embarras River was part of the trail from Cahokia to Vincennes. The route was used by George Rogers Clarks forces during the Illinois Campaign, list of Illinois rivers Watersheds of Illinois Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Embarras River - Illinois Geographic Alliance Surf the Embarras with USEPA Prairie Rivers Network
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central United States. Oklahoma is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States, the states name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning red people. The name was settled upon statehood, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged, on November 16,1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state to enter the union. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, or informally Okies, and its capital, a major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, and biotechnology. In 2007, it had one of the economies in the United States, ranking among the top states in per capita income growth. Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahomas primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With small mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, interior Highlands—a region especially prone to severe weather.
The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people, equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language used to describe Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was approved in 1890. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles and it is one of six states on the Frontier Strip and lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River, the Oklahoma panhandles Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is actually 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line, the border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd Meridian, in the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd Meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd Meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east and it was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd Meridian, cimarron County in Oklahomas panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states, New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The states lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
White River (Indiana)
The White River is a two-forked river that flows through central and southern Indiana and is the main tributary to the Wabash River. Via the west fork, considered to be the stem of the river by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, the White River is 362 miles long, indianas capital, Indianapolis, is located on the river. The West Fork,312 miles long, is the fork of the river. Federal maps refer to it simply as the White River, per a 1950 Board on Geographic Names decision and it starts south of Winchester in Randolph County at 40°0446 N, 84°5558 W in Washington Township. The river winds through Muncie and Indianapolis before being joined by the east fork in the triad of Daviess and Pike counties. Along the way it passes by three Indiana state parks, Mounds State Park, near Anderson, White River State Park, in downtown Indianapolis, in Indianapolis the Wapahani Trail follows the eastern bank, the Miami tribe had called the river Wapahani, meaning “white sands”. The East Fork starts in Columbus at the confluence of the Driftwood, the headwaters of the main stem of the White River are in fact farther east than those of the East Fork.
The East Fork flows a total of 192 miles generally southwest, passing the city of Seymour, as indicated in the Drainage Area for Indiana Streams for Gibson County, the total White River basin watershed exceeds 11,305 square miles. The White River Yacht Club is a club that utilizes pontoon boats. The river isnt deep enough in many stretches to support conventionally-keeled sailing or power boats, in 1997, the White River was listed as one of the United States’ most threatened rivers. Pesticides are used extensively in the White River basin, application of herbicides to corn and soybeans accounts for most of the use. The pesticides most frequently detected near the mouth of the White River during 1991–1995 were the herbicides alachlor, cyanazine, the highest concentrations of herbicides in the river were typically found during late spring runoff following application. Generally, concentrations of alachlor have been decreasing while concentrations of acetochlor have been increasing in response to changes in the use of herbicides in the basin.
The total amount of the commonly used herbicides transported by the river is about 1% or less of the amount applied to cropland, insecticides commonly used in urban and agricultural areas were found but in much lower concentrations than commonly used herbicides. In 1999, the West Fork experienced a massive fish kill that spread for 50 miles for a loss of 4.6 million fish. The kill was traced back to Guide Corp, an automotive parts maker in Anderson, Guide Corp eventually reached a settlement whereby the company would pay a total of $14.2 million in fines, legal expenses, and river restoration. Many animals that had burrowed into the mud were protected from the chemical, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources conducted a restocking program in October
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
The territory was divided into five colonies, each with its own administration, Hudsons Bay, Acadia and Louisiana. Acadia had a history, with the Great Upheaval, remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. The descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used primarily to draw from the wealth of natural resources, in the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, and in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached approximately 70,000 settlers. In 1763 France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, in 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso. However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, New France eventually became part of the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France, the Conquest is viewed differently among Francophone Canadians, and between Anglophone and Francophone Canadians. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I, late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe, crossing the Atlantic on a small caravel with 50 men. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the year, he headed north along the coast. The first European to discover the site of present-day New York, he named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, verrazzanos voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland, in 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I.
It was the first province of New France, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals, especially the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe. Eventually, the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure, another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida. Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and it was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples and these lands were full of unexploited and valuable natural riches, which attracted all of Europe