Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, PAR is a Russian conductor and opera company director. He is general director and artistic director of the Mariinsky Theatre, born in Moscow, is the son of Tamara Timofeevna Lagkueva and Abisal Zaurbekovich Gergiev. He and his siblings were raised in Vladikavkaz in their native North Ossetia in the Caucasus and he had his first piano lessons in secondary school before going on to study at the Leningrad Conservatory from 1972 to 1977. His principal conducting teacher was Ilya Musin, one of the greatest conductor-makers in Russian musical history and his sister, Larissa Gergieva, is a pianist and director of the Mariinskys singers academy. In 1978, he became assistant conductor at the Kirov Opera, now the Mariinsky Opera, under Yuri Temirkanov, in 1991, for the first time, Gergiev conducted a western European opera company with the Bavarian State Opera in a performance of Modest Mussorgskys Boris Godunov in Munich. In the same year, he made his American début, performing War, since then, he has conducted both operatic and orchestral repertoire across the world.
He participates in music festivals, including the White Nights in St. Petersburg. He became chief conductor and artistic director of the Mariinsky in 1988, from 1995 to 2008, Gergiev was principal conductor of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1997, he became principal guest conductor of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, in 2002, he was featured in one scene in the film Russian Ark, directed by Alexander Sokurov and filmed at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 2003, he initiated and conducted at the Mariinsky Theatre the first complete cycle of Wagners The Ring of the Nibelung to be staged in Russia for over 90 years, the productions design and concept reflects many aspects of Ossetian culture. In 1988, Gergiev guest-conducted the London Symphony Orchestra for the first time, in his next appearance with the LSO in 2004, he conducted the seven symphonies of Sergei Prokofiev. This engagement led to his appointment in 2005 as the Orchestras fifteenth principal conductor, Gergievs initial contract with the LSO was for 3 years.
His first official concert as principal conductor of the LSO was on 23 January 2007, this was scheduled for 13 January. Since 2015, Gergiev is chief conductor of the Munich Philharmonic, on 5 May 2016, Gergiev competed at the Roman Theatre of Palmyra at a concert event called Praying for Palmyra – Music revives ancient ruins. It was devoted to the victims who died while liberating Palmyra from ISIS, after the 2004 Beslan school massacre, Gergiev appealed on television for calm and against revenge. He conducted concerts to commemorate the victims of the massacre, during the 2008 South Ossetia war, Gergiev accused the Georgian government of massacring ethnic Ossetians, triggering the conflict with Russia. He came to Tskhinvali and conducted a concert near the building of the South Ossetian Parliament as tribute to the victims of the war. Gergiev has been, according to Alex Ross in The New Yorker, last year, in a television ad for Putins third Presidential campaign, he said, One needs to be able to hold oneself presidentially, so that people reckon with the country
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments. It has a mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an almost cylindrical bore. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist, the word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, oboe. It would seem however that its roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the renaissance. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to a form of trumpet. This is probably the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, according to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet. The English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, while the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved.
The trumpet parts that required this speciality were known by the term clarino, Johann Christoph Denner is generally believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the tone and these days the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a lower, is commonly used in orchestral music. Since the middle of the 19th century the clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra. The clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet, the clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, equally at home in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands and jazz. The cylindrical bore is primarily responsible for the clarinets distinctive timbre, the tone quality can vary greatly with the musician, the music, the instrument, the mouthpiece, and the reed.
The most prominent were the German/Viennese traditions and the French school, the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of clarinet playing available, the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of acceptable tone qualities to choose from. The A clarinet and B♭ clarinet have nearly the same bore, orchestral players using the A and B♭ instruments in the same concert could use the same mouthpiece for both. The A and the B♭ instruments have nearly identical tonal quality, the tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter than that of the lower clarinets and can be heard even through loud orchestral or concert band textures. The bass clarinet has a deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Russian pianist and composer of the Soviet period. He is regarded as one of the composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Soviet chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, nevertheless, he received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. A polystylist, Shostakovich developed a voice, combining a variety of different musical techniques into his works. Shostakovichs orchestral works include 15 symphonies and six concerti and his chamber output includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two piano trios, and two pieces for string octet. His solo piano works include two sonatas, an set of preludes, and a set of 24 preludes and fugues. Born at Podolskaya street in Saint Petersburg, Shostakovich was the second of three children of Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich and Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, Shostakovichs paternal grandfather, originally surnamed Szostakowicz, was of Polish Roman Catholic descent, but his immediate forebears came from Siberia.
When his term of exile ended, Szostakowicz decided to remain in Siberia and he eventually became a successful banker in Irkutsk and raised a large family. His son, Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich, the father, was born in exile in Narim in 1875 and studied physics and mathematics in Saint Petersburg University. He went to work as an engineer under Dmitri Mendeleev at the Bureau of Weights, in 1903 he married another Siberian transplant to the capital, Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, one of six children born to a Russian Siberian native. Their son, Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich, displayed significant musical talent after he began lessons with his mother at the age of nine. In 1918 he wrote a march in memory of two leaders of the Kadet party, murdered by Bolshevik sailors. In 1919, at the age of thirteen, he was allowed to enter the Petrograd Conservatory, headed by Alexander Glazunov, Shostakovich attended Alexander Ossovskys history of music classes. Steinberg tried to guide Shostakovich in the path of the great Russian composers and he suffered for his perceived lack of political zeal, and initially failed his exam in Marxist methodology in 1926.
His first major achievement was the First Symphony, written as his graduation piece at the age of nineteen. After graduation, Shostakovich initially embarked on a career as concert pianist and composer. He nevertheless won a mention at the First International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw in 1927. He explained the disappointment at the competition to suffering from appendicitis and he had his appendix removed in April 1927
The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras, a musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves, the backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument. Pitch may be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, the pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, the more common double horn has a fourth valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭.
Triple horns with five valves are made, tuned in F, B♭. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches and this configuration provides a high-range horn while avoiding the additional complexity and weight of a triple. A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece, when playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. It is the goal of all serious brass musicians to develop their technique such that additional mouthpiece pressure is avoided altogether, or at the very least, the name French horn is found only in English, first coming into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, as a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names, trompe de chasse or cor de chasse. The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn, there is a more specific use of French horn to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn.
In this sense, French horn refers to an instrument with three Périnet valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an ascending third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the up position the valve loop is engaged, the horn is the third-highest-sounding instrument in the brass family, below the trumpet and the cornet. Horns are mostly tuned in B♭ or F, or a combination of both, in some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B♭ horn. The F horn is used more commonly than the B♭ horn, sound is produced by vibrating the players lips into the mouthpiece of the instrument. Different partials in the series can be played by adjusting the air pressure and lip tension
Yefim Fima Naumovich Bronfman is a Soviet-born Israeli-American pianist. He was born in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, and immigrated to Israel at the age of 15 and he became an American citizen in 1989. He made his debut in 1975 with Zubin Mehta and the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. He made his Carnegie Hall debut in 1989 and gave a series of recitals with Isaac Stern in 1991 and he won a Grammy award in 1997 for his recording of the three Bartók piano concertos with Esa-Pekka Salonen and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Another recording with Salonen, of the concertos of Sergei Rachmaninoff, was pirated by the record label Concert Artist, Bronfman is devoted to chamber music and has performed with many chamber ensembles and instrumentalists. He made a set of Sergei Prokofievs complete sonatas and concertos for Sony Records, in 1999, he appeared in Disneys Fantasia 2000, in a short clip introducing the Steadfast Tin Soldier segment. His rendition of Dmitri Shostakovichs Piano Concerto No.2 in F major with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra is the used for the segment.
In March,2006, Bronfman performed Shostakovichs Piano Concerto No.1 with the San Francisco Symphony conducted by Mstislav Rostropovich, Bronfman has made appearances with the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra and the Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra, performing Beethovens Emperor Concerto. In January 2007, he premiered Esa-Pekka Salonens Piano Concerto, of which he is the dedicatee and this was followed by a European premiere at The Proms with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. In May 2008, Bronfman performed Johannes Brahms Piano Concerto No.1 with Michael Tilson Thomas, on March 25 and 26,2009, he performed it yet again, this time under the baton of Pinchas Zukerman with the National Arts Centre Orchestra in Ottawa, Canada. Bronfman performed Brahmss Second Piano Concerto with the Houston Symphony Orchestra March 12–15,2009, under the baton of Maestro Hans Graf, in The Human Stain by Philip Roth, the narrator attends a rehearsal at Tanglewood at which Bronfman performs. The following description is offered, Then Bronfman appears, enter Bronfman to play Prokofiev at such a pace and with such bravado as to knock my morbidity clear out of the ring.
Yefim Bronfman looks less like the person who is going to play the piano than like the guy who should be moving it, I had never before seen anybody go at a piano like this sturdy little barrel of an unshaven Russian Jew. When hes finished, I thought, theyll have to throw the thing out and he doesnt let that piano conceal a thing. Whatevers in there is going to out, and come out with its hands in the air. And when it does, everything there out in the open, with a jaunty wave, he is suddenly gone, and though he takes all his fire off with him like no less a force than Prometheus, our own lives now seem inextinguishable. Nobody is dying, nobody – not if Bronfman has anything to say about it, official website More biographical information about Bronfman Discography at SonyBMG Masterworks
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a sound and smaller dynamic range. An acoustic piano usually has a wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings. Pressing one or more keys on the keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air, when the key is released, a damper stops the strings vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs and this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble.
The black keys are for the accidentals, which are needed to play in all twelve keys, more rarely, some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass that graduates from one to two, the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, and silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. There are two types of piano, the grand piano and the upright piano. The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music and art song and it is used in jazz. The upright piano, which is compact, is the most popular type, as they are a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play. The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, with technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, and digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became an instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music.
The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments, pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches
Fantasia 2000 is a 1999 American animated film by Walt Disney Feature Animation and Walt Disney Pictures, and released by Buena Vista Pictures. Produced by Roy E. Disney and Donald W. Ernst, it is the 38th Disney animated feature film, like its predecessor, Fantasia 2000 consists of animated segments set to pieces of classical music. Celebrities including Steve Martin, Itzhak Perlman, Quincy Jones, Bette Midler, James Earl Jones, Penn & Teller, after numerous unsuccessful attempts to develop a Fantasia sequel, the Walt Disney Company revived the idea shortly after Michael Eisner became chief executive officer in 1984. The commercial success of the 1991 home video release of Fantasia convinced Eisner that there was public interest and funds for a sequel. The music for six of the films eight segments is performed by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra conducted by James Levine, the film includes The Sorcerers Apprentice from the 1940 original. Each new segment was produced by combining traditional animation with computer-generated imagery, Fantasia 2000 premiered on December 17,1999, at Carnegie Hall in New York City as part of a concert tour that visited London, Paris and Pasadena, California.
The film was released in 75 IMAX theaters worldwide from January 1 to April 30,2000 and its general release in traditional theaters followed on June 16,2000. Some critics praised the film while others singled out its uneven quality, budgeted at about $80–$85 million, the film has earned $90.8 million in gross revenue worldwide. The film begins with the sound of an orchestra tuning and Deems Taylors introduction from Fantasia, panels showing various segments from Fantasia fly in outer space and form the set and stage for an orchestra. Musicians take their seats and tune up and animators draw at their desks before James Levine approaches the conductors podium, Symphony No.5 by Ludwig van Beethoven. Abstract patterns and shapes that resemble butterflies in various shades and hues explore a world of light. The world is ultimately conquered by light, Pines of Rome by Ottorino Respighi. A family of whales are able to fly. The calf is separated from his parents and he trapped in an iceberg. Eventually he finds his way out with his mothers help, the family join a larger pod of whales who fly and frolic through the clouds to emerge into outer space.
Introduced by Steve Martin and Itzhak Perlman, Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin. The segment ends with all four getting their wish, though their stories interact with others without any of them knowing. Introduced by Quincy Jones with pianist Ralph Grierson,2, Opus 102 by Dmitri Shostakovich
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. the United States division of Sony Corporation. It was founded in 1887, evolving from an enterprise named the American Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the sound business. Columbia Records went on to release records by an array of singers, instrumentalists. It is one of Sony Musics three flagship record labels alongside RCA Records and Epic Records, rather, as above, it was connected to CBS, a broadcasting media company which had purchased the company in 1938, and had been co-founded in 1927 by Columbia Records itself. Though Arista Records was sold to Bertelsmann Music Group, it would become a sister label of Columbia Records through its mutual connection to Sony Music. The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward Easton and it derived its name from the District of Columbia, where it was headquartered.
At first it had a monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington. As was the custom of some of the regional companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own. Columbias ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Companys breakup, thereafter it sold only records and phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced the XP record, a brown wax record. According to Gracyk, the molded brown waxes may have sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their Toy Graphophone of 1899. For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its catalog of artists. The firm introduced the internal-horn Grafonola to compete with the extremely popular Victrola sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company, during this era, Columbia used the famous Magic Notes logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas.
Columbia was split into two companies, one to make records and one to make players, Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, and Ed Easton went with it. Eventually it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation, in late 1923, Columbia went into receivership
The balalaika is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular body and three strings. The prima balalaika is the most common, the piccolo is rare, there have been descant and tenor balalaikas, but these are considered obsolete. All have three-sided bodies, evergreen, or fir tops and they are typically strung with three strings, and the necks are fretted. The prima balalaika and alto are played either with the fingers or a plectrum, depending on the music being played, the rare piccolo instrument is usually played with a pick. The earliest mention of the term dates back to an 1688 Russian document. The term balabaika was used in Ukrainian language document from 18th century, according to one theory, the term was loaned to Russian, where – in literary language – it first appeared in Elysei, a 1771 poem by V. Maykov. The most common instrument is the prima, which is tuned E4–E4–A4. Sometimes the balalaika is tuned guitar style by folk musicians to G3–B3–D4, whereby it is easier to play for Russian guitar players, although classically trained balalaika purists avoid this tuning.
It can be tuned to E4–A4–D5, like its cousin, the domra, to make it easier for those trained on the domra to play the instrument, the folk tuning D4–F♯4–A4 was very popular, as this makes it easier to play certain riffs. The balalaika has been made the following sizes, Factory-made six-string prima balalaikas with three sets of courses are common. These have three double courses similar to the stringing of the mandolin and often use a guitar tuning, although they are popular, they are generally considered to be inferior in quality to single course instruments. Four string alto balalaikas are encountered and are used in the orchestra of the Piatnistky Folk Choir, the piccolo and secunda balalaikas were originally strung with gut with the thinnest melody string made of stainless steel. Today, nylon strings are used in place of gut. An important part of balalaika technique is the use of the thumb to fret notes on the lower string, particularly on the prima. Traditionally, the side of the finger of the right hand is used to sound notes on the prima.
One can play the prima with a plectrum, but it is considered rather unorthodox to do so, because of the large size of the contrabasss strings, it is not uncommon to see players using plectra made from a leather shoe or boot heel. The bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika rest on the ground, on a wooden or metal pin that is drilled into one of its corners, the exact origins of the balalaika are unknown. However, it is agreed that it descended from the domra
The Moscow Conservatory, officially Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory is an educational music institution located in Moscow, Russia. It grants undergraduate and graduate diplomas in musical performance and musical research, the Conservatory offers various degrees including Bachelor of Music Performance, Master of Music and PhD in research. It was co-founded in 1866 as the Moscow Imperial Conservatory by Nikolai Rubinstein and it is the second oldest conservatory in Russia after the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was appointed professor of theory and harmony at its opening, since 1940 the conservatory bears his name. Some of the students now listed as being of the conservatory were in fact students of the Synodal School, the renovation of the hall was completed in 2011. Saint Petersburg Conservatory The Moscow Conservatory, Moscow Conservatory, Traditions of Music Education and Science 1866–2006. Moscow, Moskovskaya Konservatoriya Publishing House,2006, George, Moscows Great Hall Turns 100, International Herald Tribune Moscow Conservatory website Moscow Conservatory website