Piano Concerto No. 20 (Mozart)
The Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1785. The first performance took place at the Mehlgrube Casino in Vienna on 11 February 1785, with the composer as the soloist. A few days after the first performance, the composer's father, visiting in Vienna, wrote to his daughter Nannerl about her brother's recent success: " an excellent new piano concerto by Wolfgang, on which the copyist was still at work when we got here, your brother didn't have time to play through the rondo because he had to oversee the copying operation."It is written in the key of D minor. Other works by the composer in that key include the Fantasia K. 397 for piano, the Requiem, a Kyrie, a mass, the aria "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" from the opera The Magic Flute and parts of the opera Don Giovanni. It is the first of two piano concertos written in a minor key; the young Ludwig van Beethoven kept it in his repertoire. Composers who wrote cadenzas for it include Beethoven, Charles-Valentin Alkan, Johannes Brahms, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Ferruccio Busoni, Clara Schumann.
James Hewitt used the first movement in his Medeley Overture. One of Mozart's favorite pianos that he played while he was living in Vienna had a pedal-board, operated with the feet, like that of an organ; this piano that Mozart owned is on display at Mozart House in Salzburg, but it has no pedal-board. The fact that Mozart had a piano with a pedal-board is reported in a letter written by his father, who visited his son while he lived in Vienna. Among Mozart's piano works, none are explicitly written with a part for a pedal-board. However, according to Leopold's report, at the first performance of Piano Concerto No. 20 in D Minor, the soloist and conductor, used his own piano, equipped with a pedal-board. The pedal-board was used to reinforce the left-hand part, or add lower notes than the standard keyboard could play; because Mozart was an expert on the organ, operating a pedal-board with his feet was no harder than using only his hands. The concerto is scored for solo piano, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets and strings.
As is typical with concertos, it is in three movements: The first movement starts off the concerto in the dark tonic key of D minor with the strings restlessly but building up to a full forte. The theme is taken up by the piano soloist and developed throughout the long movement. A brighter mood exists in the second theme, but it never becomes jubilant; the timpani further heighten the tension in the coda before the cadenza. The movement ends on a quiet note; the Romanze second movement, in the subdominant of D minor's relative key, B♭ major, is a five-part rondo with a coda. The trumpets and timpani are not used in this movement; the beginning features a solo piano playing the flamboyant and charming main B♭ major melody without accompaniment. This lyrical, passionate and romantic melody paints a picture of peace and a sense of harmony between the piano and the orchestra and has inspired its title'Romanze'. Halfway through, the piece moves on to the second episode, where instead of the beautiful melody, a storm sets in.
The new stormy material is turbulent and ominous theme, in the relative key of G minor, which contrasts the peaceful mood at the starting of the movement. Though the storm section begins abruptly and without transition, after a transition back to the tonic key of B♭ major we are greeted once again with the aforeheard melody which returns as the movement is nearing the end; the piece ends with an ascending arpeggio, light and delicate until it becomes a faint whisper. The final movement, a rondo, begins with the solo piano rippling upward in the home key before the full orchestra replies with a furious section. (This piano "rippling" is known as the Mannheim Rocket and is a string of eighth notes followed by a quarter note. A second melody is touched upon by the piano. A contrasting cheerful melody in F major ushers in not soon after, introduced by the orchestra before the solo piano rounds off the lively theme. A series of sharp piano chords snaps the bright melody and begin passages in D minor on solo piano again, taken up by full orchestra.
Several modulations of the second theme follow. Thereafter follows the same format as above, with a momentary pause for introducing the customary cadenza. After the cadenza, the mood clears and the piece is now sunny in character, as we are now in the parallel key of D major, the bright happy melody is taken up, this time by the oboes and winds; the solo piano repeats the theme before a full orchestral passage develops the passage, thereby rounding up the concerto with a jubilant finish. The second movement plays during the end credits of the 1984 movie Amadeus; the first movement was played in the ballet scene in Series 1 Episode 8 of the television series Mr. Robot; the first movement was heard in American composer James Hewitt’s Medley Overture in D minor-major. Girdlestone, C. M. Mozart's Piano Concertos. Cassell, London. Hutchings, A. A Companion to Mozart's Piano Concertos, Oxford University Press. Mozart, W. A. Piano Concertos Nos. 17-22 in full score. Dover Publications, New York. Steinberg, M.
The Concerto: A Listener's Guide, Oxford Konzert für Klavier und Orchester in d, KV 466: Score and critical report in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe Piano Concerto No. 20: Scores at the In
In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve melody, harmony, timbre, orchestration or any combination of these. Mozart's Twelve Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman", known in the English-speaking world as "Twinkle, Little Star" exemplifies a number of common variation techniques. Here are the first eight bars of the theme: Mozart's first variation decorates and elaborates the plain melodic line: The fifth variation breaks up the steady pulse and creates syncopated off-beats: The seventh variation introduces powerful new chords, which replace the simple harmonies implied by the theme with a prolongational series of descending fifths: In the elaborate 8th variation, Mozart changes from the major to the parallel minor mode, while combining three techniques: counterpoint and imitation: A complete performance can be heard by following this link: Listen. Variation techniques are used within pieces that are not themselves in the form of Theme and Variations.
For example, when the opening two-bar phrase of Chopin's Nocturne in F minor returns in the piece, it is repeated as an elegant melodic re-working: Debussy's piano piece "Reflets dans l’Eau" opens with a sequence of chords: These chords open out into arpeggios when they return in the piece:Follow this link for a complete performance of “Reflets dans l’Eau”. Sometimes melodic variation occurs with the original. In Beethoven's "Waldstein" piano sonata, the main'second subject' theme of the opening movement, in sonata form, is heard in the pianist's left hand, while the right hand plays a decorated version. While most variations tend to elaborate on the given theme or idea, there are exceptions. In 1819, Anton Diabelli commissioned Viennese composers to create variations on a waltz that he had composed: Beethoven contributed a mighty set of 33 variations on this theme; the thirteenth of these stands out in its wilful eccentricity and determination to reduce the given material to its bare bones: Wilfrid Mellers describes this variation as "comically disruptive...
The original tonal sequence is telescoped, the two-bar sequences being absorbed into the silences." Many composers have taken pieces composed by others as a basis for elaboration. John Dowland's Lachrimae was used by other composers as a basis for sets of variations during the 17th century. Composed in 1700, the final movement of Arcangelo Corelli's Violin Sonata Op. 5 No. 9 opens with this rather sparse melodic line: Corelli's fellow-composer and former student Francesco Geminiani produced a “playing version” as follows: According to Nicholas Cook, in Geminiani's version "all the notes of Corelli's violin line... are absorbed into a quite new melodic organization. With its characteristic rhythmic pattern, Geminiani's opening is a tune in a way that Corelli's is not... whereas in the original version the first four bars consist of an undifferentiated stream of quarter-notes and make up a single phrase, Geminiani's version has three sequential repetitions of a distinctive one—bar phrase and a contrasted closing phrase, producing a accented down-beat quality."Jazz arrangers develop variations on themes by other composers.
For example, Gil Evans’ 1959 arrangement of George Gershwin's song "Summertime" from the opera Porgy and Bess is an example of variation through changing orchestral timbre. At the outset, Evans presents a single variation that repeats five times in subtly differing instrumental combinations; these create a compelling background, a constantly-changing sonic tapestry over which trumpeter Miles Davis improvises his own set of variations. Wilfrid Mellers wrote that "t called for an improviser of Davis's kind and quality to explore, through Gil Evans' arrangement, the tender frailty inherent in the'Summer-time' tune... Between them, solo line and harmonic colour create a music, at once innocent and tense with apprehension". Variation forms include ground bass, passacaglia and theme and variations. Ground bass and chaconne are based on brief ostinato motifs providing a repetitive harmonic basis and are typically continuous evolving structures.'Theme and variation' forms are, based on melodic variation, in which the fundamental musical idea, or theme, is repeated in altered form or accompanied in a different manner.'Theme and variation' structure begins with a theme between eight and thirty-two bars in length.
This form may in part have derived from the practical inventiveness of musicians. Their repetition became intolerably wearisome, led the player to indulge in extempore variation and ornament". Variation forms can be written as'free-standing' pieces for solo instruments or ensembles, or can constitute a movement of a larger piece. Most jazz music is structured on a basic pattern of theme and variations. Examples include John Bull's Salvator Mundi, Bach's Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her and Fugue in C minor, Violin Chaconne, Corelli's La Folia Variations, Beethoven's Diabelli Variations, the Finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony, Variations on a Theme of Haydn, Op. 56, Elgar's Enigma Variations, Franck's Variations Symphoniques, Richard Strauss's Don Qu
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is a museum in the Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts near the Back Bay Fens. It consists of two buildings; the original building, – called Fenway Court during Isabella Stewart Gardner's lifetime – is a Venetian-style palazzo on Fenway built in 1902 and designed by Willard T. Sears; the New Wing building, which sits next to the original building on Evans Way, was completed in 2012 after 2 1/2 years of construction. It was designed by Renzo Piano; the museum houses an art collection of world importance, including significant examples of European and American art, from paintings and sculpture to tapestries and decorative arts. In 1990, thirteen of the museum's works were stolen; the museum was opened in 1903 by Isabella Stewart Gardner, an American art collector and patron of the arts. It is housed in a building designed to emulate a 15th-century Venetian palace, drawing particular inspiration from the Venetian Palazzo Barbaro. Gardner began collecting after she received a large inheritance from her father in 1891.
Her purchase of Vermeer's The Concert at auction in Paris in 1892 was her first major acquisition. In 1894, Bernard Berenson offered his services in helping her acquire a Botticelli. With his help, Gardner became the first American to own a painting by the Renaissance master. Berenson helped acquire nearly 70 works of art for her collection. After her husband John L. Gardner's death in 1898, Isabella Gardner realized their shared dream of building a museum for their treasures, she purchased land in the marshy Fenway area of Boston, hired architect Willard T. Sears to build a museum modeled on the Renaissance palaces of Venice. Gardner was involved in every aspect of the design, leading Sears to quip that he was the structural engineer making Gardner's design possible. After the construction of the building was complete, Gardner spent a year installing her collection in a way that evokes intimate responses to the art, mixing paintings, furniture and objects from different cultures and periods among well-known European paintings and sculpture.
The gallery installations were different than they appear today. The museum opened on January 1, 1903 with a grand celebration featuring a performance by members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and a menu that included champagne and doughnuts. In 1909 the Museum of Fine Arts moved to its new home close by. During Gardner's lifetime, she welcomed artists and scholars to Fenway Court to draw inspiration from the rich collection and dazzling Venetian setting, including John Singer Sargent, Charles Martin Loeffler, Ruth St. Denis, among others. Gardner occasionally hosted artists' exhibitions within Fenway Court, including one of Anna Coleman Ladd. Today, the museum's contemporary artist-in-residence program, courtyard garden displays and innovative education programs continue Isabella Gardner's legacy; when Gardner died in 1924, her will created an endowment of $1 million and outlined stipulations for the support of the museum, including the charge that her collection be permanently exhibited "for the education and enjoyment of the public forever" according to her aesthetic vision and intent.
Gardner appointed her secretary and the former librarian of the Museum of Fine Arts, Morris Carter as the museum's first director. Carter catalogued the entire collection and wrote Gardner's definitive biography, Isabella Stewart Gardner and Fenway Court. George L. Stout was the second director; the father of modern conservation, Stout ensured the long-term preservation of the collection and historic structure. Rollin Van Nostrand Hadley became the third director in 1964. Leaving with a mixed legacy in 1988, Hadley published several catalogues and articles about the collection during his tenure but disposed of much of the museum's Asian artwork in 1971. Anne Hawley was director from 1989 until 2015; the museum's current director is Peggy Fogelman. In the early morning hours of March 18, 1990, a pair of thieves disguised as Boston police officers robbed the museum of thirteen works of art worth an estimated $500 million – the greatest known property theft in history. Among the works was The Concert, one of only 34 known by Vermeer and thought to be the most valuable unrecovered painting at over $200 million.
Missing is The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, Rembrandt's only known seascape. Despite efforts by the FBI, the works have not been recovered; the museum offered a reward of $5 million for information leading to recovery of the art, doubled in May 2017 to $10 million. Empty frames hang in the Dutch Room gallery as placeholders for the missing works; the selection of stolen works puzzled experts. According to the FBI, the stolen artwork was moved through the region and offered for sale in Philadelphia during the early 2000s, they believe the thieves were members of a criminal organization based in the mid-Atlantic and New England. Built to evoke a 15th-century Venetian palace, the museum itself provides an atmospheric setting for Gardner's inventive creation. Gardner hired Willard T. Sears to design the building near the marshy Back Bay Fens to house her growing art collection. Inside the museum, three floors of galleries surround a garden courtyard blooming with life in all seasons, it is a common misconception that the building reconstructed.
It was built from the ground up in Boston out of new materials, incorporating numerous architectural frag
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers, his best-known compositions include 9 symphonies. His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early and late periods. Beethoven was born in Bonn the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, he displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, he lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was completely deaf. In 1811 he continued to compose. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven, a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.
Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister and thereafter the pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage. Ludwig had one son, who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; as children of that era were traditionally baptised the day after birth in the Catholic Rhine country, it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December, most scholars accept 16 December 1770 as his date of birth. Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer, Franz Rovantini. From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive reducing him to tears, his musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778; some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, appointed the Court's Organist in that year. Neefe taught him composition, by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid, as a paid employee of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi, his first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich, were published in 1783.
Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, subsidised and encouraged the young man's musical studies. Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Francis, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts; the teenage Beethoven was certainly influenced by these changes. He may have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In December 1786, Beethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer's expense, for the first time in the hope of studying with Mozart; the details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether they met. Having learned that his mother was ill, Beethoven returned to Bonn in May 1787, his mother died shortly thereafter, his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism.
As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, intro
A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. It is one of the most common forms found in classical chamber music; the term can refer to a group of musicians who play this repertoire together. Works titled; this was in the three movement form, though some of Haydn's have two movements. Mozart, in five late works, is credited with transforming the accompanied keyboard sonata, in which the optional cello doubles the bass of the keyboard left hand, into the balanced trio which has since been a central form of chamber music. With the early 19th century Beethoven, this genre was felt to be more appropriate to cast in the four movement form. Piano trios that are set in the Sonata tradition share the general concerns of such works for their era, are reflective directly of symphonic practice with individual movements laid out according to the composer's understanding of the sonata form. In the Classical period, home music-making made the piano trio a popular genre for arrangements of other works.
For example, Beethoven transcribed his first two symphonies for piano trio. Thus a large number of works exist for the arrangement of piano and violoncello which are not titled or numbered as piano trios, but which are nonetheless part of the overall genre; these include single movements as well as sets of variations such as Beethoven's Variations on'Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu' Op. 121a and Variations in E flat major Op. 44. After the classical era, works for piano and two instruments continue to be written which are not presented as in the sonata tradition, or are arrangements of other works. Many of these individual works are popular on concert programs, for example Suk's Elegie. For individual articles treating works for piano trio, see Category:Compositions for piano trio; the piano trios of the Classical era, notably those of Haydn, are dominated by the piano part. The violin plays the melody only a certain amount of the time, when it does, is doubled by the piano; the cello part is much subordinated just doubling the bass line in the piano.
It is thought that this practice was quite intentional on Haydn's part and was related to the sonority of the instruments of Haydn's day: the piano was weak and "tinkling" in tone, benefited from the tonal strengthening of other instruments. Mozart's five late trios are felt to mark the assured arrival of the form, attentive to balanced voices and three-part dialogue. Beethoven's trios continued the compositional objectives inaugurated by Mozart; the new idea of equality was never implemented completely. By the mid nineteenth century, all three instruments had been modified to have a powerful sound, each can hold its own in a modern ensemble; the earlier trios are now performed and recorded using authentic instruments, of the kind for which they were written. Such performances restore the sonic balance the composer would have expected, have proven popular; some rather rare combinations of instruments have nonetheless inspired a few outstanding works. Haydn wrote three trios for flute and piano, a combination for which Carl Maria von Weber wrote one work.
Beethoven wrote his Trio in G major, WoO 37 for flute and piano. Mikhail Glinka wrote his Trio pathétique in D minor for Clarinet and Piano, although is performed with a Violin or Cello substituting the Clarinet or the Bassoon, respectively. Francis Poulenc's Trio for oboe and piano op. 43. The Horn-violin-piano trio is exemplified by Brahms' Trio Op. 40 in E flat and György Ligeti's 1982 Trio for Violin and Piano. Trios with clarinet include masterpieces such as Mozart's Kegelstatt Trio and works by Beethoven and Bartók. Ignaz Lachner wrote all of his six piano trios for violin and piano; the jazz trio formation of saxophone and percussion has been taken up as an alternative "piano trio" in the field of contemporary classical music by Trio Accanto who since 1994 have commissioned more than 100 works for this combination. Several other trios have been formed to perform this repertoire. Among the best known of such groups are or have been: Altenberg Trio Maria Baptist Trio Istomin-Stern-Rose Trio, consisting of Eugene Istomin, Isaac Stern and Leonard Rose.
One consisting of Alfred Cortot, Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals, earlier in the 20th century The Spivakovsky Trio, consisting of Jascha Spivakovsky, Tossy Spivakovsky and Edmnd Kurtz, earlier in the 20th century The Kalichstein-Laredo-Robinson trio The Beaux Arts Trio, whose commitment to using the same players in every concert pioneered a new generation of committed groups.