Los Angeles Philharmonic
The Los Angeles Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California. It has a regular season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney Concert Hall, a summer season at the Hollywood Bowl from July through September. Gustavo Dudamel is the Music Director, Esa-Pekka Salonen is Conductor Laureate, Zubin Mehta is Conductor Emeritus. Music critics have described the orchestra as the most "contemporary minded", "forward thinking", "talked about and innovative", "venturesome and admired" orchestra in America. According to Salonen, "We are interested in the future. We are not trying to re-create the glories of the past, like so many other symphony orchestras." "Especially since we moved into the new hall," continues Deborah Borda, "our intention has been to integrate 21st-century music into the orchestra's everyday activity." Since the opening of the Walt Disney Concert Hall on October 23, 2003, the Los Angeles Philharmonic has presented 57 world premieres, one North American premiere, 26 U.
S. has commissioned or co-commissioned 63 new works. The orchestra was founded and single-handedly financed in 1919 by William Andrews Clark, Jr. a copper baron, arts enthusiast, part-time violinist. He asked Sergei Rachmaninoff to be the Philharmonic's first music director. Clark selected Walter Henry Rothwell, former assistant to Gustav Mahler, as music director, hired away several principal musicians from East Coast orchestras and others from the competing and soon-to-be defunct Los Angeles Symphony; the orchestra played its first concert in the Trinity Auditorium in the same year, eleven days after its first rehearsal. Clark himself would sometimes play with the second violin section. After Rothwell's death in 1927, subsequent Music Directors in the decade of the 1920s included Georg Schnéevoigt and Artur Rodziński. Otto Klemperer became Music Director in 1933, part of the large group of German emigrants fleeing Nazi Germany, he conducted many LA Phil premieres, introduced Los Angeles audiences to important new works by Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg.
The orchestra responded well to his leadership, but Klemperer had a difficult time adjusting to Southern California, a situation exacerbated by repeated manic-depressive episodes. Things were further complicated when founder William Andrews Clark died without leaving the orchestra an endowment; the newly formed Southern California Symphony Association was created with the goal to stabilize the orchestra's funding, with the association's president, Harvey Mudd, stepping up to guarantee Klemperer's salary. The Philharmonic's concerts at the Hollywood Bowl brought in much needed revenue. With that, the orchestra managed to make it through the worst of the Great Depression years still intact. After completing the 1939 summer season at the Hollywood Bowl, Klemperer was visiting Boston and was incorrectly diagnosed with a brain tumor, the subsequent brain surgery left him paralyzed, he was institutionalized. When he escaped, The New York Times ran a cover story declaring him missing. After he was found in New Jersey, a picture of him behind bars was printed in the New York Herald Tribune.
He subsequently lost the post of Music Director, though he still would conduct the Philharmonic. He led some important concerts, such as the orchestra's premiere performance of Stravinsky's Symphony in Three Movements in 1946. Sir John Barbirolli was offered the position of Music Director after his contract with the New York Philharmonic expired in 1942, he chose to return to England instead. The following year, Alfred Wallenstein was chosen by Mudd to lead the orchestra; the former principal cellist of the New York Philharmonic, he had been the youngest member of the Los Angeles Philharmonic when it was founded in 1919. He turned to conducting at the suggestion of Arturo Toscanini, he had conducted the L. A. Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl on a number of occasions and, in 1943, took over as Music Director. Among the highlights of Wallenstein's tenure were recordings of concertos with fellow Angelenos, Jascha Heifetz and Arthur Rubinstein. By the mid-1950s, department store heiress and wife of the publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Dorothy Buffum Chandler became the de facto leader of the orchestra's board of directors.
Besides leading efforts to create a performing arts center for the city that would serve as the Philharmonic's new home, would lead to the Los Angeles Music Center and others wanted a more prominent conductor to lead the orchestra. The Philharmonic's musicians and audience all loved Beinum, but in 1959, he suffered a massive heart attack while on the podium during a rehearsal of the Concertgebouw Orchestra and died. In 1960, the orchestra, led again by Chandler, signed Georg Solti to a three-year contract to be music director after he had guest conducted the orchestra in winter concerts downtown, at the Hollywood Bowl, in other Southern California locations including CAMA concerts in Santa Barbara. Solti was to begin his tenure in 1962, the Philharmonic had hoped that he would lead the orchestra when it moved into its new home at the yet-to-be-completed Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. However, Solti abruptly resigned the position in 1961 without taking the post after learning that the Philharmonic board of directors failed to consult him before naming 26-year-old Zub
Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)
The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67, was written between 1804 and 1808. It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music, one of the most played symphonies. First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterward. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time"; as is typical of symphonies in the classical period, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony is in four movements. It begins with a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif: The symphony, the four-note opening motif in particular, are known worldwide, with the motif appearing in popular culture, from disco versions to rock and roll covers, to uses in film and television. Like Beethoven's Eroica and Pastorale, Symphony No. 5 was given an explicit name, besides the numbering. It became popular under "Schicksals-Sinfonie", the famous five bar theme was coined "Schicksals-Motiv"; this name is used in translations.
The Fifth Symphony had a long development process, as Beethoven worked out the musical ideas for the work. The first "sketches" date from 1804 following the completion of the Third Symphony. However, Beethoven interrupted his work on the Fifth to prepare other compositions, including the first version of Fidelio, the Appassionata piano sonata, the three Razumovsky string quartets, the Violin Concerto, the Fourth Piano Concerto, the Fourth Symphony, the Mass in C; the final preparation of the Fifth Symphony, which took place in 1807–1808, was carried out in parallel with the Sixth Symphony, which premiered at the same concert. Beethoven was in his mid-thirties during this time. In the world at large, the period was marked by the Napoleonic Wars, political turmoil in Austria, the occupation of Vienna by Napoleon's troops in 1805; the symphony was written at his lodgings at the Pasqualati House in Vienna. The final movement quotes from a revolutionary song by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle; the Fifth Symphony was premiered on 22 December 1808 at a mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna consisting of Beethoven premieres, directed by Beethoven himself on the conductor's podium.
The concert lasted for more than four hours. The two symphonies appeared on the programme in reverse order: the Sixth was played first, the Fifth appeared in the second half; the programme was as follows: The Sixth Symphony Aria: Ah! perfido, Op. 65 The Gloria movement of the Mass in C major The Fourth Piano Concerto The Fifth Symphony The Sanctus and Benedictus movements of the C major Mass A solo piano improvisation played by Beethoven The Choral Fantasy Beethoven dedicated the Fifth Symphony to two of his patrons, Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz and Count Razumovsky. The dedication appeared in the first printed edition of April 1809. There was little critical response to the premiere performance, which took place under adverse conditions; the orchestra did not play well—with only one rehearsal before the concert—and at one point, following a mistake by one of the performers in the Choral Fantasy, Beethoven had to stop the music and start again. The auditorium was cold and the audience was exhausted by the length of the programme.
However, a year and a half publication of the score resulted in a rapturous unsigned review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. He described the music with dramatic imagery: Radiant beams shoot through this region's deep night, we become aware of gigantic shadows which, rocking back and forth, close in on us and destroy everything within us except the pain of endless longing—a longing in which every pleasure that rose up in jubilant tones sinks and succumbs, only through this pain, while consuming but not destroying love and joy, tries to burst our breasts with full-voiced harmonies of all the passions, we live on and are captivated beholders of the spirits. Apart from the extravagant praise, Hoffmann devoted by far the largest part of his review to a detailed analysis of the symphony, in order to show his readers the devices Beethoven used to arouse particular affects in the listener. In an essay titled "Beethoven's Instrumental Music", compiled from this 1810 review and another one from 1813 on the op. 70 string trios, published in three installments in December 1813, E.
T. A. Hoffmann further praised the "indescribably profound, magnificent symphony in C minor": How this wonderful composition, in a climax that climbs on and on, leads the listener imperiously forward into the spirit world of the infinite!... No doubt the whole rushes like an ingenious rhapsody past many a man, but the soul of each thoughtful listener is assuredly stirred and intimately, by a feeling, none other than that unutterable portentous longing, until the final chord—indeed in the moments that follow it—he will be powerless to step out of that wondrous spirit realm where grief and joy embrace him in the form of sound.... The symphony soon acquired its status as a central item in the orchestral repertoire, it was played in the inaugural concerts of the New York Philharmonic on 7 December 1842, the National Symphony Orchestra on 2 November 1931. It was first recorded by the Odeon Orchestra under Friedrich Kark in 1910; the First Movement was featured on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds and music of Earth, sent into outer space aboard the Voyager probes in 1977.
Groundbreaking in terms of both its tech
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i
Heiligenstadt was an independent municipality until 1892 and is today a part of Döbling, the 19th district of Vienna. Heiligenstadt is one of the 10 municipalities in the Döbling District. Heiligenstadt lies on flat land abutting the Danube canal and forms a thin strip that stretches to the north-west as far as Leopoldsberg; the municipality covers an area of 219.46 hectares, bordering in the north on Nußdorf and Josefsdorf, in the west on Grinzing, in the south on Unterdöbling and Oberdöbling. The Probusgasse was once the main street of the village of Heiligenstadt and today marks the centre of the municipality; the name Heiligenstadt suggests that there was a holy site in this area before the arrival of Christianity. The first record of a settlement refers to it as St. Michael; the Archangel Michael is depicted in Heiligenstadt's coat of arms. The term Sanctum Locum first appears in documents at the end of the 12th century, although it is unclear which holy site is being referred to; the theory that Saint Severinus of Noricum once lived here has been disproved.
Heiligenstadt was first settled more than 5000 years ago. Traces of Roman settlement have been found. In 1872, remains of a wall were found in Heiligenstadt that prove that a Roman tower, part of the Limes once stood in this area. A Roman cemetery has been found near the Jakobskirche, as has an Avar tomb from the 6th century; the Franks followed, settling in Heiligenstadt for the first time around 900. Settlement centred on the area around the modern-day Pfarrplatz and included the first church in the area; the inhabitants were farmers who were reliant on their own produce. They caught crabs and fish in the western arm of the Danube. Wine was produced for sale; the Klosterneuburg Monastery owned vineyards in Heiligenstadt as early as 1250. In 1304, bishop Weinhardt von Passau gave the monastery the right to take over the parish Heiligenstadt after the death of the parish priest. In the Middle Ages, Heiligenstadt was one of the richer settlements in the area. A school is documented in 1318. Like many other towns on the outskirts of Vienna, Heiligenstadt suffered in the turmoils of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Matthias Corvinus laid waste to Heiligenstadt in 1484, while Turkish plundering during the first siege of Vienna in 1529 damaged the Jakobskirche and the Michaelskirche. It was however possible to restore the latter in 1534 thanks to donations made by the inhabitants of Döbling, Grinzing, Nußdorf and Heiligenstadt; the Reformation left Heiligenstadt untouched, but in 1683 the settlement fell victim to the second siege of Vienna. Many of the inhabitants of Heiligenstadt were massacred; the devastation was so complete. Heiligenstadt's economy did not recover until the 18th century, when local cattle and fruit became popular at markets in Vienna. Heiligenstadt's recovery was helped at the end of the 18th century by the construction of a public bath that made use of a hot-water spring; as many as 300 people visited adjoining restaurant every day. In the summer months Heiligenstadt was a tourist spot. Ludwig van Beethoven lived there from April to October 1802 while coming to terms with his growing deafness.
It was a difficult time for the composer. In a letter to his brothers, the famous Heiligenstadt Testament, he shared thoughts of suicide, but he returned from the town with a rejuvenated outlook as well as new priorities in his music, lived for a further 25 years. The hot-water spring dried up in the second half of the 19th century, a park was opened where the bath once stood, yet the town's reputation for favorable summer weather continued to grow, members of Vienna's bourgeoisie continued to settle in Heiligenstadt. In 1851, the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Austria's state meteorological and geophysical service, was established at the Hohe Warte. Heiligenstadt Cemetery was founded in 1873. Heiligenstadt's growth was rapid in the 19th centuries. In 1795 there were 60 houses with 470 inhabitants, who lived in three streets near where the Grinzinger Straße, Hohe Warte, Armbrustergasse are now. By 1832 there were 677 inhabitants in 94 houses. By 1870 the figures had jumped to 3393 inhabitants in 244 houses.
Around 1890 several factories were opened in Heiligenstadt, the number of inhabitants rose to 5579. In the space of 60 years, the number of houses had more than tripled; the 6000 m² Heiligenstadt pond, in which the residents used to bathe, fell victim to this construction boom. It was filled in the 1920s. In 1892, Heiligenstadt was integrated into the city of Vienna together with the surrounding suburbs Sievering, Oberdöbling, Unterdöbling, Nußdorf and Kahlenbergerdorf. In 1898, the Heiligenstadt train station, designed by Otto Wagner, was opened as a transfer point between the Emperor Franz Joseph Railway, which had entered service in 1870, the Wiener Stadtbahn, the Vorortelinie. Today, the station is an important bus station for busses within Vienna and towards Klosterneuburg. Following World War I, the social democrat municipal government pursued a policy of building affordable accommodation in order to improve the miserable living conditions of the workin
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. It is one of the most common forms found in classical chamber music; the term can refer to a group of musicians who play this repertoire together. Works titled; this was in the three movement form, though some of Haydn's have two movements. Mozart, in five late works, is credited with transforming the accompanied keyboard sonata, in which the optional cello doubles the bass of the keyboard left hand, into the balanced trio which has since been a central form of chamber music. With the early 19th century Beethoven, this genre was felt to be more appropriate to cast in the four movement form. Piano trios that are set in the Sonata tradition share the general concerns of such works for their era, are reflective directly of symphonic practice with individual movements laid out according to the composer's understanding of the sonata form. In the Classical period, home music-making made the piano trio a popular genre for arrangements of other works.
For example, Beethoven transcribed his first two symphonies for piano trio. Thus a large number of works exist for the arrangement of piano and violoncello which are not titled or numbered as piano trios, but which are nonetheless part of the overall genre; these include single movements as well as sets of variations such as Beethoven's Variations on'Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu' Op. 121a and Variations in E flat major Op. 44. After the classical era, works for piano and two instruments continue to be written which are not presented as in the sonata tradition, or are arrangements of other works. Many of these individual works are popular on concert programs, for example Suk's Elegie. For individual articles treating works for piano trio, see Category:Compositions for piano trio; the piano trios of the Classical era, notably those of Haydn, are dominated by the piano part. The violin plays the melody only a certain amount of the time, when it does, is doubled by the piano; the cello part is much subordinated just doubling the bass line in the piano.
It is thought that this practice was quite intentional on Haydn's part and was related to the sonority of the instruments of Haydn's day: the piano was weak and "tinkling" in tone, benefited from the tonal strengthening of other instruments. Mozart's five late trios are felt to mark the assured arrival of the form, attentive to balanced voices and three-part dialogue. Beethoven's trios continued the compositional objectives inaugurated by Mozart; the new idea of equality was never implemented completely. By the mid nineteenth century, all three instruments had been modified to have a powerful sound, each can hold its own in a modern ensemble; the earlier trios are now performed and recorded using authentic instruments, of the kind for which they were written. Such performances restore the sonic balance the composer would have expected, have proven popular; some rather rare combinations of instruments have nonetheless inspired a few outstanding works. Haydn wrote three trios for flute and piano, a combination for which Carl Maria von Weber wrote one work.
Beethoven wrote his Trio in G major, WoO 37 for flute and piano. Mikhail Glinka wrote his Trio pathétique in D minor for Clarinet and Piano, although is performed with a Violin or Cello substituting the Clarinet or the Bassoon, respectively. Francis Poulenc's Trio for oboe and piano op. 43. The Horn-violin-piano trio is exemplified by Brahms' Trio Op. 40 in E flat and György Ligeti's 1982 Trio for Violin and Piano. Trios with clarinet include masterpieces such as Mozart's Kegelstatt Trio and works by Beethoven and Bartók. Ignaz Lachner wrote all of his six piano trios for violin and piano; the jazz trio formation of saxophone and percussion has been taken up as an alternative "piano trio" in the field of contemporary classical music by Trio Accanto who since 1994 have commissioned more than 100 works for this combination. Several other trios have been formed to perform this repertoire. Among the best known of such groups are or have been: Altenberg Trio Maria Baptist Trio Istomin-Stern-Rose Trio, consisting of Eugene Istomin, Isaac Stern and Leonard Rose.
One consisting of Alfred Cortot, Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals, earlier in the 20th century The Spivakovsky Trio, consisting of Jascha Spivakovsky, Tossy Spivakovsky and Edmnd Kurtz, earlier in the 20th century The Kalichstein-Laredo-Robinson trio The Beaux Arts Trio, whose commitment to using the same players in every concert pioneered a new generation of committed groups.
Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)
The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68 known as the Pastoral Symphony, is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven's few works containing explicitly programmatic content, the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808 in a four-hour concert. Beethoven was a lover of nature, he left Vienna to work in rural locations. The composer said that the Sixth Symphony is "more the expression of feeling than painting", a point underlined by the title of the first movement; the first sketches of the Pastoral Symphony appeared in 1802. It was composed with Beethoven's more famous—and more fiery—Fifth Symphony. Both symphonies were premiered in a long and under-rehearsed concert in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna on 22 December 1808; the symphony is scored for the following instrumentation: The symphony has five movements, rather than the four typical of symphonies of the Classical era. Beethoven wrote a programmatic title at the beginning of each movement: The third movement ends on an imperfect cadence that leads straight into the fourth.
The fourth movement leads straight into the fifth without a pause. A performance of the work lasts about 40 minutes; the symphony begins with a placid and cheerful movement depicting the composer's feelings as he arrives in the country. The movement, in 24 meter, is in sonata form, its motifs are extensively developed. At several points, Beethoven builds up orchestral texture by multiple repetitions of short motifs. Yvonne Frindle commented that "the infinite repetition of pattern in nature conveyed through rhythmic cells, its immensity through sustained pure harmonies." The second movement is another sonata-form movement, this time in 128 and in the key of B♭ major, the subdominant of the main key of the work. It begins with the strings playing a motif that imitates flowing water; the cello section is divided, with just two players playing the flowing-water notes on muted instruments, the remaining cellos playing pizzicato notes together with the double basses. Toward the end is a cadenza for woodwind instruments that imitates bird calls.
Beethoven helpfully identified the bird species in the score: nightingale and cuckoo. The third movement is a scherzo in 34 time, which depicts country folk reveling, it is in F major. The movement is an altered version of the usual form for scherzi, in that the trio appears twice rather than just once, the third appearance of the scherzo theme is truncated. To accommodate this rather spacious arrangement, Beethoven did not mark the usual internal repeats of the scherzo and the trio. Theodor Adorno identifies this scherzo as the model for the scherzos by Anton Bruckner; the final return of the theme conveys a riotous atmosphere with a faster tempo. The movement ends abruptly; the fourth movement, in F minor, depicts a violent thunderstorm with painstaking realism, building from just a few drops of rain to a great climax with thunder, high winds, sheets of rain. The storm passes, with an occasional peal of thunder still heard in the distance. There is a seamless transition into the final movement.
This movement parallels Mozart's procedure in his String Quintet in G minor K. 516 of 1787, which prefaces a serene final movement with a long stormy introduction. The finale, in F major, is in 68 time; the movement is in sonata rondo form, meaning that the main theme appears in the tonic key at the beginning of the development as well as the exposition and the recapitulation. Like many classical finales, this movement emphasizes a symmetrical eight-bar theme, in this case representing the shepherds' song of thanksgiving; the coda starts and builds to an ecstatic culmination for the full orchestra with the first violins playing rapid triplet tremolo on a high F. There follows a fervent passage suggestive of prayer, marked by Beethoven pianissimo, sotto voce. After a brief period of afterglow, the work ends with two emphatic F-major chords; the symphony was used in the 1940 animated film Fantasia, albeit with alterations in the length of the piece made by conductor Leopold Stokowski. Excerpts from the first movement were featured in the death scene in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green.
It was used in the Barbie Film, "Barbie and the Magic of Pegasus" in the introduction sequence, ice dancing scenes and the ending sequence. Antony Hopkins, The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. David Wyn Jones, Beethoven: Pastoral Symphony. Charles Rosen, The Classical Style. Sixth and Seventh Symphonies. Symphony No. 6: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Symphony No. 6 is available in PDF format created from MuseData. Interview with Christoph Eschenbach